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Sally Bayley traces Plath’s emerging relationship to her journal persona and creed. Bayley focuses on the intense period of Plath’s late teenage years and early adulthood, including the beginnings of university education. She also reveals the importance of the diarists Plath read to Plath’s own journal activities and larger poetic practices. Of special importance is Virginia Woolf, and Bayley helps us to see afresh Plath’s off-quoted exhilaration at Woolf’s reference to cooking haddock and sausages, which says more about Plath herself than it does the subject of her comments. Bayley shows us how Plath’s ideas about the ‘melting’, emerging self, move from the journals and into poems such as ‘Ariel’ and ‘Lady Lazarus’.
The mobile bag technique (MBT) has recently been used to provide single time point estimates of feed digestibility in both the small intestine (Macheboeuf et al 1996) and the whole tract of equids (Hyslop and Cuddeford 1996). This experiment develops the use of the MBT as a method to study the dynamics of the digestive process over time in the whole tract of ponies.
Three mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (270 kg LW) were offered ad libitum threshed grass hay plus minerals. Two sizes of mobile bag (6 x 1 cm Ø - large & 4 x 1 cm Ø - small) made from monofilament polyester with a 41 μrn pore size containing either 200 or 130 mg of feed respectively were used. Bags containing either dehydrated alfalfa (DHA), threshed grass hay (THAY), dehydrated grass (DHG) or grass hay (HAY) were introduced directly into the stomach via a naso-gastric tube in batches of 22 (14 large and 8 small). Batches of bags were administered twice daily on days 1, 2, 8 and 9 of a 14 day period according to an incomplete latin square experimental design giving a total of 44 bags per feed in each pony. On recovery in the faeces, dry matter (DM) disappearances were calculated for each bag.
De-hydrated forages are often fed to equids in the UK in place of more traditional grass hay, particularly where individual animals are known to have a sensitivity to dusty, mouldy hay which may play a part inducing respiratory problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One such alternative forage is short-chop de-hydrated grass. However, there is very little information available on voluntary feed intake (VFI), apparent digestibility and nutrient intake parameters when de-hydrated grass is offered to equids compared with traditional grass hay. This study examines the VFI and apparent digestibility in vivo of a short-chop de-hydrated grass compared with a traditional grass hay and determines their ability to meet the predicted energy and protein needs of mature ponies.
Six mature Welsh-cross pony geldings with a mean liveweight (LW) of 281 kg (s.e.d. 0.89) were individually housed and offered ad libitum access to either short-chop de-hydrated grass (DHG) or traditional grass hay (HAY) plus 60 g/h/d minerals. The DHG and HAY were made from the same 2nd cut perennial ryegrass sward cut on the same day.
Many mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating equids are often kept in circumstances where they are expected to perform only light physical work or activity eg: a childs pony. Consequently their maintenance energy and protein needs can often be met at very restricted feed intake levels. Conversely, when they are housed during the winter months it is believed desirable to manage such animals on unrestricted ad libitum feeding regimes in order to allow the animals to exhibit their natural feed intake pattern and consume forage on a little and often basis throughout the daily feeding period. However, ad libitum access to the diet may lead to such animals becoming excessively fat. These conflicting needs of low energy and protein requirement coupled with the desirability of unrestricted access to the diet could both be met, at least in part, if a low quality forage is available ad libitum. This study examines the voluntary feed intake and apparent digestibility in vivo of a mature threshed grass hay offered ad libitum and determines its ability to meet the predicted energy and protein needs of mature ponies.
