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In this chapter on human germline editing in The Netherlands, we first discuss the Dutch legal framework and the institutional environment regulating research involving human gametes and embryos. We then focus on legal provisions within the regulation of human germline editing. Here we show that within Dutch law, embryos and fetuses are not regarded as legal subjects with independent legal rights. However, unborn human life, even in early stages, is not treated as just a legal object either. With regard to human germline editing, two bans dominate the national legislative and policy framework: the ban on intentionally modifying the genetic material of the nucleus of human germline cells for reproductive purposes, and the ban on the creation of embryos for research. Finally, we offer an overview and analysis of current public and political debates on this technology in the light of the tensions between self-determination and reproductive autonomy on the one hand (the ‘medical ethics regime’), and human dignity and respect for human life on the other (the ‘human rights regime’). We conclude with our suggestion that, in order to make this debate more inclusive and balanced, both the human rights perspective and the medical-ethical perspective should be properly represented.
Individual organisms on land and in the ocean sequester massive amounts of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Yet the role of ecosystems as a whole in modulating this uptake of carbon is less clear. Here, we study several different mechanisms by which climate change and ecosystems could interact. We show that climate change could cause changes in ecosystems that reduce their capacity to take up carbon, further accelerating climate change. More research on – and better governance of – interactions between climate change and ecosystems is urgently required.
We examined the prevalence and correlates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection according to cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) phenotype, a main virulence antigen, among the ethnically diverse population groups of Jerusalem. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Arab (N = 959) and Jewish (N = 692) adults, randomly selected from Israel's national population registry in age-sex and population strata. Sera were tested for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Positive samples were tested for virulence IgG antibodies to recombinant CagA protein, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multinomial regression models were fitted to examine associations of sociodemographic factors with H. pylori phenotypes. H. pylori IgG antibody sero-prevalence was 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 80.0%–85.5%) and 61.4% (95% CI 57.7%–65.0%) among Arabs and Jews, respectively. Among H. pylori positives, the respective CagA IgG antibody sero-positivity was 42.3% (95% CI 38.9%–45.8%) and 32.5% (95% CI 28.2%–37.1%). Among Jews, being born in the Former Soviet Union, the Middle East and North Africa, vs. Israel and the Americas, was positively associated with CagA sero-positivity. In both populations, sibship size was positively associated with both CagA positive and negative phenotypes; and education was inversely associated. In conclusion, CagA positive and negative infection had similar correlates, suggesting shared sources of these two H. pylori phenotypes.
This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the dynamics of reference relation and subordination in Tibetan grammar. As a way of shedding light on this complex topic, it examines a translated sūtra, the Ye shes rgyas pa'i mdo, which contains numerous stories relating interactions and conversations between a variety of characters. A close reading of several representative passages of this text reveals some of the systematic structures of subordination. Despite not being outlined as a principle in traditional Tibetan grammars, subordination is seen here to be clearly reinforced by, and at times entirely encoded in, the use of the converb –nas to express coreference, and in the verbal noun and converb structures –pa dang and -pa las to connote cross-reference. The paper thus aims to show how attention to the functioning of subordinating structures serves the reader in the interpretation of complex passages where such structures at times provide the only key to the attribution of agency.
Peatland development and carbon accumulation on the Pacific coast of Canada have received little attention in paleoecological studies, despite wetlands being common landscape features. Here, we present a multi–proxy paleoenvironmental study of an ombrotrophic bog in coastal British Columbia. Following decreases in relative sea level, the wetland was isolated from marine waters by 13,300 cal yr BP. Peat composition, non-pollen palynomorph, and C and N analyses demonstrate terrestrialization from an oligotrophic lake to a marsh by 11,600 cal yr BP, followed by development of a poor fen, and then a drier ombrotrophic bog by 8700 cal yr BP. Maximum carbon accumulation occurred during the early Holocene fen stage, when seasonal differences in insolation were amplified. This highlights the importance of seasonality in constraining peatland carbon sequestration by enhancing productivity during summer and reducing decomposition during winter. Pollen analysis shows that Pinus contorta dominated regional forests by 14,000 cal yr BP. Warm and relatively dry summers in the early Holocene allowed Pseudotsuga menziesii to dominate lowland forests 11,200–7000 cal yr BP. Tsuga heterophylla and P. menziesii formed coniferous forest in the mid- and late Holocene. Tephra matching the mid-Holocene Glacier Peak–Dusty Creek assemblage provides evidence of its most northwesterly occurrence to date.
