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The “evolving standards of decency” doctrine, which affords Eighth Amendment protection to punishment practices that violate contemporary standards, has historically played a key role in interpreting the nebulous Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause, although the journey has been marked by controversy and contradictions. Today, as the continued vitality of the evolving standards doctrine has been increasingly called into question, it is worth pausing to remember where the doctrine came from, how and why it came about, and the work it has done and is poised to do going forward. This chapter touches upon each of those topics, first discussing the origins of the evolving standards doctrine and how it revitalized the Eighth Amendment, then turning to the power of the doctrine and the problems that developed as it came into full flower, and then finally turning to the doctrine’s potential going forward. The power, problems, and potential of the evolving standards doctrine are what make the doctrine a lightning rod of criticism as well as a beacon of hope for progressive decisions to come, rendering it one of the most interesting and important areas of Eighth Amendment law.
To assess the utility of an automated, statistically-based outbreak detection system to identify clusters of hospital-acquired microorganisms.
Multicenter retrospective cohort study.
The study included 43 hospitals using a common infection prevention surveillance system.
A space–time permutation scan statistic was applied to hospital microbiology, admission, discharge, and transfer data to identify clustering of microorganisms within hospital locations and services. Infection preventionists were asked to rate the importance of each cluster. A convenience sample of 10 hospitals also provided information about clusters previously identified through their usual surveillance methods.
We identified 230 clusters in 43 hospitals involving Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and fungi. Half of the clusters progressed after initial detection, suggesting that early detection could trigger interventions to curtail further spread. Infection preventionists reported that they would have wanted to be alerted about 81% of these clusters. Factors associated with clusters judged to be moderately or highly concerning included high statistical significance, large size, and clusters involving Clostridioides difficile or multidrug-resistant organisms. Based on comparison data provided by the convenience sample of hospitals, only 9 (18%) of 51 clusters detected by usual surveillance met statistical significance, and of the 70 clusters not previously detected, 58 (83%) involved organisms not routinely targeted by the hospitals’ surveillance programs. All infection prevention programs felt that an automated outbreak detection tool would improve their ability to detect outbreaks and streamline their work.
Automated, statistically-based outbreak detection can increase the consistency, scope, and comprehensiveness of detecting hospital-associated transmission.
Critics of public reason liberalism often object that a commitment to the public justification of law is too conservative: It prohibits the passage of controversial reforms. Laws that would promote justice are thwarted by recalcitrant but reasonable citizens. This objection presupposes a popular but empirically false theory of legal regulation on which laws affect behavior primarily through the threat of punishment. Against this position, this chapter argues that laws effectively regulate behavior when they cohere with social norms but are typically ineffective and sometimes counterproductive when they conflict with them. And laws and social norms are stable only when they approximate public justification. So, laws do not possess the autonomy and power that critics of public reason liberalism suppose. Without public justification, justice is difficult to secure and, if secured, is all-too-likely to be fragile.
Herbicide resistance has for decades been an increasing problem of agronomic crops such as corn and soybean. Several weed species have evolved herbicide resistance in turfgrass systems such as golf courses, sports fields, and sod production—particularly biotypes of annual bluegrass and goosegrass. Consequences of herbicide resistance in agronomic cropping systems indicate what could happen in turfgrass if herbicide resistance becomes broader in terms of species, distribution, and mechanisms of action. The turfgrass industry must take action to develop effective resistance management programs while this problem is still relatively small in scope. We propose that lessons learned from a series of national listening sessions conducted by the Herbicide Resistance Education Committee of the Weed Science Society of America to better understand the human dimensions affecting herbicide resistance in crop production provide tremendous insight into what themes to address when developing effective resistance management programs for the turfgrass industry.
The Coronavirus crisis occurs at a time when many clinicians have already experienced burnout. One in three Irish doctors were suffering from burnout in the 2019 National Study of Wellbeing of Hospital Doctors in Ireland; rates are also high in Irish Psychiatry. We present a perspective on the use of Narrative in Medicine, and recognise that storytelling, and the patient history, are very much at the heart of medicine. Clinician storytelling, such as Schwartz Rounds and Balint group work, have very much come to the fore in Irish Psychiatry and in training. Projects such as Mind Reading have explored overlaps between clinicians, humanities experts and experts by experience. We give an overview of some approaches from the movement around narrative in medicine to bolster this. We explore why clinicians write- as ways to support identification, catharsis and a way to process experiences. Clinicians and patients may also use literature and poetry to promote coping. The historic context and practical strategies are highlighted, particularly with reference to Poetry use during the current crisis.
The experience of childhood trauma is linked to more severe symptoms and poorer functioning in severe mental disorders; however, the mechanisms behind this are poorly understood. We investigate the relationship between childhood trauma and sleep disturbances in severe mental disorders including the role of sleep disturbances in mediating the relationship between childhood trauma and the severity of clinical symptoms and poorer functioning.
In total, 766 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum (n = 418) or bipolar disorders (n = 348) were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Sleep disturbances were assessed through the sleep items in the self-reported Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Clinical symptoms and functioning were assessed with The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Mediation analyses using ordinary least squares regression were conducted to test if sleep disturbances mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and the severity of clinical symptoms and poorer functioning.
