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A new class of switchable bandpass filter using PIN diodes is presented in this paper. The design aims at achieving a multistate switchable bandpass filtering characteristics between the passbands centered at 2.4, 3.5, and 5.2 GHz. The proposed filter is designed by assembling two λg/2 open-ended and four short-ended λg/4 uniform impedance resonators. The open-ended resonator generates a fixed passband at 3.5 GHz, whereas the short-ended resonators loaded with PIN diodes are independently controlling the ON and OFF characteristics of the passband centered at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. The transmission zeros around each passband are produced without employing any additional circuit. The filter sample is fabricated and tested for experimental verification. A good agreement has been observed between EM-simulated and measured results. The designed filter has a compact size of 0.20 λg × 0.15 λg at 2.4 GHz.
In an earlier paper (Wan et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 697, 2012, pp. 296–315), the authors showed that a similarity solution for anisotropic incompressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, in the presence of a uniform mean magnetic field
, exists if the ratio of parallel to perpendicular (with respect to
) similarity length scales remains constant in time. This conjecture appears to be a rather stringent constraint on the dynamics of decay of the energy-containing eddies in MHD turbulence. However, we show here, using direct numerical simulations, that this hypothesis is indeed satisfied in incompressible MHD turbulence. After an initial transient period, the ratio of parallel to perpendicular length scales fluctuates around a steady value during the decay of the eddies. We show further that a Taylor–Kármán-like similarity decay holds for MHD turbulence in the presence of a mean magnetic field. The effect of different parameters, including Reynolds number, mean field strength, and cross-helicity, on the nature of similarity decay is discussed.
This paper presents the computation of the safe working zone (SWZ) of a parallel manipulator having three degrees of freedom. The SWZ is defined as a continuous subset of the workspace, wherein the manipulator does not suffer any singularity, and is also free from the issues of link interference and physical limits on its joints. The proposed theory is illustrated via application to two parallel manipulators: a planar 3-R̲RR manipulator and a spatial manipulator, namely, MaPaMan-I. It is also shown how the analyses can be applied to any parallel manipulator having three degrees of freedom, planar or spatial.
The significance of dust particles for the electron energy probability function (EEPF) and plasma oscillations is studied under varying magnetic field strength in a filamentary discharge hydrogen plasma. The experimental result shows that with an increase in dust density, the electron density decreases as a result of the charging of dust grains in the plasma background. A bi-Maxwellian EEPF is computed in both a pristine hydrogen plasma and a dust-containing plasma at different magnetic field strengths. We have observed that the increase in magnetic field decreases the lower energy electron population. The electron population of the lower energy range shows nearly identical results at magnetic field,
mT whereas the behaviour of the high-energy electron population becomes identical for a field strength
mT. From the observation, we have seen that the mid energy electron population slightly decreases and the high energy electron population slightly increases due to the presence of dust particles as compared to a pristine plasma. Further, very low energy electron population remains almost unchanged. With increase in dust density, the mid energy electron population further decreases whereas the high energy electron population slightly increases for different magnetic fields. But, no changes were observed for the very low energy electron population in the presence of dust particles. From the study of plasma oscillation, it is observed that the dominant frequency associated with the plasma oscillation is matched with the ion cyclotron frequency. The amplitude of the ion cyclotron frequency reduces with the increase of dust density which might be due to the decrease of plasma density.
Internationally, intimate partner violence (IPV) cohorts have demonstrated associations with depression and anxiety. However, this association has not yet been described in a UK population, nor has the association with serious mental illness (SMI).
To explore the relationship between IPV exposure and mental illness in a UK population.
We designed a retrospective cohort study whereby we matched 18 547 women exposed to IPV to 74 188 unexposed women. Outcomes of interest (anxiety, depression and SMI) were identified through clinical codes.
At baseline, 9174 (49.5%) women in the exposed group had some form of mental illness compared with 17 768 (24.0%) in the unexposed group, described as an adjusted odds ratio of 2.62 (95% CI 2.52–2.72). Excluding those with mental illness at baseline, 1254 exposed women (incidence rate 46.62 per 1000 person-years) went on to present with any type of mental illness compared with 3119 unexposed women (incidence rate 14.93 per 1000 person-years), with an aIRR of 2.77 (95% CI 2.58–2.97). Anxiety (aIRR 1.99, 95% CI 1.80–2.20), depression (aIRR 3.05, 95% CI 2.81–3.31) and SMI (aIRR 3.08, 95% CI 2.19–4.32) were all associated with exposure to IPV.
