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Contending rationales of peace and conflict coexist between countries and within regional spaces as conditions that motivate or constrain militarized behaviors. While the idea of balancing is still a relevant concept to understand contemporary security in South America, the region produces patterns of a nascent security community. This article argues that the regional repertoire of foreign and security policy practices draws on a hybrid security governance mechanism. The novelty brought by the cumulative interaction among South American countries is that the coexistence turns into a hybrid between both practices and discourses. To explain how hybrid formations are produced, this study analyzes the most empirically intense and academically controversial political and security interactions from interstate relations in the two security complexes in the region, the Southern Cone and the Northern Andes.
This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse the molluscan assemblages associated with a Halodule wrightii seagrass bed in a rarely studied area within a conservation unit in north-eastern Brazil. Seasonal and spatial changes in several seagrass meadow characteristics, including sediment, were evaluated to explain temporal and spatial variations in the molluscs found there. The molluscan community differed in its structure among periods and meadows, as well as in the composition of its infaunal and epifaunal assemblages. The results of this study indicated that molluscs are affected by the particular characteristics of a seagrass meadow, especially by its location in the intertidal zone, more than by the area of the meadow. Molluscs were also affected by other characteristics of the seagrass meadow, such as above-ground biomass and shoot density. Changes in all molluscan assemblages were also mediated by differences among months and seasons in this region of the western equatorial Atlantic, but not by seasonal changes of the meadow. The studied meadow was found to be one of the densest in Brazil, which has considerable importance to its associated fauna.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected parasitic condition endemic in the Americas caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Patients present an acute phase that may or not be symptomatic, followed by lifelong chronic stage, mostly indeterminate, or with cardiac and/or digestive progressive lesions. Benznidazole (BZ) and nifurtimox are the only drugs approved for treatment but not effective in the late chronic phase and many strains of the parasite are naturally resistant. New alternative therapy is required to address this serious public health issue. Repositioning and combination represent faster, and cheaper trial strategies encouraged for neglected diseases. The effect of imatinib (IMB), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed for use in neoplasias, was assessed in vitro on T. cruzi and mammalian host cells. In comparison with BZ, IMB was moderately active against different strains and forms of the parasite. The combination IMB + BZ in fixed-ratio proportions was additive. Novel 14 derivatives of IMB were screened and a 3,2-difluoro-2-phenylacetamide (3e) was as potent as BZ on T. cruzi but had low selectivity index. The results demonstrate the importance of phenotypic assays, encourage the improvement of IMB derivatives to reach selectivity and testify to the use of repurposing and combination in drug screening for CD.
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin as an alternative antioxidant to cysteamine on in vitro maturation. Oocytes were collected from goat ovaries, destined for in vitro maturation and distributed into three groups: CIS group, oocytes were immersed in MIV base medium; in Groups Q4 and Q8, oocytes were immersed in the medium of the CIS group, adding 4 μM or 8 μM of quercetin, respectively, and cultured for 24 h at 38.5°C with 5% CO2. The CIS and Q4 groups presented the same percentage of expanded cumulus cells, but the per cent in the Q8 group was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05). The oocyte retraction rate in the Q8 group was higher (P<0.05) than in the CIS and Q4 groups. Treatment with 8 μM of quercetin presented a lower proportion of expanded oocytes than the CIS group and 4 μM of quercetin (P<0.05). The percentage of MII oocytes was higher in the Q4 group than in the CIS group (P<0.05), but the percentages in the CIS and Q8 groups were similar. The rate of apoptosis was higher in the CIS group than in the other groups (P<0.05). In addition, oocytes matured with 4 μM quercetin showed higher mitochondrial activity than matured oocytes in the CIS and Q8 groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, 4 μM of quercetin can be used as an alternative to cysteamine in the in vitro maturation of goat oocytes.
