To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The issue of how cross-border surrogacy should be regulated has been a significant strand of the present authors’ research for several years. The Nuffield Foundation funded them from 2010 to 2012 to work on this topic and the main fruit of that labour was a substantial edited book that set out how surrogacy was being dealt with in many legal systems and presented the arguments for a new hard law solution of a Treaty regulating cross-border surrogacy arrangements along the lines of the highly successful Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. As a follow up to that work the present authors have systematically analysed the law on cross-border surrogacy from a comparative perspective in Europe and have recently analysed how the European Court of Human Rights (‘ECtHR’) has decided cases where a cross-border surrogacy arrangement was involved. The most recent work considered the case of Paradiso and Campanelli v Italy at the stage when the Chamber had taken its decision and the decision of the Grand Chamber was pending. In this contribution the authors intend to analyse the Grand Chamber decision in Paradiso and Campanelli and to consider the possible use of international soft law to help move states closer to achieving the consensus needed to regulate cross-border surrogacy arrangements in a Hague Convention.
FACTS OF PARADISO AND CAMPANELLI
In 2010, Ms Donatina Paradiso and Mr Giovanni Campanelli (‘the applicants’ or ‘the commissioning parents’), both Italian nationals and a married couple, entered into a surrogacy arrangement with a Moscow-based clinic called Rosjurconsulting whom they paid € 49,000 for their services. A surrogate was implanted with two embryos on 19 June 2010 and she gave birth to a child in Moscow on 27 February 2011. On the same day the surrogate gave her written consent to the child being registered as the applicants’ son.
This review presents mechanistic studies performed in vitro and in animal models, as well as data obtained in patients that contribute to a better understanding of the impact of nutrients interacting with the gut microbiota on metabolic and behavioural alterations linked to obesity. The gut microbiota composition and function are altered in several pathological conditions including obesity and related diseases i.e. non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The gut–liver axis is clearly influenced by alterations of the gut barrier that drives inflammation. In addition, recent papers propose that specific metabolites issued from the metabolic cooperation between the gut microbes and host enzymes, modulate inflammation and gene expression in the liver. This review illustrates how dietary intervention with prebiotics or probiotics influences host energy metabolism and inflammation. Indeed, intervention studies are currently underway in obese and NAFLD patients to unravel the relevance of the changes in gut microbiota composition in the management of metabolic and behavioural disorders by nutrients interacting with the gut microbiota. In conclusion, diet is among the main triggers of NAFLD and the gut microbiota is modified accordingly, underlining the importance of the concomitant study of the nutrients and microbial impact on liver health and metabolism, in order to propose innovative, clinically relevant, therapeutic approaches.
The concept of an s-ply transitive (1 ≤ s ≤ n) permutation group on n symbols is of considerable importance in the classical theory of finite permutation groups, which was in the height of its development in the period around the turn of the century. The obvious generalization to a permutation group which is s set-transitive (i.e., a group which, for each pair of s-element unordered subsets S, T of the given n symbols, contains a permutation which carries S into T) seems to have received little attention.
Objectives: Concussions affect the processing of emotional stimuli. This study aimed to investigate how sex interacts with concussion effects on early event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures (P1, N1) of emotional facial expressions (EFE) processing in asymptomatic, multi-concussion athletes during an EFE identification task. Methods: Forty control athletes (20 females and 20 males) and 43 multi-concussed athletes (22 females and 21 males), recruited more than 3 months after their last concussion, were tested. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, and an Emotional Facial Expression Identification Task. Pictures of male and female faces expressing neutral, angry, and happy emotions were randomly presented and the emotion depicted had to be identified as fast as possible during EEG acquisition. Results: Relative to controls, concussed athletes of both sex exhibited a significant suppression of P1 amplitude recorded from the dominant right hemisphere while performing the emotional face expression identification task. The present study also highlighted a sex-specific suppression of the N1 component amplitude after concussion which affected male athletes. Conclusions: These findings suggest that repeated concussions alter the typical pattern of right-hemisphere response dominance to EFE in early stages of EFE processing and that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the processing of emotional stimuli are distinctively affected across sex. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1–11)
Maximizing Hedonism maintains that the most pleasurable pleasures are the best. Francis Bradley argues that this is either incompatible with Mill’s Qualitative Hedonism, or renders the latter redundant. Some ‘sympathetic’ interpreters respond that Mill was either a Non-Maximizing Hedonist or a Non-Hedonist. However, Bradley’s argument is fallacious, and these ‘sympathetic’ interpretations cannot provide adequate accounts of: Mill’s identification with the Protagorean Socrates; his criticisms of the Gorgian Socrates; or his apparent belief that Callicles is misguided to attempt to show that the pleasures of the intelligent can be more valuable than the pleasures of fools without also being more pleasurable.