IPV remains a significant public health issue in the UK. We have demonstrated the significant recorded mental health burden associated with IPV in primary care, at both baseline and following exposure. Clinicians must be aware of this association to reduce mental illness diagnostic delay and improve management of psychological outcomes in this group of patients.
Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is becoming a standard manufacturing practice for a variety of biomaterials and biomedical devices. This layer-by-layer methodology provides the ability to fabricate parts from computer-aided design files without the need for part-specific tooling. Three-dimensional printed medical components have transformed the field of medicine through on-demand patient care with specialized treatment such as local, strategically timed drug delivery, and replacement of once-functioning body parts. Not only can 3DP technology provide individualized components, it also allows for advanced medical care, including surgical planning models to aid in training and provide temporary guides during surgical procedures for reinforced clinical success. Despite the advancement in 3DP technology, many challenges remain for forward progress, including sterilization concerns, reliability, and reproducibility. This article offers an overview of biomaterials and biomedical devices derived from metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites that can be three-dimensionally printed, as well as other techniques related to 3DP in medicine, including surgical planning, bioprinting, and drug delivery.
Application of an electric field across the pressure-driven stratified flow of a pair of miscible fluids inside a microchannel manifests interesting electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instabilities. Experiments uncover distinctive instability regimes with an increase in electric field Rayleigh number (
) – a linear-onset regime, a time-periodic nonlinear regime analogous to the von Kármán vortex street in the downstream and a regime with coherent flow patterns. The experiments also reveal that such linear and nonlinear instabilities can be stimulated non-invasively in a microchannel to mix or de-mix fluids simply by turning the electric field on or off, indicating the suitability of the process for on-demand micromixing. The characteristics of these instabilities have been theoretically investigated with the help of an Orr–Sommerfeld framework, which discloses the possibility of five distinctive finite-wavenumber modes for the instability. The EHD stresses originating due to the application of electric field stimulate a pair of shorter-wavelength electric field modes beyond a critical value of
. Increase in the levels of charge injection and EHD stresses lower the critical
of these modes. The relatively longer-wavelength viscous mode is found to appear when the viscosity stratification between the fluid layers is high. Beyond a threshold Schmidt number (
), a diffusive mode is also found to appear near the mixed interfacial region. A thinner interface between the fluids at a higher
helps this mode to behave as the interfacial mode of immiscible fluids. Contrast of ionic mobility in the fluids leads to the appearance of the K-mode of instability at much shorter wavelengths. The reported phenomena can be of significance in the domains of microscale mixing, pumping, heat exchange, mass transfer and reaction engineering.
Influence of boron nitride (BN) addition in commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) was characterized for their microstructural variation, hardness, and oxidation kinetics. Feedstock powders, Cp-Ti with 3 wt% BN (3BN) and 6 wt% BN (6BN), were prepared by roller mill followed by additive manufacturing using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Rate of oxidation was measured from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at 1000 °C for 50 h. Average instantaneous parabolic constants (kp) for Cp-Ti, 3BN, and 6BN were 41.2 ± 12.0, 28.6 ± 2.8, and 18.2 ± 9.2 mg2/(cm4 h), respectively. Cp-Ti displayed acicular α-Ti microstructure. After TGA, large equiaxed grains along with TiO2 formation at the grain boundaries were observed, which increased the hardness. With BN addition, plate-like TiN and needle-like TiB secondary phases were also observed. Hardness for Cp-Ti, 3BN, and 6BN were 256.9 ± 7.7, 424.0 ± 33.6, and 548.3 ± 49.7 HV0.2, respectively. Overall, a small addition of BN was effective in improving the oxidation resistance of Cp-Ti.
The Brahmaputra is a Himalayan river originating in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China and carrying a large flow. Its flow originates from the Angsi glacier near Mount Kailash at an altitude of 5,300 masl with the name Yarlung- Tsangpo. The river flows for about 1,100 km through the arid and semiarid areas of the TAR and gains its large flow as it crosses the Himalayan crest line and enters the rain- rich south aspect of the mountain. As it descends further, it enters India near the town of Korbo and flows in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh as Siang or Dihang. Further downstream, near the town of Sadiya in Assam, three tributaries Lohit, Siang and Dibang meet each other and the combined flow is known by the name Brahmaputra. After crossing the town of Dhubri in Assam, the river enters Bangladesh, where it gets the name Jamuna (Figure 5.1). The Brahmaputra sub- basin1 is taken to be ending at the point of its confluence with Ganga in Bangladesh, little upstream of the town of Goalondo. This sub- basin is part of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) basin, draining the joint flow of the three rivers, to the Bay of Bengal, as lower Meghna, south of the town of Chandpur in Bangladesh (Figure 5.1).
