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Global climate change is a topic of continuously growing interest. As more international treaties come into force, media coverage has increased and many universities are now starting to conduct courses specifically on climate change laws and policies. This textbook provides a survey of the international law on climate change, explaining how significant international agreements have sought to promote compliance with general norms of international law. Benoit Mayer provides an account of the rules agreed upon through lengthy negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and multiple other forums on mitigation, geoengineering, adaptation, loss and damage, and international support. The International Law on Climate Change is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students studying climate, environmental or international law. It is supported by a suite of online resources, available at www.internationalclimatelaw.com, featuring regularly updated lists of complementary materials, weblinks and regular updates for each chapter.
Lake Untersee is one of the largest perennially ice-covered lakes in Dronning Maud Land. We investigated the energy and water mass balance of Lake Untersee to understand its state of equilibrium. The thickness of the ice cover is strongly correlated with sublimation rates; variations in sublimation rates across the ice cover are largely determined by wind-driven turbulent heat fluxes and the number of snow-covered days. Lake extent and water level have remained stable for the past 20 years, indicating that the water mass balance is in equilibrium. The lake is damned by the Anuchin Glacier and mass balance calculation suggest that subaqueous melting of terminus ice contributes 40–45% of the annual water budget; since there is no evidence of streams flowing into the lake, the lake must be connected to a groundwater system that contributes 55–60% in order to maintain the lake budget in balance. The groundwater likely flows at a rate of ~8.8 × 10−2 m3 s−1, a reasonable estimate given the range of subglacial water flux in the region. The fate of its well-sealed ice cover is likely tied to changes in wind regime, whereas changes in water budget are more closely linked to the response of surrounding glaciers to climate change.
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the predictive INTERSALT equation using spot urine samples to estimate 24-h urinary Na (24-hUNa) excretion and daily Na intake among the French adult population. Among 193 French adults (‘validation sample’), we assessed the validity by comparing predicted 24-hUNa excretion from spot urine and measured 24-hUNa excretion from 24-h urine collections. Spearman correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used and we calculated calibration coefficients. In a nationally representative sample of 1720 French adults (‘application sample’), the calibrated predictive equation was then applied to the spot urine Na values to estimate 24-hUNa excretion and daily Na intake. In that sample, predicted Na intake was compared with that estimated from 24-h dietary recalls. Results were adjusted and corrected using calibration coefficients. In the validation sample, the measured 24-hUNa excretion was on average 14 % higher than the predicted 24-hUNa (+13 % for men and +16 % for women). Correlation between measured and predicted 24-hUNa excretion was moderate (Spearman r 0·42), and the Bland–Altman plots showed underestimation at lower excretion level and overestimation at higher level. In the application study, estimated daily salt intake was 8·0 g/d using dietary recalls, 8·1 g/d using predicted INTERSALT equation and 9·3 g/d after applying calibration coefficients calculated in the validation study. Despite overall underestimation of 24-hUNa excretion by spot urinary Na, the use of predictive INTERSALT equation remains an acceptable alternative in monitoring global Na intake/excreted in the French population but its use is not advised at the individual level.
In “Grande cuisine” creation and tradition co-evolve in a rich number of ways. Great chefs still use recipes from the 19th century and may also reinvent gastronomy itself. The creation heritage of culinary Art is the paradoxical capacity to both “respect” tradition and “break” its rules. Building on C-K theory, we show that such creative heritage needs multiple and independent layers of knowledge that “speak” of basic fixed objects. These properties correspond to general mathematical structures that we find in Topos theory. Thus, C-K/Topos predicts creative design strategies that can respect tradition in different ways. It also proves a form of “innovation within tradition” - “sheafification” in Topos words- that is not a compromise and builds on tradition itself. These findings fit with the lessons of great books of gastronomy. C-K/Topos has a wide scope of validity: it applies to any innovative design that needs preserving systemic structures, like engineering systems or social and environmental systems. C- K/Topos models with a high generality how local and radical innovation can warrant systems incremental change. C-K/Topos will have implications for teaching and research.
