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A detailed investigation of a glauconite bed within the Late Cretaceous Bryozoan Limestone Formation of the Bagh Group in central India, as well as the study of existing records, reveals the existence of a ‘glauconitic sea’ along the margins of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean during the Late Cretaceous Epoch. The authigenic green mineral formed abundantly on shallow seafloors unlike in its modern, deep-sea counterpart. We present an integrated petrographical, geochemical and mineralogical investigation of the glauconite within Late Cretaceous transgressive deposits to highlight its unique geochemistry with moderate Fe2O3 and high Al2O3, SiO2, MgO as well as K2O contents. X-ray diffractional parameters identify the ‘evolved to high evolved’ nature of the glauconite while Mössbauer spectroscopic study reveals the dominance of Fe3+ compared to Fe2+ in the atomic structure. The rare earth elements (REE) pattern of glauconite reveals moderate light-REE/heavy-REE (LREE/HREE) fractionation and weak negative Eu anomaly. The Ce anomaly of the glauconite indicates a sub-oxic diagenetic condition. We propose that Late Cretaceous glauconites formed within a shallow marine depositional setting across the Tethyan belt because of enhanced supply of K, Si, Al, Fe, Mg cations through continental weathering under the extant greenhouse climate.
Working memory (WM) deficits are seen as a core deficit in schizophrenia, implicated in the broad cognitive impairment seen in the illness. Here we examine the impact of WM storage of a single item on the operation of other cognitive systems.
We studied 37 healthy controls (HCS) and 43 people with schizophrenia (PSZ). Each trial consisted of a sequence of two potential target stimuli, T1 and T2. T1 was a letter presented for 100 ms. After delays of 100–800 ms, T2 was presented. T2 was a 1 or a 2 and required a speeded response. In one condition, subjects were instructed to ignore T1 but respond to T2. In another condition, they were required to report T1 after making their speeded response to T2 (i.e. to make a speeded T2 response while holding T1 in WM).
PSZ were dramatically slowed at responding to T2 when T1 was held in WM. A repeated measures ANOVA yielded main effects of group, delay, and condition with a group by condition interaction (p's < 0.001). Across delays, the slowing of the T2 response when required to hold T1 in memory, relative to ignoring T1, was nearly 3 times higher in PSZ than HCS (633 v. 219 ms).
Whereas previous studies have focused on reduced storage capacity, the present study found that PSZ are impaired at performing tasks while they are successfully maintaining a single item in WM. This may play a role in the broad cognitive impairment seen in PSZ.
Congenital complete tracheal rings are usually associated with pulmonary slings. We report a rare association of congenital complete tracheal rings with hypoplastic left heart variant. A term infant with diagnosis of a mildly hypoplastic mitral valve, unicuspid aortic valve, and moderately hypoplastic aortic arch with severe coarctation underwent a hybrid procedure initially. Upon failing extubation attempts, complete tracheal rings were seen on direct laryngoscopy. The combination of the lesions resulted in a poor outcome. In patients with failure of extubation post-cardiac surgery, a diagnosis of complete tracheal rings should be included in the differential and a direct laryngoscopy should be considered.
Exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with health abnormalities that persist in subsequent generations. However, transgenerational effects of BPA on metabolic health are not widely studied. In a maternal C57BL/6J mice (F0) exposure model using BPA doses that are relevant to human exposure levels (10 μg/kg/day, LowerB; 10 mg/kg/day, UpperB), we showed male- and dose-specific effects on pancreatic islets of the first (F1) and second generation (F2) offspring relative to controls (7% corn oil diet; control). In this study, we determined the transgenerational effects (F3) of BPA on metabolic health and pancreatic islets in our model. Adult F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring had increased body weight relative to Controls, however glucose tolerance was similar in the three groups. F3 LowerB, but not UpperB, males had reduced β-cell mass and smaller islets which was associated with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Similar to F1 and F2 BPA male offspring, staining for markers of T-cells and macrophages (CD3 and F4/80) was increased in pancreas of F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring, which was associated with changes in cytokine levels. In contrast to F3 BPA males, LowerB and UpperB female offspring had comparable body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion as Controls. Thus, maternal BPA exposure resulted in fewer metabolic defects in F3 than F1 and F2 offspring, and these were sex- and dose-specific.
Hardy’s uncertainty principle for the Gabor transform is proved for locally compact abelian groups having noncompact identity component and groups of the form
is a compact group having irreducible representations of bounded dimension. We also show that Hardy’s theorem fails for a connected nilpotent Lie group
which admits a square integrable irreducible representation. Further, a similar conclusion is made for groups of the form
is a discrete group.