Symptoms of insomnia, but not hypersomnia or delayed sleep phase, were significantly more frequent in participants with childhood trauma experiences compared to those without. Physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were significantly associated with insomnia symptoms. Insomnia symptoms partly mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and the severity of positive and depressive/anxiety symptoms, in addition to poorer functioning.
We found frequent co-occurrence of childhood trauma history and current insomnia in severe mental disorders. Insomnia partly mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and the severity of clinical symptoms and functional impairment.
There are no large scale studies on Epilepsy in populations with Learning disability in Ireland. As many as one fifth of these clients have epilepsy. Aggressive treatment may lead to diminishing returns in terms of symptomatic control, while causing unwanted effects.
1. We aimed to quantify rates of epilepsy, aetiology and anti- epileptic drug (AED) use in our population.
2. To look at degree of disability and correlation with AED use.
3. To look at management/ quality of life issues using a validated instrument.
1. Medline review using search terms Intellectual OR Learning difficult* OR Mental Retard* AND Epilepsy.
2. Simple questionnaire used to identify all clients with Epilepsy. Database analysed using SPSS analysis.
3. 11 cases selected for review looking at qualitative aspects, using Semi structured interview and GEOS scale.
· 210 patients found to have a history of epilepsy (42% of clients).
· Multiple Aetiologies identified. Commonest known Aetiology: Trisomy 21.
· Polypharmacy is common. Most commonly used AED: Sodium Valproate. Mean AED use: 1.595 (SD+- 1.077).
· Clients with Trisomy 21 aged less than 40 tended to be on more medication (2.05, SD= +-1.38) than those over 40 years (1.43, SD= +- 0.89)
· Greater concerns on qualitative measures regarding clients with refractory epilepsy or where epilepsy changed over time.
Our study highlights previously recognised changing patterns in aetiology of Learning Disability and also the changes over time in these clients. More study is required.
Evaluate durability of pregabalin's effect on pain associated with fibromyalgia (FM).
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 1-week single-blind placebo run-in. Patients meeting ACR diagnostic criteria were randomized to pregabalin 300, 450, or 600 mg/d (BID) or placebo for 14 weeks (2-week dosage escalation; 12-week fixed-dosage). Pain was assessed with a daily pain diary using an 11-point numeric scale. Primary efficacy parameter was the LOCF endpoint mean pain score (MPS). Sensitivity analyses were assessed using the Duration Adjusted Average Change (DAAC) and a Mixed Model Repeated Measurements (MMRM).
745 randomized patients: 95% female, mean age=50 years, median FM duration=10 years, baseline MPS=6.7. Placebo-corrected differences in mean change from baseline to endpoint in MPS: 300mg/d, -0.71 (P=0.0009); 450mg/d, -0.98 (P<0.0001); 600mg/d, -1.00 (P<0.0001). Mean differences from placebo at endpoint (adjusted for treatment duration) over the entire treatment period (DAAC): 300mg/d, -.38, P=0.0200; 450mg/d, -.62; P=0.0001 and 600mg/d,-.57 P<0.0001. In the MMRM analysis, all 3 pregabalin treatment groups demonstrated pain relief by Week 1, and every weekly assessment thereafter, with the exception of 300mg/d treatment group at Week 11. Most common AEs: dizziness (all pregabalin, 35.8% vs placebo, 7.6%); somnolence (18.0% vs 3.8%). Most AEs were mild to moderate and resolved with continued treatment.
Pregabalin demonstrated significant reduction in endpoint MPS in FM patients. The DAAC sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of this effect. MMRM analyses demonstrated significant pain relief by Week 1 that was maintained throughout pregabalin treatment.
This study (A0081057) was designed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of pregabalin treatment of fibromyalgia (FM).
In this 1-year, open-label (OL) extension of a 13-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin FM patients had the option of continuing pregabalin at doses of 150 to 600 mg/d. Efficacy was measured by the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), which included sensory and affective pain descriptors, Present Pain Intensity (PPI) index, and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS).
429 of 431 screened patients entered OL treatment, 249 (58%) completed, 70 (16.3%) discontinued due to an adverse event (AE), and 110 (25.7%) discontinued for other reasons. Median duration of treatment with pregabalin was 357 days (range, 1-402 days); 114 received pregabalin for ≥1 year. No clinically meaningful increases in dose were noted over the OL treatment period. Weighted mean dose was 414 mg/d in the first 3 months of treatment and 444 mg/d after 9 months of treatment. SF-MPQ sensory, affective, and total scores were improved relative to baseline, VAS pain score decreased 21 points (0-100 scale), and PPI decreased 0.9 point (0-5 scale). The most frequently reported all-causality AEs were dizziness, somnolence, peripheral edema, and increased weight, most of which were mild to moderate in intensity and of limited duration.
Pregabalin administered for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated by FM patients without evidence of dose increase over time. The sustained improvement in pain measures during OL treatment was consistent with that in shorter term double-blind trials.
Examine the evidence for a relationship between pregabalin effect on pain and baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia (FM).
