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Childhood disruptive behaviors are highly prevalent and associated with adverse long-term social and economic outcomes. Trajectories of welfare receipt in early adulthood and the association of childhood behaviors with high welfare receipt trajectories have not been examined.
Boys (n = 1000) from low socioeconomic backgrounds were assessed by kindergarten teachers for inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, opposition, and prosociality, and prospectively followed up for 30 years. We used group-base trajectory modeling to estimate trajectories of welfare receipt from age 19–36 years using government tax return records, then examined the association between teacher-rated behaviors and trajectory group membership using mixed effects multinomial regression models.
Three trajectories of welfare receipt were identified: low (70.8%), declining (19.9%), and chronic (9.3%). The mean annual personal employment earnings (US$) for the three groups at age 35/36 years was $36 500 (s.d. = $24 000), $15 600 (s.d. = $16 275), and $1700 (s.d. = $4800), respectively. Relative to the low welfare receipt group, a unit increase in inattention (mean = 2.64; s.d. = 2.32, range = 0–8) at age 6 was associated with an increased risk of being in the chronic group (relative risk ratio; RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) and in the declining group (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.23), after adjustment for child IQ and family adversity, and independent of other behaviors. Family adversity was more strongly associated with trajectories of welfare receipt than any behavior.
Boys from disadvantaged backgrounds exhibiting high inattention in kindergarten are at elevated risk of chronic welfare receipt during adulthood. Screening and support for inattentive behaviors beginning in kindergarten could have long-term social and economic benefits for individuals and society.
Pelvic internal organs change in volume and position during radiotherapy. This may compromise the efficacy of treatment or worsen its toxicity. There may be limitations to fully correcting these changes using online image guidance; therefore, effective and consistent patient preparation and positioning remain important. This review aims to provide an overview of the extent of pelvic organ motion and strategies to manage this motion.
Methods and Materials:
Given the breadth of this topic, a systematic review was not undertaken. Instead, existing systematic reviews and individual high-quality studies addressing strategies to manage pelvic organ motion have been discussed. Suggested levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for each strategy have been applied.
Various strategies to manage rectal changes have been investigated including diet and laxatives, enemas and rectal emptying tubes and rectal displacement with endorectal balloons (ERBs) and rectal spacers. Bladder-filling protocols and bladder ultrasound have been used to try to standardise bladder volume. Positioning the patient supine, using a full bladder and positioning prone with or without a belly board, has been examined in an attempt to reduce the volume of irradiated small bowel. Some randomised trials have been performed, with evidence to support the use of ERBs, rectal spacers, bladder-filling protocols and the supine over prone position in prostate radiotherapy. However, there was a lack of consistent high-quality evidence that would be applicable to different disease sites within the pelvis. Many studies included small numbers of patients were non-randomised, used less conformal radiotherapy techniques or did not report clinical outcomes such as toxicity.
There is uncertainty as to the clinical benefit of many of the commonly adopted interventions to minimise pelvic organ motion. Given this and the limitations in online image guidance compensation, further investigation of adaptive radiotherapy strategies is required.
Favourable body composition has been associated with higher dietary protein intake. However, little is known regarding this relationship in a population of Chinese Americans (CHA), who have lower BMI compared with other populations. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dietary protein intake, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) in CHA. Data were from the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA) 2010–2011 (n 1707); dietary intake was assessed using an adapted and validated FFQ. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The associations between protein intake (% energy intake) and BMI, percentage FM (FM%), percentage FFM (FFM%), FM index (FMI) and FFM index (FFMI) were examined using multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, acculturation, total energy intake, sedentary time, smoking status, education, employment and income. There was a significant positive association between dietary protein and BMI (B = 0·056, 95 % CI 0·017, 0·104; P = 0·005), FM (B = 0·106, 95 % CI 0·029, 0·184; P = 0·007), FM% (B = 0·112, 95 % CI 0·031, 0·194; P = 0·007) and FMI (B = 0·045, 95 % CI 0·016, 0·073; P = 0·002). There was a significant negative association between dietary protein and FFM% (B = −0·116, 95 % CI −0·196, −0·036; P = 0·004). In conclusion, higher dietary protein intake was associated with higher adiposity; however, absolute FFM and FFMI were not associated with dietary protein intake. Future work examining the relationship between protein source (i.e. animal) and body composition is warranted in this population of CHA.