The possible association between teat morphometric traits and subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy buffaloes was studied. Teat morphometric parameters, i.e. teat shape (bottle, conical, cylindrical, and others), teat-end shape (flat, round, and pointed), teat length (TL), teat diameter (TD), and teat-end to floor distance were measured before milking, but after proper milk let-down, in clinically healthy buffaloes (47 Murrah and 34 Nili-Ravi breeds). Subclinical mastitis was defined on the basis of bacteriology and somatic cell count (SCC) of quarter foremilk samples. A high proportion of cylindrical teats (40%) and pointed teat-ends (64·4%) was observed. Hind teats were longer and thicker than fore teats (P < 0·05). A significant breed effect was found with respect to teat shape, length and diameter (P < 0·05). Teats were mostly cylindrical (43·3 vs. 35·4%) and conical (34·2 vs. 30·8%) shaped, smaller (mean 8·2 vs. 9·5 cm) and thinner (mean 3·3 vs. 3·6 cm) in the Murrah breed compared with the Nili-Ravi breed. Teats that had ‘other’ shapes and were longer, wider, and placed closer to the floor were more associated with SCM (P < 0·05). Mean SCC was significantly higher (P < 0·05) in Nili-Ravi buffaloes, teat shapes classified as ‘others’, and quarters with SCM. Teat morphometric traits seem to be associated with indicators of udder health in buffaloes, thus, their inclusion in breeding programmes for selection against undesirable dairy type traits may be of value in reducing susceptibility to intramammary infections in Indian buffaloes.
To compare combined conventional Freer medialisation and controlled synechiae, performed for middle meatal access (during the initial steps of functional endoscopic sinus surgery) and post-operative middle turbinate medialisation, with basal lamella relaxing incision, the latter of which is a single step for achieving both middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation. The study also compared the effects of controlled synechiae and basal lamella relaxing incision on post-operative olfaction.
A randomised prospective study was performed on 52 nasal cavity sides (32 patients). Only basal lamella relaxing incision was performed in one group, and both conventional medialisation and controlled synechiae were performed in the other. Intra-operative and post-operative photography was used to measure the middle meatal area. A pocket smell test was used to assess olfaction.
There were no significant differences in operative middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation of the middle turbinate. Post-operative olfaction was affected more in the combined conventional medialisation and controlled synechiae group, compared to the basal lamella relaxing incision group, but this finding was not statistically significant.
Basal lamella relaxing incision is an effective single-step technique for achieving adequate middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation, with no significant effect on olfaction.
To evaluate the predictive ability of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for detecting severe wasting (weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) <−3) among children aged 6–59 months.
Rural Uttar Pradesh, India.
Children (n 18 456) for whom both WHZ (n 18 463) and MUAC were available.
The diagnostic test accuracy of MUAC for severe wasting was excellent (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0·933). Across the lower range of MUAC cut-offs (110–120 mm), specificity was excellent (99·1–99·9 %) but sensitivity was poor (13·4–37·2 %); with higher cut-offs (140–150 mm), sensitivity increased substantially (94·9–98·8 %) but at the expense of specificity (37·6–71·9 %). The optimal MUAC cut-off to detect severe wasting was 135 mm. Although the prevalence of severe wasting was constant at 2·2 %, the burden of severe acute malnutrition, defined as either severe wasting or low MUAC, increased from 2·46 to 17·26 % with cut-offs of <115 and <135 mm, respectively. An MUAC cut-off <115 mm preferentially selected children aged ≤12 months (OR=11·8; 95 % CI 8·4, 16·6) or ≤24 months (OR=23·4; 95 % CI 12·7, 43·4) and girls (OR=2·2; 95 % CI 1·6, 3·2).
Based on important considerations for screening and case detection in the community, modification of the current WHO definition of severe acute malnutrition may not be warranted, especially in the Indian context.
Arterial switch operation has become the standard of care for d-transposition of great arteries and has excellent short- and long-term outcomes. We report the case of a newborn with a diagnosis of d-transposition of great arteries with intact ventricular septum and a low-risk coronary artery anatomy who developed coronary artery vasospasm while coming off bypass following arterial switch operation in the operating room. The coronary artery spasm led to severe biventricular dysfunction and need for extracorporeal membranous oxygenation support. Despite extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and inotropic support, there was no improvement in the left ventricular function, and cardiac transplantation was performed after 8 days. The explanted heart showed extensive infarction of both ventricles. Both the coronary ostei were patent with no evidence of thrombus, suggesting coronary artery vasospasm rather than embolus or thrombus formation. This is the first case of coronary artery vasospasm in a neonate with d-transposition of great arteries leading to cardiac transplantation. We speculate that early identification of patients who are at a high risk for coronary vasospasm and prophylactic or timely infusion of papaverine directly into the coronary arteries may be beneficial in this condition.
