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Ultimately, General Robert E. Lee would agree with his subordinate Tom Rosser, almost completely. Guerrilla service, under any guise or definition, was not the West Point way. It did not respect the official chain of command, some Southerners’ notions of honor and legitimate warfare, and much of its activity fell into the liminal, gray area still being hotly debated and defined by the nation’s legal minds in relation to the laws of war. Lee endorsed the repeal of the Confederacy’s authorized service of partisan rangers, but in January 1864 he also endorsed the promotion of John Mosby to lieutenant colonel at the head of his own ranger battalion, an acknowledgment of the value of efficient and controllable officers of the partisan service. In February 1864 the Confederate Congress repealed the Partisan Ranger Act at Lee’s request with only Mosby’s and John “Hanse” McNeill’s commands retained for official service. Yet, that hardly ended the story of the Confederacy’s guerrillas because Pandora’s box had long been open.
Current adolescent substance use risk models have inadequately predicted use for African Americans, offering limited knowledge about differential predictability as a function of developmental period. Among a sample of 500 African American youth (ages 11–21), four risk indices (i.e., social risk, attitudinal risk, intrapersonal risk, and racial discrimination risk) were examined in the prediction of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette initiation during early (ages 11–13), mid (ages 16–18), and late (ages 19–21) adolescence. Results showed that when developmental periods were combined, racial discrimination was the only index that predicted initiation for all three substances. However, when risk models were stratified based on developmental period, variation was found within and across substance types. Results highlight the importance of racial discrimination in understanding substance use initiation among African American youth and the need for tailored interventions based on developmental stage.
It is becoming clear that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not simply a psychiatric disorder, but one that involves pervasive physiological impairments as well. These physiological disturbances deserve attention in any attempt at integrative treatment of PTSD that requires a focus beyond the PTSD symptoms themselves. The physiological disturbances in PTSD range over many systems, but a common thread thought to underlie them is that the chronic effects of PTSD involve problems with allostatic control mechanisms that result in an excess in what has been termed “allostatic load” (AL). A pharmacological approach to reducing AL would be valuable, but, because of the large range of physiological issues involved – including metabolic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular systems – it is unclear whether there exists a simple comprehensive way to address the AL landscape. In this paper, we propose that the cannabinoid system may offer just such an approach, and we outline evidence for the potential utility of cannabinoids in reducing many of the chronic physiological abnormalities seen in PTSD which are thought to be related to excess AL.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
Similar to how Hopf–Lax–Oleinik-type formula yield variational solutions for Hamilton–Jacobi equations on Euclidean space, optimal mass transportations can sometimes provide variational formulations for solutions of certain mean-field games. We investigate here the particular case of transports that maximize and minimize the following ‘ballistic’ cost functional on phase space TM, which propagates Brenier’s transport along a Lagrangian L,
is the set of stochastic processes satisfying dX = βX (t, X) dt + dWt, for some drift βX (t, X), and where Wt is σ(Xs: 0 ≤ s ≤ t)-Brownian motion. Both cases lead to Lax–Oleinik-type formulas on Wasserstein space that relate optimal ballistic transports to those associated with dynamic fixed-end transports studied by Bernard–Buffoni and Fathi–Figalli in the deterministic case, and by Mikami–Thieullen in the stochastic setting. While inf-convolution easily covers cost minimizing transports, this is not the case for total cost maximizing transports, which actually are sup-inf problems. However, in the case where the Lagrangian L is jointly convex on phase space, Bolza-type dualities – well known in the deterministic case but novel in the stochastic case – transform sup-inf problems to sup–sup settings. We also write Eulerian formulations and point to links with the theory of mean-field games.
We have developed a novel method of determining polymer fiber morphology. Analysis of pair-density functions obtained from synchrotron x-ray diffraction patterns with scattering vectors lying in the meridional direction and equatorial plane allows for the determination of crystallite dimensions, volume fractions of crystalline and amorphous phases, and the probability distribution of crystallite c axis orientation relative to the fiber axis. This method is independent of details regarding the structure of the amorphous phase, and may be successfully applied to both highly crystalline and poorly crystalline samples. Here we describe this new polymer fiber morphological analysis technique, and present examples of its application to three NOMEX aramid samples of widely differing morphologies.
A procedure for conveniently determining the orientation of noncubic crystals is presented. The methods usually employed for cubic crystals, flat-film backreflection Laue patterns interpreted with the aid of a table of interplanar angles, is not readily adaptable to noncubics. In general, tables of interplanar angles for noncubics do not exist and if the effort is expended to generate them, such a vast array of angles result that they are virtually impossible to use. It is thus necessary to use the symmetry of the pattern to identify the low-index planes. However, on flat-film geometry, due to the small angular range of the data, insufficient low-index points are present to permit orientation.
In order to alleviate this problem we have developed the necessary techniques for the interpretation of back-reflection Laue patterns employing cylindrical-film geometry. The necessary overlays and their use are presented along with some of the results obtained.
A program of ore reserve and grade determination on a major bauxite deposit has recently been completed. More than 2,000 samples were chemically analyzed for available Al2O3, reactive SiO2, loss on ignition; and by energy dispersive XRF for a total Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, and Fe2O3. As compared to standard wet chemical analytical methods, the XRF analyses proved to be cost and time effective, and the observed analytical precision was superior.
