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In recent years, a possible defect in vitamin A metabolism in recessive white canaries (Serinus canaria,) has been repeatedly discussed. It has widely been accepted that a reduced absorption of carotenoids from the small intestine results in an insufficient synthesis of vitamin A. Moreover, the uptake of vitamin A from the lower intestine has also been discussed.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the utilization of ß-carotene and vitamin A by recessive white canaries (in comparison to coloured ones) as well as to quantify the accretion of vitamin A in the liver and vitamin A levels in plasma and fat tissues of canaries fed different doses of ß-carotene (≍ 6000iu vitamin A kg−1 diet) vs vitamin A (6000 or 18 000iu kg−1 diet).
The results were as follows:
i) coloured canaries supplied exclusively with ß-carotene maintained normal vitamin A levels in the liver. These data indicated that conversion rates of ß-carotene to vitamin A (as established for poultry) were appropriate;
ii) recessive white canaries were totally unable to utilize ß-carotene (based on vitamin A levels in blood, liver and fat);
iii) in comparison to coloured canaries, their efficiency in utilizing retinol was significantly lower. They needed three times the vitamin A intake of coloured canaries to achieve the same vitamin A levels in the liver;
iv) plasma vitamin A levels in coloured canaries did not reflect the vitamin A supply, but this blood level could be used to determine vitamin A status in recessive white birds.
Recommendations of vitamin A supplements for recessive white canaries should be given based on these data.
Excessive breeding for brachycephaly (fore-shortened muzzle) has led to increasing problems in pugs related to brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS). Consequently, the German Pug Club (Deutscher Mopsclub eV; DMC) established a stress test in 2009 that must be passed for breeding and requires normalised heart and respiratory rates 15 min after having covered a distance of 1 km. In this study, 42 pugs underwent the stress test under standardised conditions. Taking into account that this exercise should not be too physically demanding for any healthy dog, the results were surprising: 14 of the pugs failed, ie a failure rate of 33.3%. In addition to the stress test, the pugs were assessed according to their heart and respiratory rates at rest, which we predicted would be associated with BAS, and in this test, 21 out of 42 pugs failed. Thus, 50.0% of the pugs were in a severely compromised physical condition. A further group of seven retropugs, ie a crossbreed of pugs with a slightly longer muzzle, was included in the study to compare brachycephalic problems. All of the retropugs passed the test, even when respiratory and heart rates at rest were considered. However, the findings may not be transferable to all retropugs because of the small sample size, so further research is needed. In summary, this study has enabled the development of recommendations for future implementation of stress tests.
Using capture-recapture analysis we estimate the effective size of the active Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) population that a typical laboratory can access to be about 7,300 workers. We also estimate that the time taken for half of the workers to leave the MTurk pool and be replaced is about 7 months. Each laboratory has its own population pool which overlaps, often extensively, with the hundreds of other laboratories using MTurk. Our estimate is based on a sample of 114,460 completed sessions from 33,408 unique participants and 689 sessions across seven laboratories in the US, Europe, and Australia from January 2012 to March 2015.
EDIFY (Eating Disorders: Delineating Illness and Recovery Trajectories to Inform Personalised Prevention and Early Intervention in Young People) is an ambitious research project aiming to revolutionise how eating disorders are perceived, prevented and treated. Six integrated workstreams will address key questions, including: What are young people's experiences of eating disorders and recovery? What are the unique and shared risk factors in different groups? What helps or hinders recovery? How do the brain and behaviour change from early- to later-stage illness? How can we intervene earlier, quicker and in a more personalised way? This 4-year project, involving over 1000 participants, integrates arts, design and humanities with advanced neurobiological, psychosocial and bioinformatics approaches. Young people with lived experience of eating disorders are at the heart of EDIFY, serving as advisors and co-producers throughout. Ultimately, this work will expand public and professional perceptions of eating disorders, uplift under-represented voices and stimulate much-needed advances in policy and practice.