Brazil has encouraged an ambitious set of policies towards the pharmaceutical industry, aiming to foster technological development while meeting health requirements. We characterise these efforts, labelled the ‘Complexo Industrial da Saúde’ (Health-Industry Complex, CIS), as an outcome of incremental policy change backed by the sustained efforts of public health professionals within the federal bureaucracy. As experts with a particular vision of the relationship between health, innovation and industry came to dominate key institutions, they increasingly shaped government responses to emerging challenges. Step by step, these professionals first made science and technology essential aspects of Brazil's health policy, and then merged the Ministry of Health's new focus on science, technology and health with industrial policy measures aimed at private firms. We contrast our depiction of these policy changes with a conventional view that relies on a partisan orientation of the executive.
Previous studies have established a model of atresia in preovulatory follicles after stimulation of immature rats with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). This gonadotropin recruits a follicular pool and the deprivation of preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge induces the atresia in preovulatory follicles. The present study investigated the occurrence of ovulation and provided some morphological features of granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis of atretic follicles at 0, 48, 72 and 120 h after eCG stimulation. Histological sections of ovaries from untreated animals (0 h) showed primordial, primary, secondary and early antral follicles. After 48 h ovaries showed large antral follicles. Preovulatory follicles were observed at 72 h, and two out of five rats displayed cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) in the oviducts. All animals exhibited corpora lutea after 120 h. We observed increased estradiol (E2) levels 48 h after eCG treatment that might trigger an endogenous preovulatory gonadotropin surge. Higher progesterone (P4) level, which is the hallmark of a functional corpus luteum, was observed at 120 h. Atresia in secondary and antral follicles was observed by pyknotic granulosa cell nuclei in histology and positive immunolabelling for cleaved caspase 3. We also observed macrophages in secondary and antral follicles in atresia. Transmission electron microscopy revealed GCs with compacted chromatin against the nuclear envelope, nuclear fragmentation, cell shrinkage and fragmentation. No preovulatory follicles showed apoptosis of GCs. In conclusion, our results suggested the occurrence of an endogenous gonadotropin surge, promoting ovulation and preventing atresia of preovulatory follicles.
Brycon orbignyanus is an important large teleost that is currently on the list of endangered species, therefore studies on its reproductive biology and embryology are fundamental to help species conservation and recovery. The objective of this research was to characterize the events that occur during extrusion, fertilization and embryonic development of the species. The samples were collected at predetermined times, fixed and processed for light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The greenish oocytes were spherical, had translucent chorion and a mean diameter of 1.3±0.11 mm. The eggs had well defined animal and vegetative poles approximately 18 min post-fertilization. Stages from 2 to 128 blastomeres occurred between 20 min and 3 h post-fertilization (hPF), when the morula was characterized. The blastula stage was observed between 2 and 3 hPF, and the gastrula between 3 and 7 hPF, when the embryonic shield emerged and the cellular migration with the consequent formation of epiblast and hypoblast. At 8 hPF, the formation of the neural tube, above the notochord and the encephalic region, was observed, delimiting the forebrain, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon regions. From 11 hPF onward, the optic vesicle was formed close to the forebrain and the embryo tail was well developed. The optic vesicle was observed from 12 hPF onward, and the tail showed an intense movement that culminated with the rupture of the chorion and consequent hatching of the larva at 13 hPF and 27°C.
Marine insertion indicators in the Vitoria estuary (ES) revealed relative variations in sea level during the Holocene in three sediment cores. Sedimentological, geochemical (C/N ratio), and paleontological (shells and palynomorphs) analysis and 14C dating associated five sedimentary facies to different estuarine deposits. A C/N ratio <10 at the core base indicated organic matter of marine origin. Moving up the cores to 110–150 cm, an abrupt increase in C/N to 26–63 in every core suggests the sudden entry of higher plants into the estuary, potentially the moment sea level retreated. High continental (10,743 palynomorphs/g) and low marine palynomorph concentrations (323 palynomorphs/g) suggest a primarily continental source even during transgression and at high sea level. Around 8973 cal BP, an open bay already existed in the region of Vitoria. Sea level potentially exceeded the current level around 7110 cal BP. The transgressive maximum was at 5567 cal BP. Marine insertion indicators, such as marine shells, low C/N ratios and foraminiferal linings, did not always respond directly to sea level oscillations. These discrepancies probably result from lateral variations in sedimentary deposits from transport patterns and from variations in organic matter and palynomorph preservation due to differences in river and obstacle proximity.
