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This paper presents a scoping review of the literature on child participatory research in Australia published in academic journals between 2000 and 2018. The review focused on research designed to engage with children and young people in the development, implementation and evaluation of services. A total of 207 papers were identified and distributed across eight service sectors: child protection and family law, community, disability, education, health, housing and homelessness, juvenile justice and mental health. The papers were reviewed against Shier’s participation matrix, demonstrating that almost all of the identified papers included children only as participants who contributed data to adult researchers. Only a small number of papers involved children and young people in the other phases of research, such as designing research questions, analysis and dissemination. There is a clear interest in the engagement of children and young people in service design and decision-making in Australia. This paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for discussion on where there are gaps and where further Australian research is needed.
Twin registries have developed as a valuable resource for the study of many aspects of disease and society over the years in many different countries. A number of these registries include large numbers of twins with data collected at varying information levels for twin cohorts over the past several decades. More recent expansion of twin datasets has allowed for the collection of genetic data, together with many other levels of ‘omic’ information along with multiple demographic, physiological, health outcomes and other measures typically used in epidemiologic research. Other twin data sources outside these registries reflect research interests in particular aspects of disease or specific phenotypic assessment. Twin registries have the potential to play a key role in many aspects of the artificial intelligence/machine learning-driven projects of the future and will continue to keep adapting to the changing research landscape.
In lifecourse studies that encompass the adolescent period, the assessment of pubertal status is important, but can be challenging. We aimed to identify current methods for pubertal assessment and assess their appropriateness for population-based research by combining a review of the literature with the views of experts in the field. We searched bibliographic databases, extracted data and assessed study quality to inform a workshop with 21 experts. Acceptability of different approaches was explored with a panel of ten adolescents. We screened 11,935 abstracts, assessed 157 articles and summarised results from 38 articles. Combining these with the opinions of experts, self-assessment was found to be a practical method for use in studies where agreement with the gold standard of clinical assessment by physical examination to within one Tanner stage was acceptable. Serial measures of height and foot size accurately indicated timing of the pubertal growth spurt and age at peak height velocity, and were seen as feasible within longitudinal studies. Hormonal and radiological methods did not offer a practical means of assessing pubertal status. Assessment of voice maturation was promising, but needed validation. Young people thought that self-assessment, foot size and voice assessments were acceptable, and preferred an assessor of the same sex for clinical assessment. This review thus informs researchers working in lifecourse and adolescent health, and identifies future directions in order to improve validity of the methods.
The Beck’s Petrel Pseudobulweria beckii is a ‘Critically Endangered’ seabird whose breeding sites remain unknown. Historic observations suggest the species’ distribution is concentrated in the Bismarck Archipelago and particularly southern New Ireland. Over the course of two research expeditions in 2016 and 2017 we used on-land and at-sea observations, local interviews and satellite telemetry to understand the distribution of the species, its at-sea movements and potential breeding locations. Land-based and at-sea observations indicated that the area of Silur Bay in southern New Ireland was a significant site for Beck’s Petrel with numbers of birds increasing near shore prior to dusk and birds observed in spotlights over land. A local population is estimated to be in the low thousands. In 2017 a single Beck’s was captured at sea, fitted with a satellite transmitter and tracked for eight months. This bird maintained a core distribution off the south-east coast of New Ireland and north of Bougainville for 122 days. During the tracking period, the bird was located over land at night seven times; predominantly over southern New Ireland, where the signal was also lost for extended periods suggesting occupancy of an underground burrow. In August the bird migrated 1,400 km to a core pelagic habitat north of West Papua before the signal was eventually lost. Our combination of land- and sea-based observations and analysis of behaviour from satellite tracking supports the conclusion that a breeding site for Beck’s Petrel lies in the inland mountains of southern New Ireland and most likely in the high-altitude zone (> 2000 m) of the Hans Meyer Range. Further investigations are required to determine the exact location of breeding colonies in the mountains of southern New Ireland and the importance of a potential west Papuan non-breeding pelagic habitat for the species.