For more than two decades, mobile phone industry has shown that innovation is not only functional optimization and combination but can also be a "functional expansion”. Sometimes called radical or disruptive innovation, this phenomenon leads to the development of new method for engineers and designers. However, the intensity remains undemonstrated: is functional expansion a rare phenomenon (few products during very short periods of time) – or is it an intense phenomenon, that even might have accelerated in the last decades? To answer these questions, the paper overcomes two main obstacles: how to measure functional expansion? And what would be a law of functional expansion, that would enable to test the importance and newness of the phenomena? Building on recent advances on the measurement of innovation and on new computational models of design derived from most advanced design theories, this paper presents unique data on functional expansion of 8 consumer products and tests that functional expansion significantly accelerated in the mid 1990s. The paper confirms quantitatively that our societies are now in a new design regime, a regime of innovative design.
The aerospace industry experiences a considerable growth in product development costs. Many research works aim at identifying evolution laws characterizing this large-scale phenomenon and at developing design strategies which could help mitigate it. This paper aims to clarify the evolution dynamics governing this phenomenon by studying how the products delivered by these costly projects evolve with time. Increasing complexity is often held responsible for surging costs. If complexity is generally defined as the price to be paid for improving product functionalities, it is rarely specified whether the improvement affects existing functionalities or involves new ones. We aim to identify the patterns of cost growth which can be associated with phenomena of existing functionalities upgrade and new functionalities introduction, and to identify the associated design capabilities that designers need to deploy in order to keep product change and cost growth under control. To that end, we introduce a model which generates curves, each of which featuring a trend of cost growth, specific to a scenario of product evolution and being interpretable as a signature of a strategy used by designers.
Nowadays, our society needs that an awareness be made about our impact on the planet. Many more or less alarmist reports tell us that there is a need to change our consumption patterns, production and energy consumption … One of the main axes to achieve these goals is education. Thus integrating sustainable development into the skills of future engineers is an essential challenge but above all a necessity to modify and reduce our impact on the environment and to allow a global understanding of the complexity of our society. For this, companies must also evolve. Some will do so in a strategy of greening their image, others will have to comply with the various regulations of their sector of activity and a final category of these companies will use this opportunity as a vector of innovation. Each at their level will make a contribution, the integration over time of new sustainability skills within their staff will expand their action. In this article, we will focus our study on the integration of ecodesign in the industry and the impact that this generates in terms of skills to acquire, values to evolve and knowledge to master.
Scientific discoveries and inventions have long been established as two distinct and sequential activities. It has nonetheless been showed that projects aiming at producing both scientific discoveries and inventions could record impressive results. Our investigations are focusing on the creativity of collaborations outputs: a first agent is entailed to design a scientific discovery and another one invention. We use fixation effects as a performance measurement indicator for creativity based on Design Theory. We propose a first set of elements that can be suffering from fixation effects in both invention and scientific models designers reasoning. We propose a series of defixed inputs that could be shared between both designers to overcome their fixation effects. We highlight that if partners are engaged in one-way knowledge transfer it can conduct to “fixation traps”. We define a set of restrictive conditions that could conduct to a “cross-defixation process”: both actors would be able to create conjoint new inventions and scientific models in the non-fixed design path. In particular this process does not required designers to be defixed before starting the collaboration.
Strategic Research Agendas (SRA) bring to the research community a prospective and collective vision of a sector and are intended to provide directions for future research efforts. However, some promising innovative areas are not always foreseen in those documents, which raises the question of the relevance and adequacy of their coverage. While engineering design is often considered to translate SRA guidelines into product development, we believe it can also be of great help regarding the design of an SRA. In this paper, we will first address how to assess the scope of an SRA through a framework based on C-K theory, before exploring how to extend it, if need be. To answer those questions, we will examine a high-quality roadmap: the Electronic Components and Systems Strategic Research Agenda (ECS SRA). Our resulting method will provide us the means to assess SRA coverage and to ensure that interesting research areas are not forgotten unintentionally, in order to allow to a further enrichment of the document if needed.
