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With great potential benefit and possible harm, online social media platforms are transforming human society. Based on decades of deep exploration, distinguished scholar William Sims Bainbridge surveys our complex virtual society, harvesting insights about the future of our real world. Many pilot studies demonstrate valuable research methods and explanatory theories. Tracing membership interlocks between Facebook groups can chart the structure of a social movement, like the one devoted to future spaceflight development. Statistical data on the roles played by people in massively multiplayer online games illustrate the Silicon Law: information technology energizes both freedom and control, in a dynamic balance. The significance of open-source software suggests the traditional distinction between professional and amateur may fade, whereas web-based conflicts between religious and political groups imply that chasms are opening in civil society. This analysis of online space and the divergent communities is long overdue.
Jason Bainbridge, Jason Bainbridge is Professor of Media and Communication and Head of the School of Creative Industries at the University of South Australia. He holds a PhD in Media Studies and a Bachelor of Laws.
He offers the same liminal pleasures of plaything and companion. He allows children to roleplay-as-an-adult, thanks to a scalable world of vehicles and accessories that are capable of replicating most careers and transforming any space into a warzone, an urban center or an alien world. And, similar to his mother, he is also an important site for articulating copyright and trademark, defining categories that would otherwise appear as liminal as the pleasures he offers. As such, the Action Figure embodies the limits of what his consumers can engage in, policing the boundaries between their imaginations and the IP rights of his creators. But whereas Barbie remains a largely passive receptacle of her consumers’ fantasies—and Ken little more than another accessory for her—the Action Figure announces his point of difference in his name: action. Sure, he may have the same adult figure of a male doll like Ken, but that figure is matched (and his masculinity rigorously underscored) by being articulated and therefore capable of action, of performing as an adult rather than just looking like one.
The first action figure, G.I. Joe, was originally conceived as a licensed toy. In March 1962 Stan Weston came to toymakers the Hassenfeld Brothers’ (later Hasbro) Creative Director of Product Development, Don Levine, with the idea of a “movable soldier” based on the up-coming television program The Lieutenant starring Gary Lockwood. Weston's idea was very much informed by Hasbro's rival, Mattel, and their most popular toy, Barbie. Like Barbie, Weston envisioned his moveable soldier as being similarly accessory-based. Observing boys secretly playing with Ken dolls had convinced him that there was a market for boys’ “dolls.”
Levine, a veteran of the Korean War, liked the idea but worried about linking it to a television program aimed at adults and vulnerable to cancelation. It wouldn't be until February 1963 that he was finally convinced via a chance encounter with a sculptor's wooden mannequin in the display window of Arthur Brown's art supply store. This gave Levine the basic design template for a ball-jointed soldier doll with moveable parts.
More than 4000 Indigenous Australian students enrol and take up a placement at boarding school each year. While reasons for attending boarding school vary, the impetus for many remote and very remote-dwelling students is restricted secondary educational opportunities in their home communities. A large multi-site study is being undertaken across Queensland to understand the conditions required for these students to be resilient while studying away from home. This paper reports on levels of student satisfaction with Queensland Department of Education's Transition Support Service (TSS) that provide assistance to remote-dwelling Indigenous students in the transition to boarding schools. A survey instrument administered to students included 22 close-ended questions to elicit levels of student satisfaction with TSS. Data were collected electronically using SurveyMonkey™ and analysed in SPSS v24. Descriptive statistics were calculated for variables assessing service support, student perceptions and experiences. A total of 294 primary, secondary and re-engaging students across 21 sites responded. Nearly all primary students (97%) anticipated that TSS would assist their move to boarding school. All secondary students identified that TSS had assisted their transition to boarding school. All re-engaging students agreed that TSS support had increased their capacity to cope when things go wrong. Lower scores related to students’ ability to access TSS when needed. Very high levels of satisfaction with TSS were countered by constraints of distance between TSS and students, and resources available to support the work of TSS. Findings point to the need for equitable provision of transition services in Queensland that emphasise the importance of relationship between service provider and student, and can inform the design of similar transition services across Australia.
Involuntary admission can be traumatic and is associated with negative attitudes that persist after the episode of illness has abated.
We aimed to prospectively assess satisfaction with care at the points of involuntary admission and symptomatic recovery, and identify their sociodemographic, clinical and service experience predictors.
Levels of satisfaction with care, and clinical and sociodemographic variables were obtained from a representative cohort of 263 patients at the point of involuntary admission and from 155 of these patients 3 months after termination of the involuntary admission. Data were analysed with multiple linear regression modelling.
Higher baseline awareness of illness (B = 0.19, P < 0.001) and older age (B = 0.05, P = 0.001) were associated with more satisfaction with care at baseline and follow-up. Transition to greater satisfaction with care was associated with improvements in awareness of illness (B = 0.13, P < 0.001) and in symptoms (B = 0.05, P = 0.02), as well as older age (B = 0.04, P = 0.01). Objective coercive experiences were not associated with variation in satisfaction with care.
There is wide variation in satisfaction with coercive care. Greater satisfaction with care is positively associated with clinical variables such as increased awareness of illness.
A theoretical model of individuals' experiences before, during and after involuntary admission has not yet been established.
To develop an understanding of individuals' experiences over the course of the involuntary admission process.
Fifty individuals were recruited through purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed 3 months after their involuntary admission. Analyses were conducted using a Straussian grounded theory approach.
The ‘theory of preserving control’ (ToPC) emerged from individuals' accounts of how they adapted to the experience of involuntary admission. The ToPC explains how individuals manage to reclaim control over their emotional, personal and social lives and consists of three categories: ‘losing control’, ‘regaining control’ and ‘maintaining control’, and a number of related subcategories.
Involuntary admission triggers a multifaceted process of control preservation. Clinicians need to develop therapeutic approaches that enable individuals to regain and maintain control over the course of their involuntary admission.