Let Δn be the set of all n × n, non-singular matrices of the form PD, where P is a permutation matrix and D is a diagonal matrix with complex entries. In (1, conjecture 12), Marcus and Mine asked: Is Δn a maximal group on which the permanent function is multiplicative? (that is, per AB = per A per B). The field over which the entries range was not mentioned in the conjecture; however, we assume that the complex number field was intended. Corollary 1 answers this in the affirmative. In fact, Δn is the only maximal group (or semigroup) on which the permanent is multiplicative. Let ρi be the set of all non-zero entries in the ith row and let λj be the set of all non-zero entries in the jth column.
A stepped care approach involves patients first receiving low-intensity treatment followed by higher intensity treatment. This two-step randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a sequential stepped care approach for the psychological treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED).
In the first step, all participants with BED (n = 135) received unguided self-help (USH) based on a cognitive-behavioral therapy model. In the second step, participants who remained in the trial were randomized either to 16 weeks of group psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) (n = 39) or to a no-treatment control condition (n = 46). Outcomes were assessed for USH in step 1, and then for step 2 up to 6-months post-treatment using multilevel regression slope discontinuity models.
In the first step, USH resulted in large and statistically significant reductions in the frequency of binge eating. Statistically significant moderate to large reductions in eating disorder cognitions were also noted. In the second step, there was no difference in change in frequency of binge eating between GPIP and the control condition. Compared with controls, GPIP resulted in significant and large improvement in attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems.
The findings indicated that a second step of a stepped care approach did not significantly reduce binge-eating symptoms beyond the effects of USH alone. The study provided some evidence for the second step potentially to reduce factors known to maintain binge eating in the long run, such as attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems.
We have derived ages and metallicities from co-added spectra of 131 globular clusters (GCs) associated with the giant Virgo elliptical NGC 4472. ¿From their metal-line indices, we find that our sample of GCs span a metallicity range of approximately −1.6 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0 dex. The SSP models of Worthey (1994; W94) predict that the metal-poor population of GCs has an age of 14.5 ± 4 Gyr and that the metal-rich population is 13.8 ± 6 Gyr old, whilst the models of Kurth, Fritze-v. Alvensleben & Fricke (1999; KFF99) predict ages of 6.0 ± 2 and 8.0 ± 5 respectively. We conclude that, within the uncertainties, the GCs are old and coeval, and that the bimodality seen in the broadband colours primarily reflects metallicity and not age differences.
This series of monographs on selected topics in modernism is designed to reflect and extend the range of new work in modernist studies. The studies in the series aim for a breadth of scope and for an expanded sense of the canon of modernism, rather than focusing on individual authors. Literary texts will be considered in terms of contexts, including recent cultural histories (modernism and magic; sonic modernity; media studies) and topics of theoretical interest (the everyday; postmodernism; the Frankfurt School); but the series will also re-consider more familiar routes into modernism (modernism and gender; sexuality; politics). The works published will be attentive to the various cultural, intellectual and historical contexts of British, American and European modernisms, and to inter-disciplinary possibilities within modernism, including performance and the visual and plastic arts.
Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50−79 years at baseline from the Women’s Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data. The BCAA and total meat intake was estimated from FFQ. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the relationship between BCAA intake, meat intake, and T2D, adjusting for confounders. A 20 % increment in total BCAA intake (g/d and %energy) was associated with a 7 % higher risk for T2D (hazard ratio (HR) 1·07; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·09). For total meat intake, a 20 % increment was associated with a 4 % higher risk of T2D (HR 1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·05). The associations between BCAA intake and T2D were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for total meat intake. These relations did not materially differ with or without adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that dietary BCAA and meat intake are positively associated with T2D among postmenopausal women. The association of BCAA and diabetes risk was attenuated but remained positive after adjustment for meat intake suggesting that BCAA intake in part but not in full is contributing to the association of meat with T2D risk.