Background: Hyperacute stroke is a time-sensitive emergency for which outcomes improve with faster treatment. When stroke systems are accessed via emergency medical services (EMS), patients are routed to hyperacute stroke centres and are treated faster. But over a third of patients with strokes do not come to the hospital by EMS, and may inadvertently arrive at centres that do not provide acute stroke services. We developed and studied the impact of protocols to quickly identify and move “walk-in” patients from non-hyperacute hospitals to regional stroke centres (RSCs). Methods and Results: Protocols were developed by a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional working group and implemented across 14 acute hospital sites within the Greater Toronto Area in December of 2012. Key metrics were recorded 18 months pre- and post-implementation. The teams regularly reviewed incident reports of protocol non-adherence and patient flow data. Transports increased by 80% from 103 to 185. The number of patients receiving tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) increased by 68% from 34 to 57. Total EMS transport time decreased 17 minutes (mean time of 54.46 to 37.86 minutes, p<0.0001). Calls responded to within 9 minutes increased from 34 to 59%. Conclusions: A systems-based approach that included a multi-organizational collaboration and consensus-based protocols to move patients from non-hyperacute hospitals to RSCs resulted in more patients receiving hyperacute stroke interventions and improvements in EMS response and transport times. As hyperacute stroke care becomes more centralized and endovascular therapy becomes more broadly implemented, the protocols developed here can be employed by other regions organizing patient flow across systems of stroke care.
Background: Few studies have tracked stroke survivors through transitions across the health system and identified the most common trajectories and quality of care received. The objectives of our study were to examine the trajectories that incident stroke patients experience and to quantify the extent to which their care adhered to the best practices for stroke care. Methods: A population-based cohort of first-ever stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients from the 2012/13 Ontario Stroke Audit was linked to administrative databases using an encrypted health card number to identify dominant trajectories (N=12,362). All trajectories began in the emergency department (ED) and were defined by the transitions that followed immediately after the ED. Quality indicators were calculated to quantify best practice adherence within trajectories. Results: Six trajectories of stroke care were identified with significant variability in patient characteristics and quality of care received. Almost two-thirds (64.5%) required hospital admission. Trajectories that only involved the ED had the lowest rates of brain and carotid artery imaging (91.5 and 44.2%, respectively). Less than 20% of patients in trajectories involving hospital admissions received care on a stroke unit. The trajectory involving inpatient rehabilitation received suboptimal secondary prevention measures. Conclusions: There are six main trajectories stroke patients follow, and adherence to best practices varies by trajectory. Trajectories resulting in patients being transitioned to home care following ED management only are least likely and those including inpatient rehabilitation are most likely to receive stroke best practices. Increased time in facility-based care results in greater access to best practices. Stroke patients receiving only ED care require closer follow-up by stroke specialists.
Integration of pollinator-dependent invasive plants into native pollination networks can have direct and indirect effects on local plant and pollinator communities. Impacts on local plants are well documented; however effects on native pollinators have gained less attention. We examine these issues in habitat fragments of the endangered oak-savannah ecosystem in British Columbia, Canada. We measured pollen collection by native bumble bees (Bombus Latreille; Hymenoptera: Apidae) and the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus; Hymenoptera: Apidae) foraging on two common native plants in habitat fragments with varying invasive (Cytisus scoparius (Linnaeus) Link; Fabaceae) density. The Bombus species with the largest workers had higher proportions of invasive pollen on their bodies and in their corbiculae than smaller workers. Honey bees rarely collected C. scoparius pollen. While some native bumble bees species collect an increasing proportion of C. scoparius pollen with increasing C. scoparius density, this did not translate into an increased potential for pollination. Rather, measures of effective pollination decline with C. scoparius density. Overall, our results suggest that some bee species may be better at finding resources at highly invaded sites. Apis mellifera is likely not playing a major role in facilitating the spread of C. scoparius in our region. Rather C. scoparius is visited by a complement of native bumble bees that are similar to pollinators in the native range of this plant.
Quantitative sociolinguistics has been part of the language research landscape since the early 1960s, beginning with the work of William Labov in New York and Martha's Vineyard (Labov 1969; 1972a,b). In an early and often-cited study on the raising and centralization of vowels on Martha's Vineyard, Labov (1972b) found that centralization corresponded with certain age groups and with the speaker's orientation towards traditional life on the island. These findings represented one of the earliest uses of quantitative methods for arriving at conclusions about the structure and use of language. The results showed that linguistic variation is not random, that it is quantifiable, and that understanding variation is essential to understanding how language works. Numerous studies in the variationist tradition established by Labov have taught us a great deal about language structure and language change. This chapter focuses on what quantitative sociolinguistics has taught us about variation in sign languages and the implications of that knowledge for sociolinguistic theory and for linguistic theory more generally.
