To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In lines 646–60 of his translation of Aratus’ Phaenomena, Germanicus narrates the story of Orion, the mythical hunter killed by a scorpion sent by Diana because of his attempt to rape the goddess, and then transformed into a star. In particular, line 651 describes Orion's hunting:
Basal ice of glaciers and ice sheets frequently contains a well-developed stratification of distinct, semi-continuous, alternating layers of debris-poor and debris-rich ice. Here, the nature and distribution of shear within stratified basal ice are assessed through the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of samples collected from Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Generally, the AMS reveals consistent moderate-to-strong fabrics reflecting simple shear in the direction of ice flow; however, AMS is also dependent upon debris content and morphology. While sample anisotropy is statistically similar throughout the sampled section, debris-rich basal ice composed of semi-continuous mm-scale layers (the stratified facies) possesses well-defined triaxial to oblate fabrics reflecting shear in the direction of ice flow, whereas debris-poor ice containing mm-scale star-shaped silt aggregates (the suspended facies) possesses nearly isotropic fabrics. Thus, deformation within the stratified basal ice appears concentrated in debris-rich layers, likely the result of decreased crystal size and greater availability of unfrozen water associated with high debris content. These results suggest that variations in debris-content over small spatial scales influence ice rheology and deformation in the basal zone.
The question of how involvement in institutional politics and governance affects rebel groups’ behaviour is pertinent when studying violent non-state actors, both during and in the aftermath of conflict. This is especially the case when participation in the political system becomes sustained over time. The interactions between the political and governance practices of a rebel group and its overall ideological orientation and state-building aspirations are not sufficiently analysed in the literature, especially in the context of hybrid armed-political organizations operating in latent, frozen or protracted conflicts. This article aims to begin to fill this gap by examining how involvement in institutional politics has shaped both Hamas’s and Hezbollah’s branding, interpretation and reliance on their own constitutive ideological manifestos, with an emphasis on both organizations’ dynamic processes aimed at reconciling political participation with their previous ideological rejection of the legitimacy of the political system and their constitutive calls to dramatically restructure the political order. Based on these detailed accounts, this article reflects on how the complex relationship between politics, electoral competition, governance and ideological principles can shape an armed group’s political identity.
The University of Georgia (USA) is partnering with the University of Padova (Italy) for a dual Master’s degree program in sustainable agriculture, promoting collaboration on some of the biggest challenges facing agriculture today. This innovative program which was launched during 2016 provides students with outstanding training and a unique opportunity to learn about the challenges, opportunities, and leading edges of precision agriculture on another continent – an experience which will serve graduates well when they enter the job market in an increasingly global economy. This paper presents the goals of the program, the curriculum, and describes the opportunities available to prospective students. In addition it describes the process of developing the dual degree which can be used as guide by others wishing to develop similar programs.
The main goal of this study was assessing the technological and agronomic performances of a centre pivot Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) system. The study was conducted in 2015 on a 16-ha field cultivated with maize. Irrigation was scheduled in three Management Zones according to data provided by a real-time monitoring system based on an array of soil moisture sensors. First results demonstrated the potential benefits of the VRI system on irrigation performance however a multiyear comparison is requested for evaluating the response to climate variability. VRI resulted in yields comparable to the business-as-usual regime but through a noticeable reduction in irrigation volumes.
The statistical properties of turbulent fluids depend on how local the energy transfers among scales are, i.e. whether the energy transfer at some given scale is due to the eddies at that particular scale, or to eddies at larger (non-local) scale. This locality in the energy transfers may have consequences for the relative dispersion of passive particles. In this paper, we consider a class of generalized two-dimensional flows (produced by the so-called
-turbulence models), theoretically possessing different properties in terms of locality of energy transfers. It encompasses the standard barotropic quasi-geostrophic (QG) and the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) models as limiting cases. The relative dispersion statistics are examined, both as a function of time and as a function of scale, and compared to predictions based on phenomenological arguments assuming the locality of the cascade. We find that the dispersion statistics follow the predicted values from local theories, as long as the parameter
is small enough (dynamics close to that of the SQG model), for sufficiently small initial pair separations. In contrast, non-local dispersion is observed for the QG model, a robust result when looking at relative displacement probability distributions. However, we point out that spectral energy transfers do have a non-local contribution for models with different values of
, including the SQG case. This indicates that locality/non-locality of the turbulent cascade may not always imply locality/non-locality in the relative dispersion of particles and that the self-similar nature of the turbulent cascade is more appropriate for determining the relative dispersion locality.