Current developments in the recently introduced method of HgI2 crystal platelet growth by polymer assisted vapor transport are described. Crystal parameters are evaluated by making electrical measurements on x-ray detectors fabricated from HgI2 platelets, Selection for detector fabrication is on the basis of size and apparent crystalline perfection. Detectors have been fabricated with active areas averaging 2 to 3 mm2 and thicknesses ranging from 20 to 400 µm. Values of electron mobility and mobility-lifetime product measured for HgI2 platelet material are among the highest ever observed for HgI2.
The combination of low leakage current and good electron transport makes HgI2 platelets suitable for room-temperature x-ray spectrometry. An energy resolution of 370 eV (FWHM) for the 5.9 KeV Mn Kα line has been obtained, and representative low-energy x-ray fluorescence spectra are presented.
Isoconcentration surfaces are commonly used to delineate phases in atom probe datasets. These surfaces then provide the spatial and compositional reference for proximity histograms, the number density of particles, and the volume fraction of particles within a multiphase system. This paper discusses the influence of the isoconcentration surface selection value on these quantitative outputs, using a simple oxide dispersive strengthened alloy, Fe91Ni8Zr1, as the case system. Zirconium reacted with intrinsic oxygen impurities in a consolidated ball-milled powder to precipitate nanoscale zirconia particles. The zirconia particles were identified by varying the Zr-isoconcentration values as well as by the maximum separation data mining method. The associated outputs mentioned above are elaborated upon in reference to the variation in this Zr isosurface value. Considering the dataset as a whole, a 10.5 at.% Zr isosurface provided a compositional inflection point for Zr between the particles and matrix on the proximity histogram; however, this value was unable to delineate all of the secondary oxide particles identified using the maximum separation method. Consequently, variations in the number density and volume fraction were observed as the Zr isovalue was changed to capture these particles resulting in a loss of the compositional accuracy. This highlighted the need for particle-by-particle analysis.
The three reflections joined together in this essay develop a notion of “the sociality of secularism”—a phrase that gestures to how secularism structures the social field, becoming an intimate part of the practice of self for subjects who are always inextricably intertwined with others in a network of connectedness that is central to what it means to be worldly. The first reflection, by following the English word priestcraft to colonial India, delineates a mode of Enlightenment focused on persons not ideas. The second asks how the secularist division between the public and the private relegated religion to the feminized domestic sphere. The third argues that postcolonial ethics has, from its inception, presented the self as inherently social. A substantial conclusion unites these threads by asking how religio-political writing from colonial India can reframe contemporary debates about the place of the “free” subject in the global political order.
This study of loneliness across adult lifespan examined its associations with sociodemographics, mental health (positive and negative psychological states and traits), subjective cognitive complaints, and physical functioning.
Analysis of cross-sectional data
340 community-dwelling adults in San Diego, California, mean age 62 (SD = 18) years, range 27–101 years, who participated in three community-based studies.
Loneliness measures included UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3 (UCLA-3), 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Isolation Scale, and a single-item measure from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Other measures included the San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE) and Medical Outcomes Survey- Short form 36.
Seventy-six percent of subjects had moderate-high levels of loneliness on UCLA-3, using standardized cut-points. Loneliness was correlated with worse mental health and inversely with positive psychological states/traits. Even moderate severity of loneliness was associated with worse mental and physical functioning. Loneliness severity and age had a complex relationship, with increased loneliness in the late-20s, mid-50s, and late-80s. There were no sex differences in loneliness prevalence, severity, and age relationships. The best-fit multiple regression model accounted for 45% of the variance in UCLA-3 scores, and three factors emerged with small-medium effect sizes: wisdom, living alone and mental well-being.
The alarmingly high prevalence of loneliness and its association with worse health-related measures underscore major challenges for society. The non-linear age-loneliness severity relationship deserves further study. The strong negative association of wisdom with loneliness highlights the potentially critical role of wisdom as a target for psychosocial/behavioral interventions to reduce loneliness. Building a wiser society may help us develop a more connected, less lonely, and happier society.
This article looks at the transnational impact of two diaries written by the female German journalists Ruth Andreas-Friedrich and Ursula von Kardorff, whose journals shed light on German wartime experiences, resistance activities, and, to a lesser extent, the press. In the postwar years, both journalists sought to influence (West) Germany's relationship with its former enemies, in particular the United States. In their autobiographical writing, they presented both an image of Germany as a victim of Nazism, as well as an early acknowledgment of German crimes. In this way, they achieved a balanced narrative that received a positive reception from American and German audiences. Though the ways in which Friedrich and Kardorff presented aspects of journalism and everyday life in the Third Reich were not unique, their dual identity as women and journalists underlay their ability to act as “legitimate” mediators for Germany's rehabilitation. Western allied occupation authorities and overseas audiences viewed them, in contrast to men, as largely apolitical because they were women, and as objective witnesses because they were journalists. Through their autobiographical writings, both journalists situated themselves among the predominantly male US and German elites devoted to developing amicable relations between the two countries via soft-power diplomacy.