This paper explores the question of the design activity at the shop floor level. The design activity has been confined for a large part in the design and the methods office. However, a certain form of design adapted to the factory remains. It is necessary to solve the problems which appear during the manufacturing process and to improve the productivity. However another form of design can emerge; it has a stronger impact on the factory, since the rules of the manufacturing system are modified under its effect. The paper studies 21 cases of design in the Airbus factory at Saint-Nazaire. It shows that the design activity does exist at the shop floor level. It characterizes this activity distinguishing two types of design which can co-exist in a factory. It shows that the type of results reached is not the same according to the type of design implemented.
Commentators and some political scholars claim to have observed a “dumbing down” in the level of sophistication of political language, leading to anxiety over the quality of democratic deliberation, knowledge, policy design, and implementation. This work typically focuses on the president’s State of the Union addresses. Using quantitative indicators of textual complexity, we measure trends since 1790 in that and other key political corpora, including rulings of the Supreme Court, the Congressional Record, and presidential executive orders. To draw comparative lessons, we also study political texts from the United Kingdom, in the form of party broadcasts and manifestos. Not only do we cast shade on the supposed relentless simplification of the State of the Union corpus, we show that this trend is not evident in other forms of elite political communication, including presidential ones. Finally, we argue that a stylistic—rather than an obviously substantive—shift toward shorter sentences is driving much of the variation over time we see in traditional measures of political sophistication.
Studies have shown that the reduction in serum TAG concentrations with long-chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation is highly variable among individuals. The objectives of the present study were to compare the proportions of individuals whose TAG concentrations lowered after high-dose DHA and EPA, and to identify the predictors of response to both modalities. In a double-blind, controlled, crossover study, 154 men and women were randomised to three supplemented phases of 10 weeks each: (1) 2·7 g/d of DHA, (2) 2·7 g/d of EPA and (3) 3 g/d of maize oil, separated by 9-week washouts. As secondary analyses, the mean intra-individual variation in TAG was calculated using the standard deviation from the mean of four off-treatment samples. The response remained within the intra-individual variation (±0·25 mmol/l) in 47 and 57 % of participants after DHA and EPA, respectively. Although there was a greater proportion of participants with a reduction >0·25 mmol/l after DHA than after EPA (45 υ. 32 %; P < 0·001), the mean TAG reduction was comparable between groups (–0·59 (sem 0·04) υ. –0·57 (sem 0·05) mmol/l). Participants with a reduction >0·25 mmol/l after both DHA and EPA had higher non-HDL-cholesterol, TAG and insulin concentrations compared with other responders at baseline (all P < 0·05). In conclusion, supplementation with 2·7 g/d DHA or EPA had no meaningful effect on TAG concentrations in a large proportion of individuals with normal mean TAG concentrations at baseline. Although DHA lowered TAG in a greater proportion of individuals compared with EPA, the magnitude of TAG lowering among them was similar.
Habitat prioritization and corridor restoration are important steps for reconnecting fragmented habitats and species populations, and spatial modelling approaches are useful in identifying suitable habitat for elusive tropical rainforest mammals. The Endangered Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi, a wild bovid endemic to Borneo, occurs in habitat that is highly fragmented as a result of extensive agricultural expansion. Based on the species’ historical distribution in Sabah (Malaysia), we conducted camera-trap surveys in 14 forest reserves during 2011–2016. To assess suitable habitat for the banteng we used a presence-only maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach with 11 spatial predictors, including climate, infrastructure, land cover and land use, and topography variables. We performed a least-cost path analysis using Linkage Mapper, to understand the resistance to movement through the landscape. The surveys comprised a total of 44,251 nights of camera trapping. We recorded banteng presence in 11 forest reserves. Key spatial predictors deemed to be important in predicting suitable habitat included soil associations (52.6%), distance to intact and logged forests (11.8%), precipitation in the driest quarter (10.8%), distance to agro-forest and regenerating forest (5.7%), and distance to oil palm plantations (5.1%). Circa 11% of Sabah had suitable habitat (7,719 km2), of which 12.2% was in protected forests, 60.4% was in production forests and 27.4% was in other areas. The least-cost path model predicted 21 linkages and a relatively high movement resistance between core habitats. Our models provide information about key habitat and movement resistance for bantengs through the landscape, which is crucial for constructive conservation strategies and land-use planning.