This study analysed the association between menopause, menarche and number of live births using cross-sectional primary data for 75 post-menopausal rural women from Shimla in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The mean/median ages at menarche of the 75 women were 14.23/14 years, and those at menopause 45.35/45 years. There were no significant differences in these values between women in the age groups 40–55 and 56–65 years. Age at menopause was found to be significantly associated with age at menarche and maternal age at birth of the first and last child, but not with menopausal symptom severity score. The majority of the 75 post-menopausal women (70.7%) had very mild or no menopausal symptoms. Three principal components were identified that explained 72.43% of the underlying variation in menopausal symptoms.
Deficiencies of micro (Zn, B) and secondary (S) nutrients are well-documented in soil as well as in cereal crops, leading to decreased crop yields and low nutritional quality of food. We evaluated the effects of coated urea on maize yield, N and Zn uptake, and input cost relationships. Field experiments were conducted on maize to test boron-coated (BCU), sulphur-coated (SCU) and zinc-coated urea (ZnCU) during 2013 and 2014. On the basis of 2 years’ average data, the highest grain yield was achieved with 0.5% BCU, 5% SCU and 2.5% ZnCU as zinc sulphate hepta hydrate. These treatments increased yields by 5.4, 12.8 and 9.9% over prilled urea (PU), respectively. Application of 0.5% BCU (supplying 1.4 kg B ha−1), 5% SCU (supplying 14.1 kg S ha−1) and 2.5% ZnCU (supplying 7.05 kg Zn ha−1) registered the highest N concentrations and uptake in grain and stover. Total N uptake (grain + stover) was increased by 7.6, 16.7 and 17.1% with BCU, SCU and ZnCU treatments over PU. As compared to PU, Zn concentration in maize grain was significantly higher and total Zn uptake (grain + stover) increased by 32.4% with 2.5% ZnCU. Coated urea materials also enhanced the partial factor productivity (PFPN), agronomic efficiency (AEN), recovery efficiency (REN) and harvest index (HIN) over those of PU. From the economic viewpoint this study suggests that coating of urea with 0.3% boron, 5% sulphur or 2% zinc gives maximum net returns and benefit-cost ratio. Our data indicate that coating of B, Zn and S onto urea increases maize yield, profitability and nitrogen use efficiency in the western Indo-Gangetic plains of India.
In this work, a planar heterojunction superstrate n-i-p device based on Zn(O,S) electron transport layer and CsPbI2Br absorber material at 1.93 eV bandgap is presented. The CsPbI2Br films are deposited using a 2-step atmospheric solution deposition process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). Best device with an efficiency of 12.34 % and 11.94% in reverse and forward scans respectively and stabilized power output of 12.14 mW/cm2 has been demonstrated via atmospheric solution processing with minimal hysteresis between forward and reverse scans. The devices show voltage dependent current collection as well as light-dark crossover in forward bias. Light soaking tests at 65 °C and 1-sun at Voc, resulted in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor degradation. Electroluminescence (EL) after 100 hours of light soaking shows a reduction in overall EL intensity as well a shift in emission to lower wavelength. The devices exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of about 0.14 %/°C. It is found that Zn(O,S) is a viable alternative electron transport layer to replace TiO2. By replacing methylammonium cation with cesium and addition of Br has improved the stability of the perovskite phase.
Introduction: We characterised tobacco use, cessation patterns, and patient satisfaction with a cessation support program at an NCI Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center following a mandatory tobacco assessment and automatic referral.
Methods: A 3-month follow-up survey (via web, paper, or telephone) was administered between March 2013 and November 2013 for all patients referred to and contacted by a cessation support service, and who consented to participation three months prior to administration. Patients were asked about their perceived importance and self-efficacy to quit smoking, quit attempts, and satisfaction with the cessation service.
Results: Fifty-two percent (257/499) of patients who participated in the cessation support service, and consented to be contacted again, completed a follow-up survey. Of those who participated, 9.7% were referred to the service as having recently quit tobacco (in the past 30 days) and 23.6% reported having quit at the time of first contact. At the 3-month follow-up, 48.1% reported being smoke-free for the previous seven days. When patients were asked about their experience with the cessation service, 86.4% reported being very or mostly satisfied with the service, and 64.3% reported that their experience with the service increased their satisfaction with the care received at the cancer centre.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that recently diagnosed cancer patients are aware that quitting tobacco is important, are making attempts to quit, and are amenable to an opt-out automatic referral cessation support service as part of their cancer care.
Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of wheat, is an invaluable source of genetic variability, which can be utilized for broadening the wheat gene pool. Linked leaf rust resistance and non-glaucousness genes transferred from Ae. tauschii to cultivated wheat variety WH542 were mapped in the present study. Genetic analysis in an F2 population from a BC3 plant derived from the cross Triticum durum cv. PBW114/Ae. tauschii acc. pau14195//4*T. aestivum cv. WH542 revealed monogenic dominant inheritance for both the traits. The leaf rust resistance and the non-glaucousness gene were tentatively named LrT and IwT, respectively. Leaf rust resistance gene exhibited all stage resistance. SSR markers Xbarc124, Xgdm5, Xgdm35, Xcfd51 and EST-derived markers Xcau96 and Xte6 on chromosome 2DS were linked with both genes. Chromosomal assignments of the genes were confirmed by testing linked SSR markers on Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomics lines. SSR markers Xcau96 (1.6 cM) and Xbarc124 (0.6 cM) flanked LrT and Xgdm35 (4.1 cM) and Xte6 (2.5 cM) flanked non-glaucousness gene. LrT and IwT showed a recombination distance of 3.4 cM. Hence, IwT can be used as an easy to score morphological marker of LrT during its transfer to other glaucous backgrounds.
Accelerated junctional rhythm has been reported in children in the setting of acute rheumatic fever; however, we describe a hitherto unreported case of isolated junctional tachycardia in a child with streptococcal pharyngitis, not meeting revised Jones criteria for rheumatic fever. A previously healthy, 9-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with complaints of sore throat, low-grade fever, and intermittent chest pain. She was found to have a positive rapid streptococcal antigen test. The initial electrocardiogram showed junctional tachycardia with atrioventricular dissociation in addition to prolonged and aberrant atrioventricular conduction. An echocardiogram revealed normal cardiac anatomy with normal biventricular function. The patient responded to treatment with amoxicillin for streptococcal pharyngitis. The junctional tachycardia and other electrocardiogram abnormalities resolved during follow-up.
This paper presents a novel method for generating vortex rings that circumvents some of the drawbacks associated with existing methods in producing them. The predominant effects that occur in previously used methods are due to the presence of some of the other vortices such as the stopping vortex, piston vortex, image vortex and orifice lip generated vortices in the early stage of development. These disturbances influence the geometric, kinematic and dynamic characteristics of a vortex ring and lead to mismatches with classical theoretical predictions. It is shown in the present study that the disturbance free vortex rings produced follow the classical theory. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry experiments are carried out in the Reynolds number (defined as the ratio of circulation (
) and kinematic viscosity (
, to find the translational velocity, total and core circulation, core diameter, ring diameter and bubble diameter. In reference to the earlier studies, significant differences are noted in the variations of the vortex ring diameter and core diameter. A model for the core diameter during the formation stage is proposed. The translational velocity variation with time shows that the second-order accurate formula derived using Hamilton’s equation by Fraenkel (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 51, 1972, pp. 119–135) predicts it best.
In this paper, axial interaction of a vortex ring with a thin circular cylinder has been studied. An apparatus to generate clean vortex rings, free of piston and stopping vortex effects, has been used. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments are carried out to determine and compare the characteristics of free and interacting vortex rings in the Reynolds number (defined with the circulation of the free travelling vortex ring) range of
. It is observed that due to the presence of the cylinder, there is an increase in the velocity of the vortex ring. Also, noticeable changes in the characteristic properties of vortex ring such as core circulation, core diameter and ring diameter have been observed. Changes in these parameters are explained by two changes in the flow field between the vortex ring and the cylinder due to axial interactions: (i) displacement of the streamlines and (ii) acceleration in the induced velocity field in this region. These two mutually opposing effects determine the changes in the primary vortex ring properties that take place during interaction. To justify these experimental observations quantitatively, an analytical study of the interaction under an inviscid assumption is performed. The inviscid analysis does predict the increase in velocity during the interaction, but fails to predict the values observed in the present experiments. However, when the theory is used to correct the velocity change through incorporation of the effects of an axisymmetric induced boundary layer region over the cylinder, modelled as an annular vortex sheet of varying strength, the changes in the translational velocities of the vortex rings match closely with the experimental values.
The introduction and adoption of new technologies is an important component of development projects. Many technologies that could spur considerable increase in welfare, however, are often adopted at low rates even when donors and NGOs have invested their effort in them heavily. This paper develops a framework to analyze inefficiencies caused by fit-risk (potential users are not certain whether the technology will fit their needs, lifestyles, social feedback or capabilities), and the role of marketing tools, such as demonstration, in reducing fit-risk and enhancing the efficiency of development projects. We find that, in the presence of fit-risk, there is always unrealized demand and resource waste. Donors who ignore fit-risk always overestimate the project value and over-subsidize the products they are promoting. We identify conditions under which introducing demonstration may help alleviate fit-risk and improve the overall project values. The impact of eliminating fit-risk on the project uptake depends on the probability of fit.