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We analysed associations between exposure to nightlife businesses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 PCR test results at a tertiary hospital in Tokyo between March and April 2020. A nightlife group was defined as those who had worked at or visited the businesses. We included 1517 individuals; 196 (12.9%) were categorised as the nightlife group. After propensity score matching, the proportion of positive PCR tests in the nightlife group was significantly higher than that in the non-nightlife group (nightlife, 63.8%; non-nightlife, 23.0%; P < 0.001). An inclusive approach to mitigate risks related to the businesses needs to be identified.
We describe a major shear zone exposed at Akebono Rock and discuss its deformation and metamorphic history, with a view to providing a better understanding of the geological history of the Lützow-Holm Complex. Three deformation episodes are recognized: D1 produced open folds (F1), boudinage and a regional ductile foliation, whilst the related metamorphic facies is characterized by stable garnet. F1 folding is dominantly preserved in the eastern part of the study area. During D2, an isoclinal to tight asymmetric F2 folds developed mainly in the west part of the region, accompanied by an S2 shear, under biotite facies retrograde metamorphism. The D3 episode involved the formation of the major shear zone, characterized by mylonite and L-tectonite fabrics, which took place at ~610–660°C and 4–5 kbar. Large, sigmoidal garnet core domains have S-shaped inclusion trails, suggesting that syntectonic garnet growth occurred before the formation of the shear zone. Estimated P-T conditions suggest that the sigmoidal garnet-bearing amphibolite was recrystallized at a deeper crustal level and was brought to a higher level during the formation of the shear zone. Crustal-scale deformation involving syntectonic recrystallization and shearing of Akebono Rock is a key issue for reconsidering the evolution of the Lützow-Holm Complex.
Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence fetal growth; however, the available evidence is controversial. We aimed to assess whether maternal diet of Japanese women in mid-pregnancy can affect their offspring’s birth size via collection of questionnaire and medical record data. The studied sample was a large cohort of paired mothers and their singleton offspring (n 78 793) from fifteen areas all over Japan who participated in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. The mid-pregnancy intakes of total energy, macronutrients and vitamins were lower than the recommended intakes for pregnant Japanese women. Maternal total energy intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth weight; there was a 10-g mean difference in the offspring’s birth weight of mothers in the lowest (3026 g) v. highest (3036 g) quartiles of energy intake. Carbohydrate intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth length (mean difference of 0·7 cm) and inversely associated with the ponderal index (mean difference of 0·8 g/cm3). Offspring of mothers in the highest v. lowest quartiles of total dietary fibre intake were on average 9 g heavier and had 0·3 cm longer birth length and 0·2 cm longer head circumference. The highest in reference to lowest intake quartile of vitamin C was associated with 13 g and 0·7 cm mean differences in the offspring’s birth weight and length, respectively. Several other associations were evident for maternal intakes of vitamins and the offspring’s birth size. In conclusion, maternal dietary intakes of energy, dietary fibre, carbohydrate and vitamins during pregnancy were associated with the offspring’s birth size.
Many studies have shown that the prevalence of psychological distress among medical students during medical training is high. However, there are few studies explore on the psychological health of medical students prior to the medical training.
To determine the prevalence and associated factors of entering medical students had significant stress, anxiety and depression symptoms prior to medical course.
This study was an attempt to explore the psychological health aspects of entering medical students prior to medical training.
A cross-sectional study was done on two cohorts of applicants to a medical school. A total of 839 applicants were invited to participate in the study. The DASS-21 was administered to them after they completed interviews to measure stress, anxiety and depression level. Moderate to extremely severe levels of stress, anxiety and depression were considered as significant levels.
A total of 743 (92.2%) applicants took part in the study. Approximately 26 (3.6%) experienced stress, 400 (54.5%) experienced anxiety, and 14 (1.9%) experienced depression. Stress associated with entry qualification, previous academic performance, race, involvement in extra-curricular activities, and parent education levels. Anxiety associated with parent concern about religion education, entry qualification, extra-curricular activities, previous academic performance, race and mother education level. Depression associated with parent concern about friends, entry qualification, extra-curricular activities, previous academic performance and race.
The prevalence of stress and depression among entering medical students was low prior to medical training. Its associated factors seem to be related to academic, parent and student personal backgrounds.
Since 2012, when broadcasting licenses were granted to various private television and radio stations in Mauritania, the controversy around the Battle of Um Tounsi (and Mauritania’s colonial past more generally) has grown substantially. One of the results of this unprecedented level of media freedom has been the propagation of views defending the Mauritanian resistance (muqawama in Arabic) to French colonization. On the one hand, verbal and written accounts have emerged which paint certain groups and actors as French colonial power sympathizers. At the same time, various online publications have responded by seriously questioning the very existence of a structured resistance to colonization. This article, drawing predominantly on local sources, highlights the importance of this controversy in studying the western Saharan region social model and its contemporary uses.
