To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Empirical work has shown that patients and physicians have markedly divergent understandings of treatability statements (e.g., “This is a treatable condition,” “We have treatments for your loved one”) in the context of serious illness. Patients often understand treatability statements as conveying good news for prognosis and quality of life. In contrast, physicians often do not intend treatability statements to convey improvement in prognosis or quality of life, but merely that a treatment is available. Similarly, patients often understand treatability statements as conveying encouragement to hope and pursue further treatment, though this may not be intended by physicians. This radical divergence in understandings may lead to severe miscommunication. This paper seeks to better understand this divergence through linguistic theory—in particular, H.P. Grice’s notion of conversational implicature. This theoretical approach reveals three levels of meaning of treatability statements: (1) the literal meaning, (2) the physician’s intended meaning, and (3) the patient’s received meaning. The divergence between the physician’s intended meaning and the patient’s received meaning can be understood to arise from the lack of shared experience between physicians and patients, and the differing assumptions that each party makes about conversations. This divergence in meaning raises new and largely unidentified challenges to informed consent and shared decision making in the context of serious illness, which indicates a need for further empirical research in this area.
TYPED LETTER FROM FORTESCUE HEADED DEVONSHIRE PATRIOTIC FUND
15, High Street,
28th April, 1915
I beg to forward an audited Statement of the Receipts and Expenditure to 31st March last.
The Expenditure on Relief of Families would have been infinitely greater but for the changes made by the Government in regard to separation allowance. I may remind you that the Wife of a Seaman, who last August got nothing beyond her Husband's allotment, now receives 6/- a week, provided the Husband makes an allotment of £1 per month; and the Wife of a private Soldier, with three children, now receives 19/6 per week, as against 14/9, in addition to her Husband's minimum allotment of 6d. per day.
Notwithstanding this, the local sub-committees who investigate and report on cases still find that Grants amounting in all to a substantial sum per week are required to keep from want some of the relatives of those who are fighting our battles; and the need for assistance in relieving the sufferings of the sick and wounded cannot, I fear, fail to increase the continued increase of the number of men who are putting into the field.
Under these circumstances, even if we knew how long the War would last, it would be impossible to form any reliable estimate as to the sum likely to remain in hand at the end of it.
The generosity of the public continues, and subscriptions are still coming in, and though they do not keep pace with the expenditure, it is likely that there will be a balance–perhaps a considerable one–unexpended on the termination of hostilities. It is idle to suggest any scheme for the disposal of this yet. All that can usefully be said is that we believe there will be no difficulty in finding good use for any money that remains in supplementing Pensions and Grants to some of the disabled men, widows, etc., for whom the provision made by the necessary inelastic rules of the Government is in their circumstances inadequate.
This book is a study of the British Home Front of the First World War on a local level from the perspective of the Lord Lieutenant of Devonshire: the fourth Earl Fortescue. As a Lord Lieutenant during the Great War, Hugh Fortescue was a pre-eminent figure in Devon's local elite, to whom his involvement with the war effort in the county was significant. This volume considers the wartime experiences of a county's Lord Lieutenant through a presentation of records from Fortescue's private papers. It contains the original typescript that Fortescue wrote in 1924 as a retrospective account of his experiences during the conflict as well as the diaries that he kept from 1914 to 1918. Alongside the original typescript and his wartime diaries, this book also presents a selection of documents related to the Great War from the Fortescue at Castle Hill archive. This selection is organised into four sections: mobilising the county for war; recruitment; charities and voluntary aid; and food production and agriculture. By presenting these documents from Lord Fortescue, this book raises awareness of his involvement with the war effort in the county and the momentous challenges that he faced as the Lord Lieutenant of Devon during the First World War.
