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Modern Catholic Social Teaching (CST) developed in an historical context that posed dramatic challenges to the institutional Church and lay faithful. The French Revolution (1789–1799), the Napoleonic era (1799–1815), and industrial revolution, and waves of succeeding uprisings in 1820, 1830, 1848, and 1870 represented radical challenges to existing political structures, such that Old Regime conceptions of the State and Church alliance of Throne and Altar were no longer tenable. The emergence of the modern secular state in traditionally Catholic lands often included the suppression of religious orders, charitable and educational institutions, and control over clergy and hierarchy. The Church struggled in this revolutionary age of ideology – torn between laissez-faire liberalism and revolutionary socialism. The Catholic movement, primarily of laity, grew in response to these challenges, under the rubrics of the “Religious Question” of freedom of religion, and Church–State relations generally, and of the “Social Question” or how to address the growing number of rootless and impoverished industrial workers in an increasingly secularized political and cultural environment. The revival of neoscholastic philosophy of society became the paradigm through which Pius IX and especially Leo XIII were able to engage modernity on evangelical and natural law foundations.
The reception of Brahms’s music beyond his home city of Hamburg began in 1853, when the young composer made his first extended journey and presented his compositions to some of the leading figures of German contemporary music: Robert Schumann, Robert Franz and Franz Liszt. Each reacted to these unpublished works in distinctive ways.
Robert Schumann, with whom Brahms spent the whole month of October in Düsseldorf, was instantly enthralled.
Brahms never studied at a music conservatory, nor did he ever teach at one. However, in private, individually negotiated settings, he was active as a teacher throughout his musical life in many ways. From his youth onwards, he gave piano lessons and sporadic theory lessons [see Ch. 1 ‘Childhood in Hamburg’]; later, he acted as occasional adviser to younger composers on many occasions, and even took on some regular students.
The young Brahms studied piano with Otto Cossel from 1840, changing to Eduard Marxsen in 1843, who also subsequently gave him composition lessons. At the age of fourteen at the latest, he began to give piano lessons himself, initially for free as a favour but soon in order to earn an income [see Ch. 8 ‘Finances’]. The few surviving statements of four of his students reveal that in these years he neither enjoyed teaching, nor was he particularly good at it.
We investigate the implications of providing loan officers with a nonlinear compensation structure that rewards loan volume and penalizes poor performance. Using a unique data set provided by a large international commercial bank, we examine the main activities that loan officers perform: loan prospecting, screening, and monitoring. We find that when loan officers are at risk of losing their bonuses, they increase prospecting and monitoring. We further show that loan officers adjust their behavior more toward the end of the month when bonus payments are approaching. These effects are more pronounced for loan officers with longer tenures at the bank.
Childhood maltreatment is an important factor associated with adverse mental health outcomes including geriatric depression and the “big five” personality characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate a model where personality characteristics mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and geriatric depression.
In this cross-sectional study, elderly subjects from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods of Porto Alegre, Brazil (n = 260) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 (MINI plus). We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate the mediation hypothesis.
The five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness) were related to childhood maltreatment and depression. Mediation analysis revealed that neuroticism and extraversion are complete mediators, agreeableness and conscientiousness are partial mediators, and openness is not a mediator.
These ﬁndings support the hypothesis in which childhood maltreatment is associated with geriatric depression and mediated by personality factors. These results suggest that reducing the maladaptive personality trait in elderly people who suffered childhood maltreatment could prevent geriatric depression.
“Melodrama” as a descriptive concept—in contrast to a pejorative understanding—expresses a typically modern form of experience as radical immanence of human and political life and therefore seems appropriate to get to the depth of Karl Mannheim's critique of modernity as the loss of any metaphysical system from, or on which, knowledge and knowledge claims could be derived or based. An analysis of his modernity critique as melodrama presents a reading of Mannheim that goes deeper and beyond his reception as a sociologist of knowledge: his sociology of knowledge appears then “only” as a consequence to found knowledge under non- metaphysical, nonreligious, or non- idealist, that is, contingent conditions (of modernity) by relating styles of thought to social and historical contexts and standpoints (“Standorte”) from where they originated and in which they are functioning. Mannheim argues against any attempt to restore metaphysical systems, and he does not regret the loss of transcendence and metaphysics, but rather opens knowledge and political action to anti- essentialist (ideology) critique and to plurality. We see herein seeds for the development of a political theory of optionality.
The Problematic and Structure of the Chapter
In the present chapter we discuss Karl Mannheim's notion of modernity alongside the question of what we can learn from this for political theory. This discussion, of course, touches upon Mannheim's most famous approach, namely his sociology of knowledge. In doing so, this chapter will, however, understand his sociology of knowledge not as something independent, historically spatially non- relational and itself noncontingent, but rather as a consequence of his understanding of modernity, having the character that Mannheim ascribes to every (other) social and political theory. More concretely: Mannheim's understanding of modernity demands a radical immanent conceptualization and explanation of knowledge, as all metaphysical and transcendental claims would have become impossible. The only way to approach knowledge, therefore, is to understand knowledge as deeply anchored and rooted in society and in sociohistorical contexts (“Standorte”). Mannheim's sociology of knowledge is thus a radical accommodation of sociological and political inquiry to conditions of modernity (as he viewed it; see below), that is, of the immanence of social and political life and subsequently of their analysis and of all action within it and without reference to metaphysics and/ or religion.