Schistosomiasis and malnutrition are often overlapped in poor communities, resulting in disproportionately high mortality rates. Currently, fragmented data make it difficult to define the relationship between diet and schistosomiasis. Thus, we systematically review the preclinical evidence on the impact of diet in Schistosoma mansoni infection. From a structured search, we recovered 27 original articles. All studies used mice and most of them investigated hypoproteic (70.37%), hyperlipidic (22.22%) or vitamin-deficient (7.41%) diets. Diets based on carbohydrate, zinc or milk supplementation were investigated at a reduced frequency (3.70% each). Hypoproteic diets attenuated parasitic load and granulomatous inflammation, but also reduced host resistance to S. mansoni infection, determining higher mortality rates. By stimulating steatohepatitis, parasitic load and granulomatous inflammation, hyperlipidic diets increase organ damage and mortality in infected animals. Although a high-sugar diet and vitamin restriction potentiate and zinc supplementation attenuates S. mansoni infection, the current evidence for these diets remains inconclusive. Analysis of methodological quality indicated that the current evidence is at high risk of bias due to incomplete characterization of the experimental design, diet composition and treatment protocols. From the bias analysis, we report methodological limitations that should be considered to avoid systematic reproduction of inconsistent and poorly reproducible experimental designs.
The present research studied the effect of a dietary inclusion with Hermetia illucens larvae meal (Hi) on rainbow trout’s fillets chemical composition. The effect of Hi inclusion in diets on rainbow trout chemical characteristics was evaluated. Trout were fed three different diets: control (C, no Hi inclusion), 25% and 50% of substitution of fish meal with Hi (Hi25 and Hi50, respectively). Fillets were analysed to quantify proximate composition, carbohydrates percentage, colour parameters, nucleotides concentration, fatty acids profile, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic concentrations. Diets did not affect proximate composition. Contrariwise, Hi50 diet decreased fillet yellowness and both substitution percentages affected negatively adenosine monophosphate concentration. Saturated fatty acids, mostly C12 : 0, increased their contents in relation with Hi inclusion at the expense of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated (both n-3 and n-6) fatty acids. Less modifications were reported in VOCs as only heptanal and octanal concentrations were affected, no new compounds appeared in relation with Hi inclusion. No modifications in proteins patterns were shown even if myofibrillar content decreased in trout fed Hi50. The results highlighted that chemical modifications occurred in fillets were related to the chemical composition of the H. illucens meal and to the percentage of inclusion in the diet. Substitution of fish meal with a precisely percentage of H. illucens meal could be a potential future solution in order to decrease the quantity of fish meal used in aquafeeds.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Goiás, Brazil; to verify its association with epidemiological variables, and to establish the economical losses for beef farms. A set of 23 255 979 bovines from 246 municipalities were slaughtered from 2007 through 2014. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0·53% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0·5295–0·5354]. The Central mesoregion showed a higher risk [odds ratio (OR) = 4·44; 95% CI 4·2936–4·5895] for detecting infected animals with cysticerci compared with those raised at North and Northeast mesoregion (OR = 1·02 and OR = 1·02). The microregion of Goiânia had a higher risk for bovine cysticercosis occurrence (OR = 11·05, 95% CI 10·6933–11·4099) compared with the microregion of São Miguel do Araguaia (OR = 1). None of the epidemiological variables evaluated in this study was significantly associated (P > 0·05) with bovine cysticercosis prevalence.