This chapter explores whether and how genomic resources can be protected by the communities from, or countries in which they are accessed. Specifically, it asks whether the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing can be an effective mechanism to reassure communities about the sharing of gene sequencing data. These questions are of particular importance to Indigenous peoples and local communities, as many have troubling historical experiences with colonization and associated natural resource exploitation. Many Indigenous and local communities (ILCs) live in developing countries, which are particularly sensitive to access and benefit-sharing (ABS) issues. Different but equally serious challenges exist for Indigenous peoples in developed countries like Canada, Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere. Until outcomes of implementation of the Nagoya Protocol are captured, Indigenous peoples and Local Communities (IPLCs) remain in a quandary as to how to protect digitized genetic resources within their territories or under their jurisdiction. To advance our understanding of legal and regulatory options, this chapter integrates normative and positive perspectives on the mechanisms for access and benefit-sharing in the age of digital biology.
This paper addresses the process towards the integration of subsurface knowledge into urban planning for three cities – Rotterdam, Glasgow and Oslo – participating in the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TU1206 Sub-Urban. These cities each have unique challenges in managing conflicts and opportunities in the subsurface in the planning process. The COST Sub-Urban Action has enabled a unique interaction between subsurface specialists and urban planners across over 20 European cities, and has laid the foundations for a new understanding between experts who develop subsurface knowledge and those who can benefit most from it – urban planners and decision makers. Common challenges identified include: improving planning policies, enhancing the level of awareness of the subsurface in city development and the modification of legislation to include the subsurface. The paper provides a review of the current status of subsurface planning in the three cities, each of whom are aiming to adapt their urban planning practice and legislation in light of emerging subsurface knowledge, and the current major knowledge gaps. In our opinion, there are two main routes to raise awareness that lead to improved understanding and the use of subsurface information in urban planning processes: (1) the development of a subsurface policy and (2) providing subsurface information. These measures should enable subsurface knowledge to be widely disseminated in order to manage risks and opportunities, and maximise the economic, social and environmental benefits of the urban subsurface and its services on which cities depend.
Hippocrates famously advised doctors 'it is far more important to know what person the disease has than what disease the person has'. Yet 2,500 years later, 'personalised medicine', based on individual genetic profiling and the achievements of genomic research, claims to be revolutionary. In this book, experts from a wide range of disciplines critically examine this claim. They expand the discussion of personalised medicine beyond its usual scope to include many other highly topical issues, including: human nuclear genome transfer ('three-parent IVF'), stem cell-derived gametes, private umbilical cord blood banking, international trade in human organs, biobanks such as the US Precision Medicine Initiative, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, health and fitness self-monitoring.Although these technologies often prioritise individual choice, the original ideal of genomic research saw the human genome as 'the common heritage of humanity'. The authors question whether personalised medicine actually threatens this conception of the common good.
‘[the Queen] was very richly attired, and had with her 25 damsels mounted on white palfreys, with housings all of one fashion, most beautifully embroidered with gold; and all these damsels wore dresses slashed with gold lama in very costly trim, and were attended by a number of footmen in excellent order’.
‘After the joust the ambassadors visited the Queen … She is rather ugly than otherwise, and supposed to be pregnant; but the damsels of her court are handsome, and make a sumptuous appearance.’
These two assessments of Catherine of Aragon, made by Nicolo Sagudino, secretary to the Venetian ambassador at the English court, emphasise the importance of clothing to the assertion of magnificence and royal identity. In his description of Catherine's appearance at a major court ceremony, Sagudino does not focus solely on the queen's physical looks; instead, he links together the queen's own presence with her clothing and the clothing of her attendants. Although Catherine herself is ‘rather ugly than otherwise’, the ladies of her court and her own rich attire supersede her physical form. Her body, which was ‘supposed’ to be pregnant, was one part of her presence as queen, but it was figuratively and literally obscured by the ‘rich attire’ of her own clothing and the dresses of her ladies. Sagudino's focus on Catherine's attire, and the attire of her ladies, is not unusual; nearly every detailed description of Catherine discusses her personal appearance and the fabric, cut or style of her clothing, and many sources include descriptions of her ladies. Ambassadors like Sagudino focused on the queen's appearance because Renaissance monarchs used sumptuous, rare clothing to reinforce their status and authority, as the idea of magnificence became a crucial political and social concept and humanist virtue for kings and queens. Catherine's identity as queen was thus formed not only through her actions, but through her appearance, dress and company as well.
Catherine and Margaret used clothing to emphasise their agency and superior social status compared to the men around them in order to maintain royal dignity and their own authority, which was especially crucial at moments when they faced challenges at court. Because their marriages placed them above all other men in their kingdoms, save their husbands, their identities, honour and status as queens had to be asserted and re-asserted.