Selenium (Se) intake in human is rather low in many countries (Combs 2001). Different strategies to increase human selenium intake were summarized recently by Lyons et al (2003). Selenium fertilization of crops and grass based on the Finnish experiment of the early 80 trebled Se intakes and nearly doubled plasma Se concentration within 3 years of programme’s initiation. Meat from Se supplemented animals contains Se at a high level so that such a meat contributes to a large extent of Se supply for man. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of selenium enriched winter barley in fattening bulls with large muscle development.
Selenium (Se) is a trace element of large importance owing to its implications in many metabolisms both in animals and in humans. Se participates in the antioxidant protection of cells and shows profound effects on health as e.g. cancer protection, antiviral effect, cardiomyopathy prevention,… in men (see review by Lyon et al 2003) and as prevention of metritis, mastitis or myopathies in cattle (Jukola et al, 1996). There are areas -Belgium e.g.- in which the Se content of feedstuff for cattle is rather low. Se is available for plants from the soil. The aim of the present work was to increase the Se content in grass silage and winter barley using Se enriched fertilizers for young growing bulls.
Lucerne and chalk are sources of calcium used to supplement horses diets. The voluntary ingestion of lucerne varies with its form (Cuddeford, 1994). The objectives of this study were to compare the appetency for different sources of calcium, measured by kinetic of ingestion and selection behaviour (sorting, refusal) and to evaluate the effect of those different sources of calcium supplements on the preference of diets offered as a simultaneous choice. The sources of calcium studied were chalk and dehydrated lucerne presented in three forms: 6 mm diameter pellets, 18 mm diameter pellets and ground.
Growth of the Ardennes draught horse is not well known as compared to other draught breed horses. Biometry is the science which allows a mathematical approach of measured parameters. The technic provides tools for assessments of growth, aids to diagnosis of skeletal pathologies and assessments of sports aptitudes. According to Martin-Rosset (1990), live weight correlates to the thoracic perimeter. The aim of this study is to use other morphology traits to assess growth rates in Ardennes males foals.
When horses are on diets that are predominant in cereals, the combination of low concentrations of calcium in the diet and the binding of calcium by phytates may result in inadequate calcium intake (Rose, 1990). Chalk and dehydrated lucerne are rich in calcium. It has been shown that the voluntary ingestion of lucerne varies with its form (Cuddeford, 1994). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources of calcium (chalk vs dehydrated lucerne) and lucerne forms (6 mm diameter pellets, 18 mm diameter pellets and ground lucerne) on the ingestion and on the metabolic profile in horses offered a cereal-based diet.
In cooperation between the European Southern Observatory and the Göttingen Observatory the design of an automatized iris photometer has been developed. The principal idea, based on the classical iris photometer as described by Haffner (Veröff. Göttingen, Nr. 106, 1953), may be described here. (Fig. 1).
We report here the observation of spectral lines in the F I, 0 I, N I, and C I isoelectronic sequences of Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, and Rb. The plasma was produced by the spherical irradiation of solid targets using six frequency-tripled beams from the OMEGA laser system at the University of Rochester. The wavelengths were recorded using a 3 meter grazing incidence spectrograph, and the wavelengths were determined relative to several previously observed lines in the F I, 0 I, and Na I sequences. There is good overall consistency with the wavelengths recommended by Edlen (1983) for the F I and O I sequences and with the wavelengths measured by Kononov (1979) for the Na I sequence. Most of the observed transitions in the N I and C I sequences represent new identifications, and a complete set of energies for the 2s2p4 configuration of the N-like ions Cu XXIII, Zn XXIV, Ga XXV, and Ge XXVI is presented.
Hans Morgenthau's Scientific Man vs. Power Politics appeared in 1946, one year after he received tenure at the University of Chicago. Thus, the monograph demarcates the beginning of Morgenthau's career in the United States, to which he had emigrated nine years earlier. Three main aspects seem important for understanding this work. The first is Morgenthau's bewilderment about American political culture and, as he perceived it, its cheerful optimism about the betterment of politics, society, and humanity in general. The second aspect is the nature of the argument: Scientific Man is a dogmatic tract, an attempt to hammer home certain philosophical positions—positions that were largely unpopular in the U.S. social sciences in the 1940s (and later)—rather than a reflective scholarly elaboration of certain philosophical commitments. The third is Morgenthau's place between two academic cultures: Morgenthau's language in his American writings partly stems from, but also tries to leave behind, his European academic socialization. The monograph thus reflects the author's peculiar situation, as he inhabits two sometimes crucially different semantic and cultural contexts, but fails to bridge or broker them.