Hugh Fortescue, the Fourth Earl Fortescue (1854–1932)
Hugh Fortescue was born in London on 16 April 1854. He was the eldest son of the third Earl Fortescue, Hugh Fortescue, and Georgina Augusta Charlotte Caroline Dawson-Damer. The Fortescues were lauded as a highly distinguished Devonshire family, and their home was the country seat of Castle Hill near Filleigh in north Devon. The family were also well-established landowners with extensive estates in the West Country, Lincolnshire and Waterford in Ireland. As the third Earl Fortescue's eldest son, he was appointed with the courtesy title of Viscount Ebrington to indicate that he was the earl's heir apparent before his eventual succession from Viscount Ebrington to Earl Fortescue. After his education at the public school of Harrow, Ebrington attended Trinity College at the University of Cambridge, where he attained a first-class degree in Law. Upon finishing his BA in 1876, he continued his studies at Trinity College to complete an MA in 1879. Ebrington also participated with the University's Pitt Club, a Conservative dining club in honour of the former prime minister William Pitt. From an early age, Ebrington developed an interest in stag hunting.
Devon Heritage Centre (DHC hereafter): 1262M/0/FH/42
TYPESCRIPT OF WORK OF LORD FORTESCUE DURING FIRST WORLD WAR, Post 1919
Having found a great deal that was of interest in the letters and papers received and sent by our great grandfather the first Earl Fortescue when in 1803 invasion by Napoleon was anticipated and much work in connection with the Defence of the Realm was imposed on him as on all other Lords Lieutenant, it has occurred to me that it may similarly interest my descendants especially if the head of the family has again the honour of being H. M. Lieutenant, to see the sort of work that fell to my lot in the Great War 1914 – 1918.
Though I am writing only in 1924 I cannot pretend that my memory of the period is very clear: I recall it mainly as a confused mass of perpetual correspondence, committee meetings and anxiety.
I kept a diary of a sort: occasionally there are long notes about the events of the day especially if I had met and talked with anyone who had inside knowledge of what was going on; but more often the entries are very brief indeed, sometimes no more than “work as usual”.
However, between it and the papers I kept (which are filed in the library one of the cabinets under various headings) I can reconstruct a good deal. My activities were varied as in addition to being Lord Lieutenant I was Chairman of the County Council and also Chairman of the Territorial Force Association. As all government communications were with the holder of one of these offices this prevented over-lapping and saved a lot of trouble in that way, but the combination of three important posts in one person naturally made the correspondence and work of that person heavy.
It is just worth mentioning that the area of the County is 1,671,364 acres and the population (1911) 699,703. The Territorial Force of the County comprised two regiments of Yeomanry, Cavalry, R.G.A, R.F.A., R.E., four infantry battalions a company of A.S.C. and two field Ambulances. Their establishment was 6596 O.R. and their strength in August 1914 was 5601 O.R. The Administrative County, i.e. that under the jurisdiction of the County Council was the whole geographical county less the city of Exeter and the borough of Plymouth.
The First World War was an important period in the life of the fourth Earl Fortescue, who as the Lord Lieutenant of Devon played a significant role in the county's war effort. From the vantage point of Lord Lieutenant, Fortescue was an unparalleled observer of the county during the war years and compiled a large archive of materials relating to his wartime activities. This book reveals how Fortescue referred to his memories from the war and consulted with his diaries and his private papers to help him construct a retrospective account of his experiences as the county's Lord Lieutenant from 1914 to 1918. By presenting a selection of records from the Fortescue of Castle Hill archive, these documents reveal the priorities, trials and tribulations of a member of the county's local elite during the Great War. In addition, the retrospective account and Earl Fortescue's diaries provide a personal chronicle of his experiences of the First World War as well as those of other members of the Fortescue family including Lady Fortescue and their sons, Viscount Ebrington and Denzil Fortescue. As a result, these documents impart a nuanced, insightful and illuminating portrait of the fourth Earl Fortescue and the Fortescue family from 1914 to 1918. This is a unique volume that considers the First World War on a local level primarily through the perspective and records of the Lord Lieutenant of a county.