An urn contains black and red balls. Let Zn be the proportion of black balls at time n and 0≤L<U≤1 random barriers. At each time n, a ball bn is drawn. If bn is black and Zn-1<U, then bn is replaced together with a random number Bn of black balls. If bn is red and Zn-1>L, then bn is replaced together with a random number Rn of red balls. Otherwise, no additional balls are added, and bn alone is replaced. In this paper we assume that Rn=Bn. Then, under mild conditions, it is shown that Zn→a.s.Z for some random variable Z, and Dn≔√n(Zn-Z)→𝒩(0,σ2) conditionally almost surely (a.s.), where σ2 is a certain random variance. Almost sure conditional convergence means that ℙ(Dn∈⋅|𝒢n)→w 𝒩(0,σ2) a.s., where ℙ(Dn∈⋅|𝒢n) is a regular version of the conditional distribution of Dn given the past 𝒢n. Thus, in particular, one obtains Dn→𝒩(0,σ2) stably. It is also shown that L<Z<U a.s. and Z has nonatomic distribution.
The year 2015 witnessed the first direct observations of a transient gravitational-wave (GW) signal from binary black hole mergers by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) Collaboration with the Virgo Collaboration. The MAGIC two 17m diameter Cherenkov telescopes system joined since 2014 the vast collaboration of electromagnetic facilities for follow-up of gravitational wave alerts. During the 2015 LIGO-Virgo science run we set up the procedure for GW alerts follow-up and took data following the last GW alert. MAGIC results on the data analysis and prospects for the forthcoming run are presented.
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most violent explosions in the Universe, releasing a huge amount of energy in few seconds. While our understanding of the prompt and the afterglow phases has increased with Swift and Fermi, we have very few information about their High Energy (HE, E ≲ 100) emission components. This requires a ground-based experiment able to perform fast follow-up with enough sensitivity above ~ 50 GeV. The MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes have been designed to perform fast follow-up on GRBs thanks to fast slewing movement and low energy threshold (~ 50 GeV). Since the beginning of the operations, MAGIC followed-up 89 GRBs in good observational conditions. In this contribution the MAGIC GRBs follow-up campaign and the results which could be obtained by detecting HE and Very High Energy (VHE, E ≳ 100 GeV) γ-rays from GRBs will be reviewed.
To evaluate measles incidence and its relevant changes over a 14-year period (2000–2014), we analysed data from the regional hospital discharge database on children and adults hospitalized in Tuscany, Italy. A total of 181 paediatric and 413 adult cases were identified. Despite all the efforts towards regional measles elimination, we observed that the overall measles hospitalization rates for children and adults living in Tuscany globally increased from 0·45 to 0·85/100 000 during the study period (P = 0·001) showing fluctuations due to periodic measles outbreaks. Data stratified by age group showed that the hospitalization rate significantly increased in young adults over the study period, confirming an increase in susceptibility to measles in this subpopulation. Conversely, no statistically significant difference was observed in the hospitalization rate in the other age groups. However, children aged <1 year still exhibit the highest hospitalization rate. Pneumonia represented the most common complication in both the adult and children subsets. No death was reported. Measles still represents a public health problem, and national strategies should be implemented, focusing on emergent susceptible subsets, such as infants and young adults.
How did rationalised rule and governance differ from their predecessors? What role did they play in the development of democratic states?
What is neo-liberalism and what are the main processes by which it is played out in contemporary rule and governance? How do these affect health inequity?
What is the relationship between the state and other major processes of social division?
How do contemporary rule and governance establish barriers to and opportunities for the advancement of health equity?
Timor-Leste (East Timor)
To the north of Australia lies the 21st century’s first nation state – Timor-Leste, or East Timor. After a period of brutal control by Indonesia, which had taken over the former Portuguese colony in 1975, Timor-Leste formally gained its independence in 2002. Today, Timor-Leste is one of Asia’s poorest countries, with more than 80 per cent of its 1.2 million people resident in rural areas. Yet, it has become one of the fastest-growing countries in the world, with a national budget of over US $1 billion per year. Its newfound wealth derives from vast stores of oil and gas in the Timor Sea that have been used to establish a government fund estimated to be worth close to US $12 billion dollars. Along with this wealth has emerged a major rift about what the government should spend this money on.