Chronic pain and concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in patients with FM, as well as in other chronic pain disorders. Pregabalin was effective for treating pain in FM patients in three parallel group RCTs (105, 1056, 1077) where data for anxiety and depressive symptom levels were collected.
Patients meeting ACR criteria for FM with a pain VAS score ≥40 mm were followed for 8-14 weeks in 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Patients (N=2022) received 150, 300, 450 or 600mg/d pregabalin or placebo. The primary efficacy parameter was change in endpoint Mean Pain Score (MPS) (range 0 [no pain]-10[worst possible pain]). Regression analyses evaluated whether changes in pain bore any relation to the baseline Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS-A) and (HADS-D) levels.
Pregabalin 300, 450, and 600 mg/d, but not 150 mg/d, showed statistically significant improvements in pain compared with placebo (p<0.0001). For each pregabalin treatment group, improvements in pain at endpoint were not found to have a statistically significant association with baseline levels of anxiety or depressive symptoms. Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with known side effects of pregabalin; dizziness and somnolence, mild to moderate in intensity, were the most frequently reported AEs for pregabalin patients.
Pregabalin treatment demonstrated significant improvements in pain regardless of baseline anxiety or depressive symptom levels for patients with FM.
The education and training of doctors specialising in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) varies substantially across Europe. There is a paucity of information available about training quality. This prompted an initial training survey led by Dr E Barrett (2010) which was expanded upon by the CAP working group in the 2010 EFPT international forum in Dubrovnik to create ‘country reports’ for 2010–2011.
The objectives of this study were to collect information relating to key aspects of CAP training programmes in Europe in a systematic way in order to start a ‘Training Database’ that can be held centrally by the EFPT. Information will be added to the database every year following EFPT annual international meetings.
We aim to better understand the training structures in CAP across europe to help inform best practice standards for training.
A pro-forma word document was emailed to all EFPT CAP contacts: there were 20 contacts emailed.
So far we have a response rate of over 60% and we are continuing to collect and collate relevant data. This survey highlighted a large variation in CAP training across Europe. It represents the basis for systematic data collection on an international level, and will help focus on areas where CAP training could be improved.
This survey highlights a large variation in CAP training across Europe. It represents the basis for systematic data collection on an international level, and will help focus on areas where CAP training could be improved.
Sleep disturbance is prominent in fibromyalgia (FM). This 14-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, evaluated the effect of pregabalin on pain and sleep-related outcomes in FM.
Patients meeting ACR (FM) diagnostic criteria were randomized to pregabalin 300, 450, or 600mg/d (BID) or placebo for 14 weeks (A0081077). Primary efficacy parameter: LOCF endpoint mean pain score (MPS). At baseline and endpoint, patients completed the Medical Outcomes Sleep (MOS) Sleep Scale. Mean Sleep Quality scores (11-point numeric ratings) were derived from patient daily diaries.
745 randomized patients: 95% female, mean age=50 years, baseline MPS: 6.7. Placebo-corrected differences from baseline to endpoint in MPS were: 300mg/d, -0.71 (p=.0009); 450mg/d, -0.98 (p<.0001); 600mg/d, -1.00 (p<.0001). For MOS Sleep Disturbance, all 3 pregabalin groups demonstrated significant improvements versus placebo (300, 450, and 600 mg/d, -8.91 [p=.0006]; -10.63 [p<.0001]; and -14.93 [p<.0001], respectively). Similar improvements were seen in Sleep Quality (300, 450, and 600mg/d; 0.42, p=0.0030; 0.48, p=.0006; and 0.68, p<.0001 respectively) and MOS Sleep Adequacy (300, 450 and 600mg/d; 5.86, p=.0324; 7.89, p=.0036, and 11.16, p<.0001 respectively). Endpoint Mean Sleep Quality scores across all 3 treatment groups showed significant improvements (300, 450 and 600mg/d; -0.74, p=.0006, -1.12, and -1.35, both p<.0001 respectively). Most common AEs: dizziness (all pregabalin, 35.8% vs placebo, 7.6%); somnolence (18.0% vs 3.8%). Incidence of AEs appeared to be dose-related; most were mild to moderate.
Pregabalin treatment demonstrated significant improvements in pain and patient reported measures of sleep disturbance, adequacy, and quality.
Recently there has been a renewed interest in defining the boundaries and subdomains of the negative syndrome in schizophrenia and new scales have been asked for. Apathy is one of the symptoms in focus. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) with its clinical version (AES-C) is one of the most used scales in an interdisciplinary context, but it has never previously been used in a population with first episode psychosis. The main aims of this study were to examine the psychometric properties of the AES-C and its relationship to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
A total of 104 patients with first episode psychosis from the ongoing Thematic Organized Psychosis Research (TOP) study were included.
A factor analysis of the AES-C identified three subscales: Apathy, Insight and Social Contacts. Only the Apathy subscale showed satisfactory psychometric properties and showed acceptable convergent and discriminate properties by correlating strongly with the apathy-related items of the PANSS.
This study shows that the AES-C measures more than one dimension. The main factor, the Apathy subscale, can however be used to assess apathy in first episode psychosis patients in the ongoing work of refining the subdomains of the negative syndrome.