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Inspiring people to value their local wildlife is vital to promoting the conservation of native fauna (Padua, 2010; Savage et al., 2010). Conservation education has historically tended to focus on enhancing people’s knowledge about animals and the threats to their survival as a means of promoting pro-conservation behaviours. Educators have identified that people need both factual knowledge and an emotional affinity for animals as precursors to developing positive attitudes and behaviours towards them (Cheng and Monroe, 2012; Jacobson, 2010; Kuhar et al., 2010). There is a growing recognition that initiatives using positive messages to highlight nature’s positive aspects are more inspiring than negative communication about loss of species that can instead make people feel helpless (IUCN-CEC, 2010). A key component to inspiring people to care for wildlife is building empathy and pride (McCauley, 2006; van der Ploeg et al., 2011).
Head and neck soft tissue sarcoma is uncommon. It is both histologically and clinically heterogeneous, ranging from an indolent, locally destructive tumour, to a locally aggressive neoplasm with metastatic potential.
A retrospective review was conducted of all adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas, including cases of malignant soft tissue sarcoma and all intermediate type tumours, diagnosed between 1997 and 2012.
Sixty-eight cases were identified in this series from the sarcoma multidisciplinary team. Seventeen different histological subtypes of sarcoma were identified. Neither age, gender nor tumour size were significant prognostic indicators for survival in this series.
Prognosis is dependent on histological subtype, underscoring the importance of histological classification. Some histological subtypes occur only once or twice in a decade, even within a large regional referral centre. An accumulation of evidence from relatively small case series is key in the long-term development of treatment strategies.
Since the 1980s, stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of pedogenic carbonates and fossil tooth enamel have been analyzed to contribute to paleoenvironment and dietary reconstructions of hominin habitats across Africa. Initial studies focused on documenting δ13C values in paleosol and enamel carbonate to link the spreading of arid C4 grasses with the habitat reconstructions of fossil fauna to interpret “open” versus “closed” canopies at fossil-bearing sites or the dietary differences between “grazers” versus “browsers.” While habitat reconstructions of hominin-bearing sites are critical for our interpretations of human evolution, this is just one layer of (re)discovering ancient hominin environments that does not consider the difference between the entire habitat of a region versus the habitat primarily occupied by a species. What if early hominins procured food resources in particular microhabitats but ranged broadly throughout an environment for mating and sleeping? Would that change how we interpret the δ13C values of pedogenic carbonates of a region compared to the δ13C values of tooth enamel from fossil species occupying that region? This chapter provides a brief history of the increase in stable isotope geochemistry applied to paleoanthropology research, followed by a discussion of how we might “rediscover” hominin paleoenvironments by using extant chimpanzee data and observations.
In the introduction to her recent study Reading Cy Twombly, Mary Jacobus sets her interpretation of the artist’s work against those of critics who read the names, titles and quotations in his paintings as, on the one hand, self-expressive (‘sighs, expressions of pleasure or regret’), and on the other, directed towards the creation of a repository of cultural memory. ‘As opposed to a high-humanizing reading of Twombly’s art’, she writes, ‘I want to sidestep the debate in order to recover the specifically twentieth-century avant-garde context for his practice of quotation and allusion – his anthology – by tracing its relation to American literary Modernism, and in particular, Ezra Pound’. Twombly briefly attended Black Mountain College, encountering Pound’s writings and ideas through Charles Olson, and Jacobus turns to Pound’s ABC of Reading (1934) as a particularly clarifying lens through which to read Twombly..
Childhood disruptive behaviors are highly prevalent and associated with adverse long-term social and economic outcomes. Trajectories of welfare receipt in early adulthood and the association of childhood behaviors with high welfare receipt trajectories have not been examined.
Boys (n = 1000) from low socioeconomic backgrounds were assessed by kindergarten teachers for inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, opposition, and prosociality, and prospectively followed up for 30 years. We used group-base trajectory modeling to estimate trajectories of welfare receipt from age 19–36 years using government tax return records, then examined the association between teacher-rated behaviors and trajectory group membership using mixed effects multinomial regression models.
Three trajectories of welfare receipt were identified: low (70.8%), declining (19.9%), and chronic (9.3%). The mean annual personal employment earnings (US$) for the three groups at age 35/36 years was $36 500 (s.d. = $24 000), $15 600 (s.d. = $16 275), and $1700 (s.d. = $4800), respectively. Relative to the low welfare receipt group, a unit increase in inattention (mean = 2.64; s.d. = 2.32, range = 0–8) at age 6 was associated with an increased risk of being in the chronic group (relative risk ratio; RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) and in the declining group (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.23), after adjustment for child IQ and family adversity, and independent of other behaviors. Family adversity was more strongly associated with trajectories of welfare receipt than any behavior.