Based on 30 months of collaborative fieldwork in a poor neighbourhood in Buenos Aires, Argentina, this paper scrutinises the multiple uses of violence among residents and the concatenations between private and public forms of physical aggression. Much of the violence reported here resembles that which has been dissected by students of street violence in the United States – that is, it is the product of interpersonal retaliation and remains encapsulated in dyadic exchanges. However, by casting a wider net to include other forms of aggression (not only criminal but also sexual, domestic and intimate) that take place inside and outside the home, and that intensely shape the course of poor people's daily lives, the paper argues that diverse forms of violence among the urban poor (a) serve more than just retaliatory purposes, and (b) link with one another beyond dyadic relationships.
The present paper is about the estimation of lattice deformation from data collected from manufactures directly on site. The aim here is to give evidence that the concept of the Mean Equivalent Lattice (MEL), when applied to “on site X-Ray Diffraction” is the basis for a reliable qualification of the material rheology to external solicitations. Such method allows for the identification of lattice deformations without resorting to the computation of the residual stress with using the elasticity constants (i.e. tensile, shear and rigidity constants E, μ, ν); these elasticity constants descend from the classical theory of solid mechanics, where the continuum mechanics and the material isotropic model are the fundaments. Any MEL deformation is instead related to the variation of the d-spacing among lattice planes which are connected to the anisotropic atomic arrangement. So the macroscopic scale is constituted by a number of MELs and related boundaries. The recent on site X-ray diffraction technology may offer effective and easy solutions, with a significant impact on reliability of results, simplification, economy and time consuming.
Objectives: Information on the impact of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) on patterns of care is scarce. In particular, it is not clear if, and to what extent, its adoption actually leads to a reduction in the use of other diagnostics tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the adoption of CTCA in Emilia-Romagna (an Italian region with a population of 4.4 million) had any effect on utilization rates of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and coronary angiography (CA).
Methods: Interrupted time series (ITS) were applied to monthly volumes of MPS and CA tests performed from 2003 to 2010, to assess trends in usage rates for those procedures before and after CTCA was adopted by all the healthcare organizations operating in the region.
Results: After an increase in the first year of CTCA introduction, its use remained stable over the study period. After September 2006, a significant decrease in MPS volumes (31 percent; p < .0001) and a much less tangible decrease in CA volumes (5 percent; p < .0001), were detected by ITS analyses.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the use of CTCA had a greater impact on MPS usage rates than on CA.
To review evidence on the associations between vitamin B12 intake and its biomarkers, vitamin B12 intake and its functional health outcomes, and vitamin B12 biomarkers and functional health outcomes.
A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases, until January 2012, using a standardized strategy developed in the EURRECA network. Relevant articles were screened and sorted based on title and abstract, then based on full text, and finally included if they met inclusion criteria. A total of sixteen articles were included in the review.
Articles covered four continents: America (n 4), Europe (n 8), Africa (n 1) and Asia (n 3).
Population groups included healthy infants, children and adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women.
From the total number of 5815 papers retrieved from the initial search, only sixteen were eligible according to the inclusion criteria: five for infants, five for children and adolescents, and six for pregnant and lactating women.
Only one main conclusion could be extracted from this scarce number of references: a positive association between vitamin B12 intake and serum vitamin B12 in the infant group. Other associations were not reported in the eligible papers or the results were not provided in a consistent manner. The low number of papers that could be included in our systematic review is probably due to the attention that is currently given to research on vitamin B12 in elderly people. Our observations in the current systematic review justify the idea of performing well-designed studies on vitamin B12 in young populations.
Pregestational obesity is a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal obesity is associated with a specific proinflammatory, endocrine and metabolic phenotype that may lead to higher supply of nutrients to the feto-placental unit and to excessive fetal fat accumulation. In particular, obesity may influence placental fatty acid (FA) transport in several ways, leading to increased diffusion driving force across the placenta, and to altered placental development, size and exchange surface area. Animal models show that maternal obesity is associated with increased expression of specific FA carriers and inflammatory signaling molecules in placental cotyledonary tissue, resulting in enhanced lipid transfer across the placenta, dislipidemia, fat accumulation and possibly altered development in fetuses. Cell culture experiments confirmed that inflammatory molecules, adipokines and FA, all significantly altered in obesity, are important regulators of placental lipid exchange. Expression studies in placentas of obese–diabetic women found a significant increase in FA binding protein-4 expression and in cellular triglyceride content, resulting in increased triglyceride cord blood concentrations. The expression and activity of carriers involved in placental lipid transport are influenced by the endocrine, inflammatory and metabolic milieu of obesity, and further studies are needed to elucidate the strong association between maternal obesity and fetal overgrowth.