The Brahmaputra sub- basin is a complex drainage system characterized by diversity. It drains parts of southern Tibet, the eastern Himalaya in India, all of the area of Bhutan and a large part of northern Bangladesh. The total drainage area of the subbasin is 580,000 sq. km, of which 50.5 percent is in China, 33.6 percent in India, 8.1 percent in Bangladesh and 7.8 percent in Bhutan (Immerzeel 2008). Along its course from Tibet to Goalondo, it flows across unique and diverse geophysical and environmental settings with local, regional and international significance and implications. In India, the sub- basin is shared by the federal states of Arunachal Pradesh (41.88 percent), Assam 36.33 percent), Nagaland (5.57 percent), Meghalaya (6.10 percent), Sikkim (3.75 percent) and West Bengal (6.47 percent). Like all Himalayan rivers, a holistic perception of the flow of a river should be constituted by water, energy, biodiversity and sediments (webs of rivers). The older engineering perception of rivers as mere stock of water generates great uncertainties in its governance processes.
In this paper we consider a new type of urn scheme, where the selection probabilities are proportional to a weight function, which is linear but decreasing in the proportion of existing colours. We refer to it as the de-preferential urn scheme. We establish the almost-sure limit of the random configuration for any balanced replacement matrix R. In particular, we show that the limiting configuration is uniform on the set of colours if and only if R is a doubly stochastic matrix. We further establish the almost-sure limit of the vector of colour counts and prove central limit theorems for the random configuration as well as for the colour counts.
In this study, the effects of 3D-printed SiO2 and ZnO-doped tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds with interconnected pores were evaluated on the in vivo bone formation and healing properties of a rabbit tibial defect model. Pure and doped TCP scaffolds were fabricated by a ceramic powder-based 3D printing technique and implanted into critical sized rabbit tibial defects for up to 4 months. In vivo bone regeneration was evaluated using chronological radiological examination, histological evaluations, SEM micrographs, and fluorochrome labeling studies. Radiograph results showed that Si/Zn-doped samples had slower degradation kinetics than the pure TCP samples. 3D printing of TCP scaffolds improved bone formation. The addition of dopants in the TCP scaffolds improved osteogenic capabilities when compared to the pure scaffolds. In summary, our findings indicate that the addition of dopants to the TCP scaffolds enhanced bone formation and in turn leading to accelerated healing.
Seeking to improve the wear resistance of the Ti6Al4V (Ti64) alloy for biomedical applications, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics were added to Ti64 powder and successfully 3D-printed using a commercial laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) system. It was hypothesized that CNTs would allow for in situ carbide formation during laser processing, resulting in increased surface hardness. It was also hypothesized that CaPs would allow for protective tribofilm formation during wear, reducing material loss from wear-induced damage. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal defect-free microstructures with fine carbides evenly distributed, while X-ray diffraction confirms the presence of carbides without additional unwanted intermetallic phases. Vickers microhardness shows an increase in surface hardness in coatings containing both CNTs and CaPs. In vitro tribological studies found reduced coefficient of friction, reduced wear rates, and reduced metal ion-release concentrations in coatings containing both CNTs and CaPs. This study demonstrates the efficacy of CNTs and CaPs to improve wear resistance of Ti64 for potential applications in articulating surfaces of load-bearing implants.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, locally aggressive soft tissue tumor commonly occurring in the trunk or extremities, lesser than 5% being located on the scalp. Surgery is the mainstay of management of this locally infiltrative cutaneous soft tissue sarcoma, with a high probability of recurrence if margin remains positive or inadequate. Adjuvant radiotherapy to a dose of 40–60 Gy decreases this chance of recurrence considerably. Radiotherapy is generally delivered by interstitial HDR brachytherapy, opposed photon or electron beam. We report a case of a 24 year old female, presenting with a small, painless nodule over right frontal area of scalp, diagnosed as DFSP post surgery with close margin that was treated with adjuvant radiation customized HDR surface mould brachytherapy with good local control and cosmesis.
We present early results from the first near-IR imaging of the weak X-ray sources discovered in the recent Chandra/ACIS-I survey towards the Galactic Centre (GC) (Wang et al. 2002). These ~800 discrete sources, which contribute significantly to the GC X-ray emission, represent an important and previously unknown population within the Galaxy. From our VLT observations we will identify likely IR counterparts to a sample of the hardest sources, which are most likely X-ray binaries. With these data we can place constraints on the nature of the discrete weak X-ray source population of the GC. Once the data analysis is complete we will discuss our results in the context of binary population synthesis models.
