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The human disaster is a permanent challenge for the Brazilian government because the difficulties faced are related to the lack of interface between public policies, resulting in fragile analyses of risk and non-prevention, being that annually several Brazilian lives are lost in disasters that continue to happen.
The article is the result of research and presents the analyses of health policy, actions, and programs developed to anticipate the fire victims of the Nightclub Kiss concert hall that took place in 2013 (Santa Maria, Brazil). The objective was to investigate and analyze the disasters and human disasters, especially the fire of Nightclub Kiss when 242 young people died. Causes and determinants were analyzed in order to subsidize public policies, in particular, the health policy.
A qualitative case study supported by the critical dialectic method with semi-structured interviews, focus group, documentary analysis, and bibliographic review.
The experiences accumulated throughout history show that disaster situations require public policies to be able to act readily, resolve, and pay attention to the needs of the population involved. Disasters are increasingly recurrent episodes and generate deep social consequences that mark human life. Managing a human disaster remains a challenge for the health policy in Brazil. The difficulties faced are related to the lack of interface with other public policies. The urgency to incorporate intervention/action strategies into health plans is important. Implementation of prevention and training programs, and adopting strategies and protocols for the whole network of attention is critical.
It is important to emphasize the importance of broadening the theoretical definitions by overcoming the divergences of the concepts adopted between the theoretical and operational field, by elaborating a review of the Brazilian legislation in order to broaden and contemplate the needs of different people.
This research starts from the assumption that work accidents, in addition to fortuitous or individual phenomena, imply social and organizational factors, and highlights the social character of the production of the accident at work. For this reason, this study investigates the living conditions and the ways of workers in the oil and gas industry in Brazil.
To analyze the human factors in the relationship with work accidents on oil platforms from the social dimensions.
It is qualitative research and it has as instruments of collection the focal group and individual interviews with workers and managers of the platforms, participant observation, and documentary analysis.
The research is still being carried out, but some reflections are possible so far: accidents at work depend on the direct or indirect relationship of workers with the work process itself, the modalities of production of work, and management of work. Possible causes underlying the accident are the quality of life and the conceptions of health and safety. Associated with it are social constructs and the multifactorial causes of occupational accidents including the relations between acts and unsafe conditions.
The increase in outsourcing and the decrease in training quality, as well as the prioritization of production, targets the detriment of meeting safety criteria. There is a need to reassess labor management, safety policies, and outsourcing processes. Lack of awareness of the proper use of safety equipment and the organization of the work environment are major causes of work-related accidents. The human factor focuses on the individual, group, organizational, and social dimensions in complex interactions. The identification of social processes between working groups in empirical reality, the influence of elements of culture, organizational management, and their impacts on relations and on safe work performance allows an understanding of social risks.
Brazil has 200 million descendants of African, Portuguese, Indigenous, German, Italian, and other peoples who have built their identities. The Federal Constitution was rewritten in 1988 to include a Social Protection System. Between 2000 and 2016, the federal government was governed by the Workers’ Party. This party invested in the creation of inclusive public policies and affirmative actions built through collective processes of citizenship that guaranteed better living conditions for the population. In one decade, it went from being underdeveloped to developing. In 2016, the elected president of the Workers’ Party was withdrawn from power through impeachment. In the next election, right-wing conservatives excluded speech, attacked minorities (e.g. LGBT population), and defended the traditional family.
To understand the retreat of Brazilian public policies in a country that set public social policies, compensatory policies, and affirmative actions guaranteeing citizenship of men and women.
Qualitative research with analysis and reflection on the regression of universalist public policies and affirmative policies with the creation of quotas.
The creation of affirmative actions was guaranteed. Vacancies in public tenders for the black population led to the establishment of 50% quotas for blacks in universities, and the creation of a universal health system, or universal expanded health indicators. The federal government created a group of SUS analysis by reducing actions.
Social inequality in Brazil is one of the worst in the world. 16 million people live below the poverty line (OXFAM, 2017). In recent decades, the population that was expanding and strengthening access to services, health, education, and social assistance network has seen a reduction of public policies. The importance of research that points to this reduction of rights is fundamental for documenting what has already been achieved.
First-episode psychosis (FEP) is a major life event and can have an adverse impact on the diagnosed individual and their families. The importance of intervening early and providing optimal treatments is widely acknowledged. In comparison to patient groups, literature is scarce on identifying treatment predictors and moderators of caregiver outcomes. This study aimed to identify pre-treatment characteristics predicting and/or moderating carer outcomes, based on data from a multi-element psychosocial intervention to FEP patients and carers (GET-UP PIANO trial).
Carer demography, type of family relationship, patient contact hours, pre-treatment carer burden, patient perceptions of parental caregiving and expressed emotion (EE) were selected, a priori, as potential predictors/moderators of carer burden and emotional distress at 9 months post treatment. Outcomes were analysed separately in mixed-effects random regression models.