In conclusion, the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Goiás, Brazil, was 0·53% and some mesoregions and microregions presented a higher risk for its occurrence. The economical losses due to its occurrence during the period ranged from US$9 260 728·57 to 11 313 816·67. These results highlighted the needs of adopting prophylactic measures and the development of political strategies in specific regions in order to control this zoonose and reduce the economical losses for beef production chain and the costs for public health.
Effective ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in cardiac arrest. Hyperventilation during CPR reduces the efficiency of compressions and coronary perfusion.
How could ventilation in CPR be optimized? The objective of this study was to evaluate non-invasive ventilator support using different devices.
The study compares the regularity and intensity of non-invasive ventilation during simulated, conventional CPR and ventilatory support using three distinct ventilation devices: a standard manual resuscitator, with and without airway pressure manometer, and an automatic transport ventilator. Student’s t-test was used to evaluate statistical differences between groups. P values <.05 were regarded as significant.
Peak inspiratory pressure during ventilatory support and CPR was significantly increased in the group with manual resuscitator without manometer when compared with the manual resuscitator with manometer support (MS) group or automatic ventilator (AV) group.
The study recommends for ventilatory support the use of a manual resuscitator equipped with MS or AVs, due to the risk of reduction in coronary perfusion pressure and iatrogenic thoracic injury during hyperventilation found using manual resuscitator without manometer.
LacerdaRS, de LimaFCA, BastosLP, VincoAF, SchneiderFBA, CoelhoYL, FernandesHGC, BacalhauJMR, BermudesIMS, da SilvaCF, da SilvaLP, PezatoR. Benefits of Manometer in Non-Invasive Ventilatory Support. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):615–620.
Vitória Bay is located in the south-central part of the State of Espírito Santo (SES). Multiproxy analyses were performed on samples from a 490-cm-long sediment core collected at the coordinates 40°18′23′′W and 20°14′48′′S. The objective of this study was to identify and integrate the multiproxy data to determine the environmental dynamics during the Holocene. The material was subsampled every 10 m and submitted to standard methodological processing. The sediment core was dated to two depths: the oldest age was between 9396 and 9520 cal yr BP at a 480-cm depth, and the youngest age was from 7423 to 7511 cal yr BP at a 304-cm depth. The integrated analysis revealed evidence of three major environmental changes in Vitória Bay. The first phase had a fluvial influence (depth of 490–480 cm; 9396–9520 cal yr BP). This was followed by a transitional period (depth of 480–290 cm; 7423–7511 cal yr BP) with a salt influence due to the Last Marine Transgression (LMT). Later, the environmental stability was similar to that of today (290 cm to the core top). This was a reflection of the Last Marine Regression (LMR) in the Holocene.
Zika virus infection was declared a public health emergency of international concern in February 2016 in response to the outbreak in Brazil and its suspected link with congenital anomalies. In this study, we use notification data and disease natural history parameters to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) of Zika in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also obtain estimates of R0 of dengue from time series of dengue cases in the outbreaks registered in 2002 and 2012 in the city, when DENV-3 and DENV-4 serotypes, respectively, had just emerged. Our estimates of the basic reproduction number for Zika in Rio de Janeiro based on surveillance notifications (R0 = 2·33, 95% CI: 1·97–2·97) were higher than those obtained for dengue in the city (year 2002: R0 = 1·70 [1·50–2·02]; year 2012: R0 = 1·25 [1·18–1·36]). Given the role of Aedes aegypti as vector of both the Zika and dengue viruses, we also derive R0 of Zika as a function of both dengue reproduction number and entomological and epidemiological parameters for dengue and Zika. Using the dengue outbreaks from previous years allowed us to estimate the potential R0 of Zika. Our estimates were closely in agreement with our first Zika's R0 estimation from notification data. Hence, these results validate deriving the potential risk of Zika transmission in areas with recurring dengue outbreaks. Whether transmission routes other than vector-based can sustain a Zika epidemic still deserves attention, but our results suggest that the Zika outbreak in Rio de Janeiro emerged due to population susceptibility and ubiquitous presence of Ae. aegypti.