Instabilities at the deformable free surface of a thin nematic liquid crystal film can develop interesting patterns when exposed to an external electrostatic field. A general linear stability analysis is performed involving the Ericksen–Leslie governing equations for the dynamics of the nematic film coupled with the anisotropic Maxwell stresses for the electric field to uncover the salient features of these instabilities. The study reveals the coexistence of twin instability modes: (i) long-wave interfacial mode – stimulated when the sole destabilizing influence of the electric field overcomes the Frank bulk elasticity and surface tension force, and (ii) finite-wavenumber mode – engendered by the combined destabilizing influence originating from the anisotropic electric field and Ericksen stress, for the films with positive dielectric anisotropy and weaker Frank bulk elasticity. The results reported here are in contrast with the same obtained from the more frequently employed long-wave approach. The air-to-liquid-crystal filling ratio between the electrodes as well as thermodynamic parameters such as the dielectric anisotropy, Frank elasticity, and director orientations across the film and boundaries are found to play crucial roles in the selection of modes, whereas kinetic parameters such as Leslie viscosity coefficients influence only the time scale of instability. Importantly, at higher field intensities a symmetry-breaking Fréedericksz-type transition of director orientations is found to happen, which also causes the transition of the dominant mode of instability from the long-wave to the finite-wavenumber mode for films with relatively lower values of Frank bulk elasticity and positive dielectric anisotropy.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are very promising with respect to their integration into optoelectronic devices. Monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is a direct-gap semiconductor with a bandgap of ∼1.6eV, and is therefore a complement to other two-dimensional materials such as graphene, a gapless semimetal, and boron nitride, an insulator. The direct bandgap distinguishes monolayer WSe2 from its bulk and bilayer counterparts, which are both indirect gap materials with smaller bandgaps. This sizable direct bandgap in a two-dimensional layered material enables a host of new optical and electronic devices. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of the effect of optical excitation on the transport properties in few-layer WSe2 is studied. Monolayer WSe2 flakes from natural WSe2 crystals were transferred onto Si/SiO2 (270nm) substrates by mechanical exfoliation. The flakes were observed under an optical microscope. A FET based on mechanically exfoliated WSe2 was fabricated using photolithography with Molybdenum as metal contact and Silicon as back gate and the electronic properties were measured in a wide range of temperatures. The mobility of our device was found to be 0.2 cm /V-S at room temperature. The schottky barrier height was found to decrease from 80 meV to 25 meV as the gate voltage increases.
The objective of this study was to explore a log of WhatsApp messages exchanged among members of the health care group Doctors For You (DFY) while they were providing medical relief in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquake in April 2015. Our motivation was to identify medical resource requirements during a disaster in order to help government agencies and other responding organizations to be better prepared in any upcoming disaster.
A large set of WhatsApp (WhatsApp Inc, Mountain View, CA) messages exchanged among DFY members during the Nepal earthquake was collected and analyzed to identify the medical resource requirements during different phases of relief operations.
The study revealed detailed phase-wise requirements for various types of medical resources, including medicines, medical equipment, and medical personnel. The data also reflected some of the problems faced by the medical relief workers in the earthquake-affected region.
The insights from this study may help not only the Nepalese government, but also authorities in other earthquake-prone regions of the world to better prepare for similar disasters in the future. Moreover, real-time analysis of such online data during a disaster would aid decision-makers in dynamically formulating resource-mapping strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:652–655).
Two dimensional (2D) thin transition metal dichalcogenides are being widely investigated for optoelectronics applications. Here, we report on the interfacial study of WSe2 with photo-absorber materials for efficient charge transport using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) for solar cell applications. The WSe2 in these experiments was synthesized using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) with a WO3 powder and Se pellets as the precursors, where the selenium was placed upstream in an Ar carrier gas within the furnace at a temperature zone of 260-270°C. For the interfacial analysis, nanoscale KPFM measurements show an average surface potential of 125 meV for the CVD synthesized WSe2 flakes. KPFM measurements signify that a thin layer of WSe2 can be used to suppress back recombination of carriers between the electron transport layer (ETL) and the absorber layer. A proper band alignment between ETL and absorber layer helps to increase the overall device performance, which we will elaborate upon in this work. Capacitance-voltage and capacitance-frequency measurements were measured to study the role of defects.