Clinical diagnostics in sudden-onset disasters (SOD) has historically been limited. With poor supply routes, lack of a cold chain, and challenging environmental conditions, many diagnostic platforms are unsuitable.
We set out to design, implement, and evaluate a mobile diagnostic laboratory accompanying a type II emergency medical team (EMT) field hospital.
Available diagnostic platforms were reviewed and selected against infield need. Platforms included HemoCue301/WBC DIFF, i-STAT, BioFire multiplex RT-PCR, Olympus BX53 microscopy, ABO/Rh Grouping, and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). This equipment was trialed in Katherine, Australia and Dili, Timor-Leste.
During the initial deployment, validation of FilmArray rt-PCR multiplex tests was successful on blood culture, gastrointestinal, and respiratory panels. HemoCue301 (n = 20) haemoglobin values were compared on Sysmex XN 550 (r = 0.94). Analysis of HemoCue WBC DIFF samples had some variation when compared to Sysmex XN 550, (neutrophils r = 0.88, lymphocytes r = 0.49, monocytes r = 0.16, eosinophils r = 0.70, basophils r = 0.16). i-STAT showed non-significant differences for CHEM4 (n=10), CG8 (n = 10), and TnI (n = 5) against Vitros 250. A further trial of BioFire rt-PCR testing in Dili, Timor-Leste diagnosed 117 causative pathogens on 168 FilmArray test cartridges.
This mobile laboratory represents a major advance in SOD. Setup of the service was quick (<24hr) and transport to site rapidly. Training was simple and performance consistent. Future deployment in fragmented health systems after sudden onset disasters with EMT2 will now allow broader diagnostics.
The use of targets with surface structures for laser-driven particle acceleration has potential to significantly boost the particle and radiation energies because of enhanced laser absorption. We investigate, via experiment and particle-in-cell simulations, the impact of micron-scale surface-structured targets on the spectrum of electrons and protons accelerated by a picosecond laser pulse at relativistic intensity. Our results show that, compared with flat-surfaced targets, structures on this scale give rise to a significant enhancement in particle and radiation emission over a wide range of laser–target interaction parameters. This is due to the longer plasma scale length when using micro-structures on the target front surface. We do not observe an increase in the proton cutoff energy with our microstructured targets, and this is due to the large volume of the relief.
We have previously reported on the uniqueness and potential of room-temperature spectrometry of low-energy x-rays with a mercuric iodide (HgI2) detector (1,2,3). In this paper we emphasize the use of HgI2 detectors for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis.
Because no vacuum plumbing or cryogenic cooling is required, the design of a mercuric iodide room-temperature x-ray spectrometer is extremely simple. Our present design consists of coupling a detector directly to the first-stage FET in a modified Tennelec 161 D preamplifier and making the configuration “light-tight”. Aside from providing a suitable entrance window, there are no other requirements for routine spectroscopy.
Quantitative analysis of major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe) in rocks by classic wet-chemical procedures, in addition to being a costly and laborious process, has been shown to be subject to significant errors. Mineralogists and petrologists, increasingly concerned with determining small elemental differences in rock bodies, have turned to more rapid and precise methods in the field of spectral analysis. The development of X-ray spectrographic techniques in the light-element range has therefore been of particular interest. This paper summarizes the results of a test of the precision and sources of error in the X-ray method as applied to major elements in granitic rocks.
The test, using commerically available equipment and the fusion technique of specimen preparation, was designed for a five-way, completely nested variance analysis. Sources of variance are (1) different lengths of fusion time, (2) replications of a single fusion time, (3) replications of briquetting the fused specimens, (4) replications of individual runs in the spectrograph, and (5) replications of individual spectrograph readings of the Kα line intensity. A total of 64 readings per element were obtained and the significance of each factor tested for each element. Greatest sources of error are shown to be in factors 2 and 4. The total variance for each element is expressed as per cent relative deviation of counts per second. Calibration curves of natural and synthetic granitic rocks, fused with dilutions ranging from 13 to 36% rock in borax, provide conversions from relative deviation in counts per second to relative deviation in weight per cent. These values indicate that the precision of the X-ray method is directly comparable with wet chemistry for Si, probably better for Al, and distinctly superior for K, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Of the major rock-forming elements only Na and Mg are presently beyond the scope of the fusion method.