Analyses were performed on 260 carers. Only patient perceptions of early maternal criticism predicted reports of lower carer burden at follow-up. However, multiple imputation analysis failed to confirm this result. For treatment moderators: higher levels of carer burden at baseline yielded greater reductions in carer emotional distress at follow-up in the experimental group compared with treatment as usual (TAU). Higher levels of perceived EE moderated greater reductions in carer reports of tension in experimental group, compared with TAU, at follow-up. In younger caregivers (<51 years old), there were greater reductions in levels of worry during the baseline to follow-up period, within the experimental group compared with TAU.
The study failed to identify significant treatment predictors of FEP carer outcomes. However, our preliminary findings suggest that optimal treatment outcomes for carers at first episode might be moderated by younger carer age, and carers reporting higher baseline levels of burden, and where patients perceive higher levels of negative effect from caregivers.
The complex life cycle of Trichinella spiralis includes the migration of newborn larvae through the bloodstream to their encystment in muscle. The parasite establishes an intimate contact with the erythrocytes of the host both during the migration of the newborn larvae and when encysting, as this parasite causes intense vascularization in the muscle cell. The goal of this work was to study the effects of various concentrations of T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) on erythrocyte membranes. The treatment was performed by incubating human erythrocytes with equal volume of different concentrations of ML for 30 minutes, with controlled agitation (37°C). The control erythrocytes (with no contact with the larvae) were incubated in the same way with an equal volume of physiological solution. To evaluate the alterations to the erythrocytes by the action of the larvae and in the respective controls, an Erythrocyte Rheometer and a Digital Image Analysis technique were used. The results indicated that when the larval concentration was higher, the aggregation and erythrocyte membrane alterations were also higher. Also, the erythrocyte deformability index and the erythrocyte elasticity increased. The values of isolated cell coefficient varied from 0.51 in the treatment with 100 larvae/ml to 0.91 in the incubation with 1000 larvae/ml. This experiment shows that T. spiralis muscle larvae affect significantly the red blood cell aggregation and the erythrocyte viscoelastic properties.
The globular cluster (GC) system of the Milky Way (MW) provides important information on the MW’s present structure and past evolution. Full 3d motions, accessed through proper motions (PMs), are required to calculate accurate orbits of GCs in the MW halo. We present our HST program to create a PM database for 20 halo GCs. We demonstrate how the observed PMs of individual GCs can be used to study their origins, and we also describe how the PM measurements of our entire targets can be used to constrain the anisotropy profile. Finally, we describe how our PM results can be used for Gaia as an external check, and discuss prospects of PM measurements with HST and Gaia in the coming years.
Proper motions (PMs) are required to calculate accurate orbits of globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present our HST program to create a PM database for 20 GCs at distances of RGC = 10–100 kpc. Targets are discussed along with PM measurement methods. We also describe how our PM results can be used for Gaia as an external check, and discuss the synergy between HST and Gaia as astrometric instruments in the coming years.
The risk of carrying methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is higher among nursing home (NH) residents than in the general population. However, control strategies are not clearly defined in this setting. In this study, we compared the impact of standard precautions either alone (control) or combined with screening of residents and decolonization of carriers (intervention) to control MRSA in NHs.
Cluster randomized controlled trial
NHs of the state of Vaud, Switzerland
Of 157 total NHs in Vaud, 104 (67%) participated in the study.
Standard precautions were enforced in all participating NHs, and residents underwent MRSA screening at baseline and 12 months thereafter. All carriers identified in intervention NHs, either at study entry or among newly admitted residents, underwent topical decolonization combined with environmental disinfection, except in cases of MRSA infection, MRSA bacteriuria, or deep skin ulcers.
NHs were randomly allocated to a control group (51 NHs, 2,412 residents) or an intervention group (53 NHs, 2,338 residents). Characteristics of NHs and residents were similar in both groups. The mean screening rates were 86% (range, 27%–100%) in control NHs and 87% (20%–100%) in intervention NHs. Prevalence of MRSA carriage averaged 8.9% in both control NHs (range, 0%–43%) and intervention NHs (range, 0%–38%) at baseline, and this rate significantly declined to 6.6% in control NHs and to 5.8% in intervention NHs after 12 months. However, the decline did not differ between groups (P=.66).
Universal screening followed by decolonization of carriers did not significantly reduce the prevalence of the MRSA carriage rate at 1 year compared with standard precautions.
We consider the problem of stochastic comparison of general GARCH-like processes for different parameters and different distributions of the innovations. We identify several stochastic orders that are propagated from the innovations to the GARCH process itself, and we discuss their interpretations. We focus on the convex order and show that in the case of symmetric innovations it is also propagated to the cumulated sums of the GARCH process. More generally, we discuss multivariate comparison results related to the multivariate convex and supermodular orders. Finally, we discuss ordering with respect to the parameters in the GARCH(1, 1) case.