Numerical simulations of disk galaxies with steady (long-lived) and dynamic (short-lived) spiral arms suggest that offsets between stellar and gas spiral arms depend on their nature or lifetime (Baba et al.2015). Based on this theoretical study, we investigated gas-star offsets in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51, and found that its two spiral arms exhibit different offset dependences against radius. One arm is consistent with a steady arm, while the other is consistent with a dynamic arm. We deduce that this difference is likely due to a tidal interaction with the companion galaxy (Egusa et al.2017). For this study, a stellar mass distribution with a high accuracy at a high spatial resolution is essential, which has come to be available by applying recent SED fitting techniques to multi-wavelength images. We are now working to extend this study to other nearby spiral galaxies.
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a condition with challenging treatment and leads to severe cardiac failure and pulmonary hypertension. Despite aggressive surgical or catheter-based intervention, the prognosis of PVS is unsatisfactory. This study aimed to assess the prognosis and to establish appropriate treatment strategies.
We retrospectively reviewed endovascular treatments for PVS (2001–2017) from the clinical database at the Okayama University Hospital.
A total of 24 patients underwent PVS associated with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and 7 patients underwent isolated congenital PVS. In total, 53 stenotic pulmonary veins were subjected to endovascular treatments; 40 of them were stented by hybrid (29) and percutaneous procedures (11) (bare-metal stent, n = 34; drug-eluting stent, n = 9). Stent size of hybrid stenting was larger than percutaneous stenting. Median follow-up duration from the onset of PVS was 24 months (4–134 months). Survival rate was 71 and 49% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between stent placement and survival; however, patients who underwent bare-metal stent implantation had statistically better survival than those who underwent drug-eluting stent implantation or balloon angioplasty. Early onset of stenosis, timing of stenting, and small vessel diameter of pulmonary vein before stenting were considered as risk factors for in-stent restenosis. Freedom from re-intervention was 50 and 26% at 1 and 2 years.
To improve survival and stent patency, implantation of large stent is important. However, re-intervention after stenting is also significant to obtain good outcome.
Pharmacological treatments targeting the neuroendocrine stress response may hold special promise in secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, findings from clinical trials have been inconsistent and the efficacy of specific drugs, their temporal window of efficacy, effective doses and the characteristics of likely treatment responders remain unclear.
Using an experimental human model of distressing involuntary memory formation, we compare the effects of two drugs that have theoretical or empirical support as secondary preventive agents in PTSD. Eighty-eight healthy women (average age: 23.5 years) received oral propranolol (80 mg), hydrocortisone (30 mg), or matched placebo immediately after viewing a ‘trauma film’. They then completed daily, time-stamped intrusion diaries for 1 week, at the end of which, voluntary memory was tested.
While neither drug affected voluntary memory for the trauma narrative, propranolol treatment was associated with 42% fewer, and hydrocortisone with 55% fewer intrusions across the week, relative to placebo. Additionally, propranolol reduced general trauma-like symptoms, and post-drug cortisol levels were negatively correlated with intrusion frequency in the hydrocortisone group.
Overall, this study shows substantial reductions in intrusive memories and preserved voluntary narrative-declarative memory following either propranolol or hydrocortisone in an experimental model of psychological trauma. As such, despite some inconsistencies in clinical trials, our findings support continued investigation of propranolol and hydrocortisone as secondary preventive agents for re-experiencing symptoms of PTSD. The findings also suggest that it is critical for future research to identify the conditions governing the preventive efficacy of these drugs in PTSD.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their derivatives, including protonated and cationic species, are suspected to be carriers of the unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands observed from the galactic and extragalactic sources. We investigated the infrared (IR) spectra of protonated nonplanar PAHs: corannulene (C20H10) and sumanene (C21H12), that are regarded as a fragments of a fullerene,C60. The protonated corannulene H+ C20H10 and sumanene H+ C21H12 were produced in seperate experiments by bombarding a mixture of corannulene/sumanene and para-hydrogen (p-H2) with electrons during deposition at 3.2 K. During maintenance of the electron-bombarded matrix in darkness the intensities of IR lines of protonated corannulene decreased because of neutralization by electrons that were slowly released from the trapped sites whereas the hydrogenated species were produced. The observed lines were classified into several groups according to their responses to darkness and secondary irradiation at 365 nm/385 nm LEDs. Spectral assignments were derived based on a comparison of the observed spectra with those predicted with the B3PW91/6-311+ +G(2d,2p) method. The observed IR spectrum of hub-H+ C20H10, the most stable protonated isomer, resembles several bands of the Class-A UIR bands.