Johns Hopkins has been a leader in paediatric cardiology for over 85 years. In the 1940s, Dr Helen Taussig began training fellows in paediatric cardiology at Johns Hopkins at a time when the diagnosis and treatment of CHD were in the earliest stage. Under her leadership, the fellowship developed a strong foundation that has continued to evolve to meet the current needs of learners and educators. In the current era, the Johns Hopkins programme implements the current theories of adult education and actively engages our fellows in learning as well as teaching. The programme uses techniques such as flipped classroom, structured case-based small-group learning, observed and structured clinical examination, simulations, and innovative educational technology. These strategies combined with our faculty and rich history give our fellows a unique educational experience.
Implantation of deep brain stimulator (DBS) leads for Gilles de Tourette syndrome was first described by Visser-Vanderwalle et al., with a reported 70%–90% decrease in tic frequency.1 Since that time, several targets, including the basal/ganglia and striatum, have been described. The target remains experimental, and in this case, leads were implanted under an investigator-initiated research protocol. Ms. L. reported an excellent intraoperative reduction in the “urge to tic” that persisted for 15 weeks postoperatively, indicating that the leads were well placed. Furthermore, although her tic frequency has increased, it remains improved from baseline and returns to baseline when stimulation is discontinued. Although her response does not represent what her treatment team would consider the “desired medical/therapeutic outcomes,” there is no question that the patient recognizes benefit from her stimulation. In fact, she clearly states that “it’s like I’ve felt a new way and don’t want to go back to the old way.”
The VLBA construction phase is now over and in the spring of 1993 it is hoped that full VLBA observing can begin. However the VLBA antennas have been operational for some time and several astronomy programs have been run on them. Below we shall present some of these latest results.
Residual delay errors in VLBI data limit the image sensitivity and dynamic range attainable using current calibration techniques such as self-calibration. Applying phase corrections derived from regular observations of nearby calibrators (phase-referencing), the residual delay errors on a target source can be reduced, increasing coherent integration times. In this paper we present the results of a series of observations made with the VLBA to examine the effectiveness of phase-referencing for improving instrumental phase stability. Optimum observing strategies when studying weak (~ mJy) sources are discussed.
Measurement error in self-reported total sugars intake may obscure associations between sugars consumption and health outcomes, and the sum of 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake.
The Study of Latinos: Nutrition & Physical Activity Assessment Study (SOLNAS) was an ancillary study to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) cohort. Doubly labelled water and 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were used as biomarkers of energy and sugars intake, respectively. Participants’ diets were assessed by up to three 24 h recalls (88 % had two or more recalls). Procedures were repeated approximately 6 months after the initial visit among a subset of ninety-six participants.
Four centres (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA) across the USA.
Men and women (n 477) aged 18–74 years.
The geometric mean of total sugars was 167·5 (95 % CI 154·4, 181·7) g/d for the biomarker-predicted and 90·6 (95 % CI 87·6, 93·6) g/d for the self-reported total sugars intake. Self-reported total sugars intake was not correlated with biomarker-predicted sugars intake (r=−0·06, P=0·20, n 450). Among the reliability sample (n 90), the reproducibility coefficient was 0·59 for biomarker-predicted and 0·20 for self-reported total sugars intake.
Possible explanations for the lack of association between biomarker-predicted and self-reported sugars intake include measurement error in self-reported diet, high intra-individual variability in sugars intake, and/or urinary sucrose and fructose may not be a suitable proxy for total sugars intake in this study population.
The Canadian Centre for Architecture (CCA) in Montreal, devoted to the history and theory of the art of architecture, was founded in 1979 and opened to the public in 1989. It is defined in its mission statement as a museum and study centre, and its Library was conceived and developed by its Founding Director, Phyllis Lambert, to serve both halves of this mission. This article describes some of the ways in which its dual function permeates the Library’s operations and activities. It is our belief that the CCA Library adds value to its collections and services precisely by bridging the old, old gap between the traditional museum library and the traditional research library.