Pre-2013, Shearman & Sterling employed only two full-time knowledge management (KM) professionals across the globe. As Jon Beaumont describes, there was no centralised method of storage or retrieval for knowledge and Attorneys would have to contend with searching the firm's Document Management System (DMS), SharePoint intranet, internal discussion boards or ten disparate knowledge systems for document and matter information. ‘Knowledge Center’ was launched in 2015, following two years of planning, aimed at consolidating firm systems and providing users with a single interface to access any required know-how. This article will touch upon the consolidation and migration of information, but focus predominantly on Knowledge Center itself, examining functionality, search, filtering and browse. Processes for better knowledge identification of both document and matter know-how, all of which have contributed to the success of Knowledge Center, shall also be considered.
Some in-feed antibiotic growth promoters have been suspended from use within the EU. Alternatives to these antibiotics are actively being sought, especially ‘natural’ alternatives, such as essential oils, to try and maintain the performance advantage attributed to the use of these antibiotics. Some essential oils, e.g. thyme and origanum, have been shown to have anti-microbial activities (Hammer et al., 1999). The active compounds responsible for this property have been identified, and include cinnamaldehyde, cineol and eugenol. A specific formulation of essential oils reinforced with their active compounds has been combined into a form suitable for use as a feed additive (Multi-Functional Feed Additive, MFA). An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of this MFA on the food conversion ratio (FCR) of calves.
I have dreamed in my life, dreams that have stayed with me ever after, and changed my ideas; they have gone through and through me, like wine through water, and altered the colour of my mind.
—Emily Brontë (1818–48)
As in Emily Brontë's dreams, war has flowed through Asia in the past century like wine through water. Be they interstate conflicts, intercommunal violence, social revolutions, or struggles for sovereignty, wars have transformed political structures, changed territorial boundaries, and reshaped the regional order. In particular, World War II, which strides the twentieth century like some malignant colossus, had a profound impact on the region. Estimates of its human cost vary, but it probably caused at least twenty-three million deaths in the Asia-Pacific (Wikipedia 2015a).2 Politically, it shattered the hold of the European powers on their colonial subjects, triggered the wave of post-war decolonization, and established the bipolar balance which dominated international and regional relations for almost fifty years.
In a less tangible but equally important sense, World War II and other violent conflicts transformed the cultural imaginations of the peoples and societies of the region. Not only did the defeat of the European powers in 1941–42 make a world beyond imperialism imaginable, but in recent decades, the memories of past wars have come to play a central role in the domestic politics and interstate relations of the region. Asia is not alone in this. The memory “boom” which has swept the globe since the 1970s or 1980s has seen a turn to the past in many countries. In both established and emerging states, war memory has become “a key element in the symbolic repertoire available to the nation-state for binding its citizens into a collective national identity” (Ashplant, Dawson, and Roper 2000, p. 7). Across the globe also, the politics of war memory have been used by various substate agents to justify their claims to greater recognition or compensation for past grievances and injustices.
A rare, intact Viking boat burial in western Scotland contained a rich assemblage of grave goods, providing clues to the identity and origins of both the interred individual and the people who gathered to create the site. The burial evokes the mundane and the exotic, past and present, as well as local, national and international identities. Isotopic analysis of the teeth hints at a possible Scandinavian origin for the deceased, while Scottish, Irish and Scandinavian connections are attested by the grave goods. Weapons indicate a warrior of high status; other objects imply connections to daily life, cooking and work, farming and food production. The burial site is itself rich in symbolic associations, being close to a Neolithic burial cairn, the stones of which may have been incorporated into the grave.
Objectives: Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain. Although the cumulative and long-term effects of multiple concussions are now well documented on cognitive and motor function, little is known about their effects on emotion recognition. Recent studies have suggested that concussion can result in emotional sequelae, particularly in females and multi-concussed athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate sex-related differences in emotion recognition in asymptomatic male and female multi-concussed athletes. Methods: We tested 28 control athletes (15 males) and 22 multi-concussed athletes (10 males) more than a year since the last concussion. Participants completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, a neuropsychological test battery and a morphed emotion recognition task. Pictures of a male face expressing basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise) morphed with another emotion were randomly presented. After each face presentation, participants were asked to indicate the emotion expressed by the face. Results: Results revealed significant sex by group interactions in accuracy and intensity threshold for negative emotions, together with significant main effects of emotion and group. Conclusions: Male concussed athletes were significantly impaired in recognizing negative emotions and needed more emotional intensity to correctly identify these emotions, compared to same-sex controls. In contrast, female concussed athletes performed similarly to same-sex controls. These findings suggest that sex significantly modulates concussion effects on emotional facial expression recognition. (JINS, 2017, 23, 65–77)