The major elements m common rocks are of low atomic number, but analyses of high precision are possible by soft X-ray spectrography if several grams of rock sample are available. The electron-probe microanalyzer is shown to complement this established method by permitting analyses of particles as small as 1 μ in diameter. This paper describes applications of these methods to the analysis of the major and minor elements of silicate, carbonate, and phosphate minerals and rocks.
Elements of particular interest are as follows : carbon in particles enclosed in carbonate rocks; oxygen, as the major constituent of the specimens; phosphorus in phosphatic nodules and apatites; manganese and iron, as colorations in fossil shells; and the group oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, calcium, and iron as complex segregations and zonations within single crystals of several mineral phases.
If the bulk composition of a rock is known, and also the chemistry of the constituent minerals, it is possible to compute quantitative minéralogie analyses of high precision. Thus, the combined use of soft X-ray spectrography and electronprobe microanalysis can provide quantitative chemical and mineralogicat information on the earth's crust on all scales from thousands of square miles (by means of appropriate sampling) down to the scale of 1 μ.
The relative merits of different methods of sample preparation, of different instrumental operating procedures, and of different calibration techniques for major and minor elemental analyses of silicates must be judged by adequate estimates of precision and accuracy. Sources of imprecision in the X-ray method include electronic deviations, counting statistics, and sample collection and preparation. The variations attributable to these sources set limiting values to any X-ray method. Because most X-ray methods are comparative and thus dependent upon standards, the accuracy is more difficult to establish. Sources of inaccuracy in calibration methods include biases introduced by instrumental design or operation, matrix and particle size effects reflected as scatter or calibration line curvature, and an inadequate knowledge of the chemistry of the standard or standards used. With an adequate estimate of the precision, a practical measure of the accuracy of the X-ray fluorescence method can be obtained by the predictions of the compositions of standard silicates—standards whose compositions are assumed to be established by repeated wet-chemical analyses. This practical approach to an assessment of errors suggests to us that the comparative X-ray methods are highly precise. Within the limits of precision and with appropriate standards, accurate predictions of the compositions of silicate rocks can be made without applying empirically or theoretically derived correction factors. In this paper tests of precision and accuracy will be described which have been used to assess variabilities in quantitative analysis from the sample collection, through the sample preparation, to the calibration with standards.
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of elements below atomic number 20, and extending to atomic number 4, have been made practical and reasonably routine only in the past five to ten years by advances in: 1) excitation sources; 2) dispersive spectrometers; 3) detection devices; and 4) reductions of optic path absorption. At present agreement is lacking on the best combination of parameters for light element analysis. The principal contrasts in opinion concern excitation.
Direct electron excitation, particularly as employed in microprobe analysis (but not limited to such instruments), provides relatively high emission intensities of all soft X-rays, but also generates a high continuum, requires the sample to be at essentially electron gun vacuum, and introduces practical calibration problems (“matrix effects“). X-ray excitation of soft X-rays overcomes some of the latter three disadvantages, and has its own limitations. Sealed X-ray sources of conventional or semi-conventional design can provide useful (if not optimum) light element emission intensities down to atomic number 9, hut with serious loss of efficiency in many applications below atomic number 15 largely because of window-thinness limitations under electron bombardment.
Moderate counting rates, in excess of 400 cps at a signal/noise ratio of 18 on 3.5% NaaO in rocks, permit high-precision quantitative analysis for light elements in silicates. Special advantages of fluorescence analysis in the 10 A region, with adequate excitation provided by an aluminum target tube, will be described. These advantages include an ease of discrimination by excitation potential and by high dispersion using large 2d space crystals. Minor and simple modifications of the optic path combined with electronic discrimination make the method ideal for sodium and magnesium. Routine runs over periods of days have been made possible by a new technique of calibration involving computer corrections for systematic drift from any source. Repeated tests show that the total analytical error, including specimen preparation, closely approaches that of the counting statistics used, and that the drift corrections are complete. In granitic rod; analyses resulting precisions (standard deviation/mean) are 1% for 2-5% Na2O and 2% for 0.25-1.0% MgO.