In contrast to the study of variation in spoken languages, the study of variation in sign languages is still in the relatively early stages. The first large-scale study of variation in American Sign Language (ASL) appeared only in 2001 (Lucas et al. 2001b). That study, based on data collected in the mid-1990s in seven areas of the United States, was following by similar studies in Australia and New Zealand (Schembri et al. 2009; McKee et al. 2011), the United Kingdom (Schembri et al. 2013), and Italy (Cardinaletti et al. 2011; Geraci et al. 2011; 2015), as well as by a study of Black ASL, the variety of ASL that developed in the segregated schools of the U.S. South before the civil rights era of the 1960s (McCaskill et al. 2011). Although we have ethnographically oriented studies of smaller signing communities, such as Green's (2014) work on Nepali Sign Language, as well as earlier work involving individuals or small groups of signers (see Patrick and Metzger 1996 for a review), large-scale surveys in several countries have provided the primary insights into the relationship between variation in sign languages and sociolinguistic (and linguistic) theory. We are fully aware of the advantages of recent trends in sociolinguistics that have combined close ethnographic observation with quantitative methods and sometimes focused on marginal members (e.g. Bucholtz 1999; Eckert 2000).
All human languages vary in both time and space as well as according to the linguistic environment in which a particular form is used. For example, the ASL sign DEAF has three main forms. It can be produced with a movement from ear to chin (the citation or dictionary form), from chin to ear or by contacting the check once (both non-citation forms). Even though the form of DEAF varies from signer to signer, and even within the signing of the same signer, the variation we observe is not random. Rather, signers’ choices among the three forms of DEAF are systematically constrained by a range of linguistic and social influences, or factors. For example, compared to signers in other parts of the United States, signers in Boston, Massachusetts use the citation form of DEAF more often. In contrast, signers in Kansas, Missouri, and Virginia tend to prefer non-citation forms. Indeed, a study of variation in the sign DEAF showed that signers in these states used non-citation forms of DEAF 85 percent of the time, more than twice the rate of signers in Boston (Bayley, Lucas, and Rose 2000: 92).
The region of the country where a signer lives is not the only influence on the choice of a form of DEAF. For example, although ASL signers in Boston generally used more citation forms of DEAF than signers in other areas of the United States, Boston signers aged 55 and older are far less likely to choose a non-citation form of DEAF than are younger signers. Bayley et al. (2000) reported that Boston signers aged 55 and older used the citation form of DEAF 76 percent of the time. In contrast, signers between the ages of 26 and 55 used the citation form 54 percent of the time, and signers between the ages of 14 and 26 used the citation form only 46 percent of the time. In addition, variation can be affected by linguistic factors. To continue with the example of DEAF, Lucas (1995) and Bayley et al. (2000) found that signers were very likely to use a non-citation form of DEAF when it was part of a compound, as in DEAF^CULTURE or DEAF^WORLD. However, when DEAF was a predicate adjective, as in PRO.1 DEAF (‘I am deaf’), signers were more likely to choose the citation form.
Obs. Diagnoses specierum novarum ampliores et observationes variæ, enumeratio completa omnium Lichenum a participibus expeditionum oculatiss. Balfourio (B.C.S.) et Schweinfurthio (Schweinf.) in hac neglectissima insula lectorum mihique benevole submissorum, nec non indicatio locorum accurata in Balfourii opere integro currente anno edendæ sunt.
This report describes Neolithic pottery dated 2730 bc and Beaker pottery found in apparently domestic contexts; and many Bronze Age funerary features. The latter begin with two food-vessel cremations and include two barrows about one of which were ten cremation graves. Close by were another 140 cremation graves, many yielding Deverel-Rimbury pottery. Carbon-14 dates indicate the use of this cemetery between 1556 bc and 762 bc.