Non-isothermal particles suspended in a fluid lead to complex interactions – the particles respond to changes in the fluid flow, which in turn is modified by their temperature anomaly. Here, we perform a novel proof-of-concept numerical study based on tracer particles that are thermally coupled to the fluid. We imagine that particles can adjust their internal temperature reacting to some local fluid properties, and follow simple, hard-wired active control protocols. We study the case where instabilities are induced by switching the particle temperature from hot to cold depending on whether it is ascending or descending in the flow. A macroscopic transition from stable to unstable convective flow is achieved, depending on the number of active particles and their excess negative/positive temperature. The stable state is characterized by a flow with low turbulent kinetic energy, strongly stable temperature gradient, and no large-scale features. The convective state is characterized by higher turbulent kinetic energy, self-sustaining large-scale convection, and weakly stable temperature gradients. Individually, the particles promote the formation of stable temperature gradients, while their aggregated effect induces large-scale convection. When the Lagrangian temperature scale is small, a weakly convective laminar system forms. The Lagrangian approach is also compared to a uniform Eulerian bulk heating with the same mean injection profile, and no such transition is observed. Our empirical approach shows that thermal convection can be controlled by pure Lagrangian forcing, and opens the way for other data-driven particle-based protocols to enhance or deplete large-scale motion in thermal flows.
Social connectedness might positively influence the course of clinical symptoms in people with psychotic disorders.
This study examines satisfaction with social connectedness (SSC) as predictor of positive and negative symptoms in people with a psychotic disorder.
Data from the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey (PHAMOUS, 2014-2019) was used from patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (N=2109). Items about social connectedness of the Manchester short assessment of Quality of Life (ManSA) were used to measure SSC. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the association of SSC with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) after one and two years against α=0.01. Analyses were adjusted for symptoms, time since onset, gender and age. Additionally, fluctuation of positive and negative symptom scores over time was estimated.
Mean duration of illness of the sample was 18.8 years (SD 10.7) with >65% showing only small variation in positive and negative symptoms over a two to five-year time period. After adjustment for covariates, SSC showed to be negatively associated with positive symptoms after one year (β=-0.47, p<0.001, 95% CI=-0.70,-0.25) and two years (β =-0.59, p<0.001, 95% CI = -0.88,-0.30), and for negative symptoms after one year (β=-0.52, p<0.001, 95% CI = -0.77,-0.27). The prediction of negative symptoms was not significant at two years.
This research indicates that interventions on SSC might positively impact mental health for people with psychosis. SSC is a small and robust predictor of future levels of positive symptoms. Negative symptoms could be predicted by SSC at one year.
Science diplomacy has been instrumental in facilitating cooperation in the Arctic region, yet through the projection of vast hydrocarbon potential in the region, it has also served to undermine the major transformation necessary in Arctic decision-making towards the goals of climate governance. This article surveys the translation of science from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports (i.e. the CARA study and Factsheet 2008-3049) on Arctic oil and gas and its transformation into common knowledge within Arctic discourse through repetition by the agents in between and its subsequent adoption into Arctic policy documents. In this process, we interrogate the production of the science underpinning US science diplomacy and the influence of this science on international Arctic discourse and policy use science diplomacy. This paper contributes to the literature of science diplomacy in the Arctic by examining the contributions of the USGS to Arctic policy discourses and its impact on Arctic governance at the nexus of science diplomacy on climate and energy.
For American policymakers, the end of the Cold War was, above all, a self-affirming experience. The four decades of global competition with Soviet communism had cast doubt on whether the United States was the most powerful or most righteous country in the world, but the peaceful and precipitous collapse of communism in the late 1980s appeared to confirm that it was indeed both. Looking to the future in the early 1990s, American policymakers were guided by two steadfast beliefs. First, they believed that the United States should remain the most powerful country in the world, and that American primacy in world affairs would receive the consent of the vast majority of other countries for the foreseeable future. Second, they believed that the United States’ form of political and economic organization – liberal democratic capitalism – was destined to benignly conquer the globe, and that it was the job of the US government to accelerate its expansion.
The scholarly debate on the causes of the end of the Cold War has placed significant emphasis on the role of communist economic stagnation in bringing about the collapse of communism. This chapter brings a new material factor – communist sovereign debt – to the forefront, and in so doing, it offers a redefinition of the materialist explanation for the end of the Cold War. The global financial history of the end of the Cold War has four important implications. First, it makes the timing of the end of the Cold War far less contingent upon Gorbachev’s rise than previously thought. Second, it allows us to refine the causal connection between Soviet relative decline and the peaceful nature of the end of the Cold War. Third, global financial history transforms our understanding of Western leverage over the events that comprise the end of the Cold War. And fourth, the history of sovereign debt in the Eastern Bloc de-exceptionalizes the revolutions of 1989 in world history and places them within the context of broader global currents that continue to this day.