This work focuses on the mass transfer around unconfined bubbles in cylindrical microchannels when they are arranged in a train. We characterise how the mass transfer, quantified by the Sherwood number,
, is affected by the channel and bubble sizes, distance between bubbles, diffusivity, mean flow velocity, deformation of the bubble, the presence of surfactants in the limit of rigid interface and off-centred positions of the bubbles. We analyse the influence of the dimensionless numbers and especially the distance between bubbles and the Péclet number,
, which we vary over eight decades, identifying five different mass transfer regimes. We show different concentration patterns and the dependence of the Sherwood numbers. These regimes can be classified by either the importance of the diffusion along the streamlines or the interaction between bubbles. For small
the diffusion along the streamlines is not negligible as compared to convection, whereas for large
convection dominates in the streamlines direction and, thus, crosswind diffusion becomes crucial in governing the mass transfer through boundary layers or the remaining wake behind the bubbles. Interaction of bubbles occurs for very small
where the mass transfer is purely diffusive, or for very large
where long wakes eventually reach the following bubble. We also observe that the bubble deformability mainly affects the
in the regime for very large
in which bubbles interaction matters, and also that the rigid interface affects the boundary layer and the remaining wake. The effect of off-centred position of the bubble, determined by the transverse force balance, is also limited to large
. The boundary layers on rigid bubble surfaces are thicker than those on stress-free bubble surfaces, and thus the mass transfer is weaker. For centred bubbles, the influence of inertia on the mass transfer is negligible. Finally, we discuss the implication of our results on the dissolution of bubbles.
A large sample study (n = 513) was conducted to investigate executive control performance in pupils following an immersion education program. We recruited 10-year-old children (n = 128) and 16-year-old adolescents (n = 127) who were enrolled in English or Dutch immersion education in French-speaking Belgium for at least 4 school years. They were compared to non-immersed children (n = 102) and adolescents (n = 156) on a number of executive control tasks assessing inhibitory control, monitoring, switching and attentional abilities. Several control variables such as receptive vocabulary, nonverbal intelligence, socioeconomic status and other potentially relevant background variables were also considered. Our results show significant gains in foreign-language proficiency for the immersed compared to the non-immersed participants. These gains were however not associated with any measurable benefits on executive control. Our findings make a unique contribution to understanding how language and cognition develop through formal education methods that promote bilingualism.
When a promising natural enemy of a key pest exists locally, it is a common practice in biological control (BC) to rear and release it for supplementary control in the targeted agroecosystem even though significant knowledge gaps concerning pre/post release may still exist. Incorporating genetic information into BC research fills some of these gaps. Habrobracon hebetor, a parasitoid of many economically important moths that infest stored and field crops worldwide is commonly used, particularly against the millet head miner (MHM), a key pest of millet in Sahelian countries. To advance our knowledge on how H. hebetor that occurs naturally in open-field cropping systems and grain stores as well as being mass-produced and released for MHM control, performs in millet agroecosystems in Niger we evaluated its population genetics using two mitochondrial and 21 microsatellite markers. The field samples were genetically more diverse and displayed heterozygote excess. Very few field samples had faced significant recent demographic bottlenecks. The mating system (i.e. nonrandom mating with complementary sex determination) of this species may be the major driver of these findings rather than bottlenecks caused by the small number of individuals released and the scarcity of hosts during the longlasting dry season in Niger. H. hebetor population structure was represented by several small patches and genetically distinct individuals. Gene flow occurred at local and regional scales through human-mediated and natural short-distance dispersal. These findings highlight the importance of the mating system in the genetic diversity and structure of H. hebetor populations, and contribute to our understanding of its reported efficacy against MHM in pearl millet fields.
Environmental assessment (EA) is established in most countries as a procedure to ensure that administrative authorities are aware of the environmental impacts likely to result from the activities they approve. Many jurisdictions have moved towards including consideration for climate change mitigation in EA. Through a review of the law and practice of various States, this article suggests that such Climate Assessment is now emerging as a norm of customary international law.