Severe pulmonary hypertension is a contraindication for liver transplantation owing to high mortality. However, decision-making regarding the treatment approach for patients with bilateral peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, typically complicated by elevated main pulmonary artery and right ventricle pressures, can be challenging. Here, we report successful living donor liver transplantation after bilateral pulmonary artery stent implantation in a patient with Alagille syndrome, severe bilateral peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, and extremely high main pulmonary artery and right ventricle pressures.
A transmission surface plasmon resonance image (TSPRi) obtained with a plasmonic grating structure was investigated in combination with a smartphone camera. A substrate of a gold-coated CYTOP grating/glass slide showed the TSPR excitation wavelength of 675 nm at the incident light angle of 30°. The TSPRi acquired from a smartphone camera assembled with liquid crystal tunable filters corresponded with spectroscopic results. The sensitivity of this technique was 282/RIU. Due to changes in the sensitivity of the TSPRi intensity to the refractive index of the environment, this technique can be further developed for portable devices for sensor applications.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most complex, diverse and leading cause of death in women worldwide. The present investigation aims to explore genes panel associated with BC in different African regions, and compare them to those studied worldwide.
We extracted relevant information from 43 studies performed in Africa using the following criteria: case-control study, association between genetic variations and BC risk. Data were provided on mutations and polymorphisms associated with BC without fixing a specific date. Case-only studies and clinical trials were excluded.
Our study revealed that the majority of African BC genetic studies remain restricted to the investigation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and differences in their mutations spectrum. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage African researchers to characterize more genes involved in BC using methods generating global information such as next-generation sequencing in order to guide specific and more effective therapeutic strategies for the African community.
We used a bivariate animal model to investigate the genetic correlations between yield traits or days open (DO) as characters measured in cows and semen production traits as characters measured in bulls. Lactation records of 305-day milk, fat, and protein yields, and DO, from 386 809 first-lactation Holstein cows in Hokkaido, Japan, that calved between 2008 and 2014 were used. Semen production records were collected between 2005 and 2014 and included volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm concentration (CON), number of sperm per ejaculate (NUM), progressive motility index of sperm (MOT), and MOT after freeze-thawing (A-MOT). Number of sperm per ejaculate was log-transformed into a NUM score (NUMS). A total of 30 373 semen production records from 1196 bulls were obtained. The pedigree file used for analysing the records was involving 885 345 animals. Heritability was estimated for VOL (0.42), CON (0.12), NUMS (0.37), MOT (0.08), and A-MOT (0.11). Weak and negative genetic correlations were recorded between yield traits measured in cows and VOL, CON or NUMS measured in bulls. Moderate and negative genetic correlations were obtained between DO and MOT (–0.42) or A-MOT (–0.43). Selection focused on MOT or A-MOT measured in bulls may therefore improve DO measured in cows.
Detection of chlorpyrifos (CPF) using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-enhanced photoelectrochemical sensing system is demonstrated in this study. The presence of CPF was detected based on an increase in the short-circuit photocurrent when a sample is injected into the electrolyte at different concentrations. The short-circuit photocurrent signal was enhanced by both localized SPR of the gold nanoparticles and by the effects of grating-coupled propagating SPR. Using the hybrid SPR-enhancement system, CPF detection was achieved at concentrations as low as 7.5 nM. The proposed technique of leveraging a multifunctional photovoltaic effect can be used for a variety of sensing applications.
Caregivers of people with dementia are likely to have psychological distress that sometimes results in mental health problems, such as depression. The objective of this study was to examine some predictive factors that are thought to be associated with psychological distress of caregivers of people with dementia in Japan.
Design: A cross-sectional study. Sample: As part of a study to estimate the cost of dementia in Japan, 1,437 people with dementia-caregiver dyads were enrolled in the current informal care time study. The measurements in the study included were the basic characteristics of the caregivers and the people with dementia, and the informal care time during a week.
Factors that predict caregivers’ psychological distress, which was measured by Kessler's Psychological Distress scale (K6) score, were evaluated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses.
Approximately 69% of the caregivers recorded a K6 score higher than 4, while 18% scored higher than 12. According to the results of the logistic regression analysis (cut-off 4/5), the K6 score was associated with mental and comorbid diseases of people with dementia, informal care time, its lower number of caregivers, and the level of nursing care. According to the results of logistic regression analysis (cut-off 12/13), the K6 score was associated with mental symptoms and comorbid disease of people with dementia, sex of caregivers, informal care time, and its lower number of caregivers.