Boys from disadvantaged backgrounds exhibiting high inattention in kindergarten are at elevated risk of chronic welfare receipt during adulthood. Screening and support for inattentive behaviors beginning in kindergarten could have long-term social and economic benefits for individuals and society.
Pelvic internal organs change in volume and position during radiotherapy. This may compromise the efficacy of treatment or worsen its toxicity. There may be limitations to fully correcting these changes using online image guidance; therefore, effective and consistent patient preparation and positioning remain important. This review aims to provide an overview of the extent of pelvic organ motion and strategies to manage this motion.
Methods and Materials:
Given the breadth of this topic, a systematic review was not undertaken. Instead, existing systematic reviews and individual high-quality studies addressing strategies to manage pelvic organ motion have been discussed. Suggested levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for each strategy have been applied.
Various strategies to manage rectal changes have been investigated including diet and laxatives, enemas and rectal emptying tubes and rectal displacement with endorectal balloons (ERBs) and rectal spacers. Bladder-filling protocols and bladder ultrasound have been used to try to standardise bladder volume. Positioning the patient supine, using a full bladder and positioning prone with or without a belly board, has been examined in an attempt to reduce the volume of irradiated small bowel. Some randomised trials have been performed, with evidence to support the use of ERBs, rectal spacers, bladder-filling protocols and the supine over prone position in prostate radiotherapy. However, there was a lack of consistent high-quality evidence that would be applicable to different disease sites within the pelvis. Many studies included small numbers of patients were non-randomised, used less conformal radiotherapy techniques or did not report clinical outcomes such as toxicity.
There is uncertainty as to the clinical benefit of many of the commonly adopted interventions to minimise pelvic organ motion. Given this and the limitations in online image guidance compensation, further investigation of adaptive radiotherapy strategies is required.
Signs of stellar activity such as large surface spots and radio flares are often related to binarity. UX Arietis is one of the most active members of the RS CVn class of binaries in which spin-up of a sub-giant/giant star by a close companion leads to the creation of magnetic fields. UX Arietis exhibits these signs of activity, originating mostly on the K0 sub-giant primary component. We measured the orbit with the CHARA interferometer and made images of a single large spot rotating in and out of view over a month in 2012. The rotation of the stars is synchronous with the orbit, and long-term photometric observations show that the spot or spots do not move much during intervals of a year. Our aim is to relate the positions of the stars and the spots on the primary to astrometry of the radio components observed during outbursts.
This series of monographs on selected topics in modernism is designed to refl ect and extend the range of new work in modernist studies. The studies in the series aim for a breadth of scope and for an expanded sense of the canon of modernism, rather than focusing on individual authors. Literary texts will be considered in terms of contexts including recent cultural histories (modernism and magic; sonic modernity; media studies) and topics of theoretical interest (the everyday; postmodernism; the Frankfurt School); but the series will also reconsider more familiar routes into modernism (modernism and gender; sexuality; politics). The works published will be attentive to the various cultural, intellectual and historical contexts of British, American and European modernisms, and to interdisciplinary possibilities within modernism, including performance and the visual and plastic arts.
Favourable body composition has been associated with higher dietary protein intake. However, little is known regarding this relationship in a population of Chinese Americans (CHA), who have lower BMI compared with other populations. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dietary protein intake, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) in CHA. Data were from the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA) 2010–2011 (n 1707); dietary intake was assessed using an adapted and validated FFQ. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The associations between protein intake (% energy intake) and BMI, percentage FM (FM%), percentage FFM (FFM%), FM index (FMI) and FFM index (FFMI) were examined using multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, acculturation, total energy intake, sedentary time, smoking status, education, employment and income. There was a significant positive association between dietary protein and BMI (B = 0·056, 95 % CI 0·017, 0·104; P = 0·005), FM (B = 0·106, 95 % CI 0·029, 0·184; P = 0·007), FM% (B = 0·112, 95 % CI 0·031, 0·194; P = 0·007) and FMI (B = 0·045, 95 % CI 0·016, 0·073; P = 0·002). There was a significant negative association between dietary protein and FFM% (B = −0·116, 95 % CI −0·196, −0·036; P = 0·004). In conclusion, higher dietary protein intake was associated with higher adiposity; however, absolute FFM and FFMI were not associated with dietary protein intake. Future work examining the relationship between protein source (i.e. animal) and body composition is warranted in this population of CHA.