Continued development of mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors for x-ray spectroscopy at room-temperature has led to a considerable improvement in energy resolution and a better understanding of the various detector parameters which affect sensitivity. The basic properties of a mercuric iodide detector and some of its characteristics pertinent to x-ray fluorescence analysis have been previously reported (1,2,3). In this paper we present results of studies to determine the shape o£ peaks and continuum background. Also, the use of Hgl2 in characterizing water pollutants by XRF analysis has been investigated and compared to cryogenically cooled Si(Li) and room-temperature proportional counter systems.
This article presents a chronology of the growth of the concept of Indigeneity in Thailand, analysing the particular ways in which the global Indigenous movement has taken root in the country. In Thailand, transnational support networks and the opening of political associational space played key roles in facilitating the growth of, first, a regional, and later a national Indigenous movement during the 1980s and early 2000s, respectively. Indigenous Peoples in Thailand are asserting their identity by drawing on a new concept of Indigeneity being promoted by the United Nations and other international advocacy organisations that identifies them not only as first peoples, but crucially as colonised or oppressed peoples. Indigenous Peoples in Thailand are further asserting both their cultural distinctiveness and their compatibility with the Thai nation. The Indigenous movement in Thailand differs from movements in Australia, Canada, and the United States where Indigenous Peoples must perform their cultural distinctiveness to maintain political recognition, and in turn are accused of being not different enough when exercising their rights. In Thailand, rather, Indigenous Peoples are accused of being not Thai enough in their efforts to push for any political recognition. While the Thai government denies the relevance of the concept of Indigeneity to Thailand, it is clear that the Indigenous movement in Thailand has grown since the early 2000s. In fact, state policies between the 1950s and early 2000s contributed toward the scaling-up of a pan-Hill tribe identity among the core groups associated with the movement.
Only a few decades ago, there was not a country in Asia that recognised the existence of specifically and legally defined ‘Indigenous Peoples’. In recent years, however, that has changed, albeit unevenly. The concept of indigeneity is being increasingly accepted, both by governments and the public, although it remains highly controversial, even in countries where it has made some ground legally. For example, in the region we now frequently refer to as ‘Southeast Asia’, the governments of the Philippines and Cambodia now define particular ethnic groups of people as Indigenous, and are providing these groups with particular rights. In other countries in the region, the concept of Indigenous Peoples is still not legally recognised, but there is increasing acceptance of the concept, or at least recognition of it amongst certain groups. Questions related to the proliferation and contested nature of the concept of Indigenous Peoples were addressed during a multidisciplinary workshop organised by the Center for Southeast Asian Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in March 2015. This special issue of the Journal of Southeast Asian Studies is devoted to considering some of the conceptions of indigeneity in Southeast Asia that brought together a group of scholars and activists from various countries in Asia and the United States for the workshop, which was financially supported through a grant provided by Open Society Foundations.
The spatial-intensity profile of light reflected during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a microstructured target is investigated experimentally and the potential to apply this as a diagnostic of the interaction physics is explored numerically. Diffraction and speckle patterns are measured in the specularly reflected light in the cases of targets with regular groove and needle-like structures, respectively, highlighting the potential to use this as a diagnostic of the evolving plasma surface. It is shown, via ray-tracing and numerical modelling, that for a laser focal spot diameter smaller than the periodicity of the target structure, the reflected light patterns can potentially be used to diagnose the degree of plasma expansion, and by extension the local plasma temperature, at the focus of the intense laser light. The reflected patterns could also be used to diagnose the size of the laser focal spot during a high-intensity interaction when using a regular structure with known spacing.
There are two important manuscript copies of poems of John Donne resting in public places that so far have apparently gone undetected by Donne scholars. Neither makes any major difference in the text of the poems in question, but each throws a further light on the editorial choices of the man to whom all Donne scholars owe a major debt, Sir Herbert J. C. Grierson, and one gives valuable evidence on the reading of the elisions which plague readers of Donne poems.