Our findings indicated that the psychological distress of the caregivers is quite high and that informal care time and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are associated with it. These results corroborate with previous findings.
Unavailability of irrigation water for early sowing has remained a constant problem in cold arid deserts of Ladakh. In order to get a solution to this problem, a 2-yr farmers’ participatory research trial with best bet agronomic management on artificial glacier water harvesting technology was conducted. The technology involves collecting water from natural glaciers that melt during late December. The water is diverted toward a shed constructed with stone embankments set up at regular intervals. The area is chosen where there is minimum interference of solar radiation, generally between two mountain slopes or ridge that is on the leeward side. The melted water is that melts from the natural glacier impeded by the embankments and get frozen here. This frozen water starts melting in late March and is used for both pre sowing and initial crop water requirement. It also ensures early sowing of wheat by creating additional 45-day window which leads to introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties to replace decades old locally grown short-duration varieties. The work was initiated with a benchmark survey of 100 farmers to get an understanding of present irrigation scenario, crop management practices and date of sowing. Data from 99 farmer participating trial of wheat conducted after or from bench mark survey clearly indicated that the effect of water shortage can be seen on yield and yield attributing characters due to unavailability of pre sowing irrigation and water requirement at imperative growth stages and may also lead to terminal heat stress in wheat crop. Out of total number of irrigations applied, initial two irrigations can be compensated by artificial glacier water harvesting technique, leading to a revolution in the agriculture scenario of the tribal population by introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties in cold arid desert of Ladakh for the very first time. It was observed that wheat seeding done in first fortnight of April gave better yields in comparison to late seeded wheat. Moreover, the long-duration varieties (LDVs) or medium-duration varieties (MDVs) sown under late condition gave better yield in comparison to locally grown short-duration varieties sown at same time. Yield potential of LDVs and MDVs of wheat under late sowing was found quite low in comparison to early-sown wheat, still when compared with the performance of locally grown wheat the yields were more even if the local varieties were sown early. The outcome of this study will help the farmers of tribal, cold arid community in harvesting better wheat yields by timely sowing of the wheat crop accompanied with better bet agronomic management practices. Government initiative is further required to ensure better outreach of complete crop management strategies to the tribal farming community of the region in order to ensure food security and improve their socioeconomic status.
New coral microatoll data allow presenting an updated late Holocene sea-level curve for the Gilbert Islands of Kiribati. Examination of build-up elevation and spatial distribution of microatolls, along with radiocarbon age data from coral samples, suggest an approximately 1 m sea-level high stand, possibly lasting from ~3500 to 1900 cal yr BP. Our sea-level curve, which is similar to the one reported from the Marshall Islands, is a baseline to reconstruct the evolution of reef flats and reef islands. In addition, it provides important contextual data to infer human settlement on islands in the west-central Pacific.
We performed an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis to assess the intraseasonal variability of 5–60 day band-pass filtered Antarctic sea-ice concentration in austral winter using a 20-year daily dataset from 1995 to 2014. Zonal wave number 3 dominated in the Antarctic, especially so across the west Antarctic. Results showed the coexistence of stationary and propagating wave components. A spectral analysis of the first two principal components (PCs) showed a similar structure for periods up to 15 days but generally more power in PC1 at longer periods. Regression analysis upon atmospheric fields using the first two PCs of sea-ice concentration showed a coherent wave number 3 pattern. The spatial phase delay between the sea-ice and mean sea-level pressure patterns suggests that meridional flow and associated temperature advection are important for modulating the sea-ice field. EOF analyses carried out separately for El Niño, La Niña and neutral years, and for Southern Annular Mode positive, negative and neutral periods, suggest that the spatial patterns of wave number 3 shift between subsets. The results also indicate that El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode affect stationary wave interactions between sea-ice and atmospheric fields on intraseasonal timescales.
Studies of Galactic LPVs based on astrometric VLBI are presented. We use a VLBI array, “VERA”, to measure parallaxes and calibrate the K-band period luminosity relation (PLR) of the Galactic Miras. Since the PLR offers a distance indicator, its calibration is crucial to reveal their spatial distribution. Parallaxes of dozens of LPVs are presented. For the longer period stars, the mass-loss is high and the stars are obscured and recognized as OH/IR stars. We estimated mid-infrared absolute magnitudes of dozens of OH/IR stars and found that they show a loose concentration around −14 mag at λ of 11.6 μm, indicating an existence of PLR for OH/IR stars. Astrometry of OH/IR stars will also help us to study non-steady spiral arms as proposed from the latest simulation study of the galactic dynamics. We will start astrometric VLBI observation of two OH/IR stars NSV25875 and OH127.8+0.0 at 43 GHz with VERA.