Understanding the peculiar properties of Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) via spectroscopic analysis is a challenging task that is now becoming feasible. The advent of 10m-class telescopes and high sensitivity instruments is enabling the gathering of high quality spectra even for the faintest systems. In addition, advances in the modelling of stellar populations, stellar libraries, and full-spectral fitting codes are allowing the recovery of the stellar content shaping those spectra with unprecedented reliability. In this contribution we report on the extensive tests we have carried out using the inversion code STECKMAP. The similarities between the Star Formation Histories (SFH) recovered from STECKMAP (applied to high-quality spectra) and deep Colour-Magnitude diagrams fitting (resolved stars) in two Local Group dwarf galaxies (LMC and LeoA) are remarkable, demonstrating the impressive performance of STECKMAP. We exploit the capabilities of STECKMAP and perform one of the most complete and reliable characterisations of the stellar component of UDGs to date using deep spectroscopic data. We measure radial and rotation velocities, SFHs and mean population parameters, such as ages and metallicities, for a sample of five UDG candidates in the Coma cluster. From the radial velocities, we confirm the Coma membership of these galaxies. We find that their rotation properties, if detected at all, are compatible with dwarf-like galaxies. The SFHs of the UDG are dominated by old (∼ 7 Gyr), metal-poor ([M/H] ∼ -1.1) and alpha-enhanced ([Mg/Fe]∼ 0.4) populations followed by a smooth or episodic decline which halted ∼ 2 Gyr ago, possibly a sign of cluster-induced quenching. We find no obvious correlation between individual SFH shapes and any UDG morphological properties. The recovered stellar properties for UDGs are similar to those found for DDO 44, a local UDG analogue resolved into stars. We conclude that the UDGs in our sample are extended dwarfs whose properties are likely the outcome of both internal processes, such as bursty SFHs and/or high-spin haloes, as well as environmental effects within the Coma cluster.
A stepped care approach involves patients first receiving low-intensity treatment followed by higher intensity treatment. This two-step randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a sequential stepped care approach for the psychological treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED).
In the first step, all participants with BED (n = 135) received unguided self-help (USH) based on a cognitive-behavioral therapy model. In the second step, participants who remained in the trial were randomized either to 16 weeks of group psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) (n = 39) or to a no-treatment control condition (n = 46). Outcomes were assessed for USH in step 1, and then for step 2 up to 6-months post-treatment using multilevel regression slope discontinuity models.
In the first step, USH resulted in large and statistically significant reductions in the frequency of binge eating. Statistically significant moderate to large reductions in eating disorder cognitions were also noted. In the second step, there was no difference in change in frequency of binge eating between GPIP and the control condition. Compared with controls, GPIP resulted in significant and large improvement in attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems.
The findings indicated that a second step of a stepped care approach did not significantly reduce binge-eating symptoms beyond the effects of USH alone. The study provided some evidence for the second step potentially to reduce factors known to maintain binge eating in the long run, such as attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems.
This series of monographs on selected topics in modernism is designed to reflect and extend the range of new work in modernist studies. The studies in the series aim for a breadth of scope and for an expanded sense of the canon of modernism, rather than focusing on individual authors. Literary texts will be considered in terms of contexts, including recent cultural histories (modernism and magic; sonic modernity; media studies) and topics of theoretical interest (the everyday; postmodernism; the Frankfurt School); but the series will also re-consider more familiar routes into modernism (modernism and gender; sexuality; politics). The works published will be attentive to the various cultural, intellectual and historical contexts of British, American and European modernisms, and to inter-disciplinary possibilities within modernism, including performance and the visual and plastic arts.
Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50−79 years at baseline from the Women’s Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data. The BCAA and total meat intake was estimated from FFQ. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the relationship between BCAA intake, meat intake, and T2D, adjusting for confounders. A 20 % increment in total BCAA intake (g/d and %energy) was associated with a 7 % higher risk for T2D (hazard ratio (HR) 1·07; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·09). For total meat intake, a 20 % increment was associated with a 4 % higher risk of T2D (HR 1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·05). The associations between BCAA intake and T2D were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for total meat intake. These relations did not materially differ with or without adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that dietary BCAA and meat intake are positively associated with T2D among postmenopausal women. The association of BCAA and diabetes risk was attenuated but remained positive after adjustment for meat intake suggesting that BCAA intake in part but not in full is contributing to the association of meat with T2D risk.