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Neighbourhood environment has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of older people. In recent years, the increase in older Chinese immigrants globally has attracted a growing amount of research which has investigated the health and wellbeing of these elderly residents. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic literature review of empirical findings on the health and wellbeing of older Chinese immigrants and the ways in which the neighbourhood environment impacts them. A systematic search was conducted using online databases where 52 articles met specific criteria and were subsequently reviewed critically. An inductive approach was undertaken to analyse the data extracted from the selected articles. The review was categorised according to the following themes: neighbourhood social environment, neighbourhood physical environment and place attachment. The findings show that the majority of research has investigated the health status of older immigrants, and in particular, the impacts related to the social environments in which they live. The literature review indicated that there is scope for future studies to investigate the impact of the physical neighbourhood environment on this group of people.
While learning is at the core of any education (e.g., primary or high school, college, or continuing medical education, to name a few), evidence-based methods of effective memorization are lacking from most forms of education. If attempts are made to teach memorization techniques, they are often without a sound scientific backing. The classical form of memorization (popularly known as “cramming”, or “rote learning”) is tedious, time consuming, and - we know from personal experience - can be so boring that students avoid memorizing at all. A “new” technique of memorization, which is usually referred to as “mnemonics” or “memory techniques” (first reported as being used by the Greeks and the Romans to learn speeches by heart) has received rave reviews from enthusiastic users. A quick search of the scientific databases shows the technique has been studied quite extensively in a number of areas, including education, the medical world, and in the field of learning disabilities, but as far as we know no systematic reviews have assessed the effectivity of using the mnemonics technique versus classical memorization in education.
We hypothesize that memorization using mnemonics is a more effective strategy than classical memorization(cramming). To study this hypothesis we have performed a systematic review as described below. In this poster we will describe our study and show preliminary findings.
Design: We have performed a systematic review using the Rapid Evidence Assessment procedure described by the Center for Evidence Based Management.
Setting and participants: Studies included limited to those that tested the use of mnemonics in education (primary school, high school, university).
Interventions and main outcome measure of the primary studies: We included studies that compared memorization using mnemonics with “regular” memorization (cramming).
Using 4 databases (Academic Search Premier, PubMed, ERIC and PsycInfo) we found 803 articles. After one round of filtering 589 articles were excluded from the study. The major reasons for exclusion were: learning disabilities, non-educational setting, and no study. In this poster we present the results of the first 10 papers that were included after the second, more stringent, round of filtering. In all 10 papers the mnemonics group performed significantly better on at least a number of the memorization tasks, but in no instance worse than the control group. In some cases where the control groups performed worse, the results were not significant.
This poster describes the analysis of the first 10 papers of our full set of mnemonics studies. They all show a significant advantage of using mnemonics in memorization. If these results are confirmed in our full systematic review, we expect this to have a significant impact on the way “learning how to learn” is taught.
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on creating age-friendly cities to accommodate the changing needs of older people and to promote their overall health and wellbeing. This paper focuses on some of the urban planning implications related to maintaining the social health, as a main component of overall health and wellbeing, of older people. Specifically, we look at the role and accessibility of third places (popular public places where many people go to socialise) in relation to older people living in different neighbourhood built-form patterns, and how these factors impact on the formation of absent, weak and strong social ties. The data draw upon interviews with 54 older people living in different neighbourhood built-form patterns on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Our findings demonstrate the significant role third places have in affording older people opportunities to engage in the social lives of their local communities, thus contributing to their social health and overall wellbeing. This research supports previous studies relating to the accessibility of amenities by re-emphasising the importance of planning for the provision of third places that are conveniently located and easily accessible by older people. The paper concludes by arguing for the planning of transport and third-place interventions in Australia's sprawling suburban landscapes to allow older people more opportunities to be socially connected.
The large scatter in Lyman-α opacity at z > 5.3 has been an ongoing mystery, prompting a flurry of numerical models. A uniform ultra-violet background has been ruled out at those redshifts, but it is unclear whether any proposed models produce sufficient inhomogeneities. In this paper we provide an update on the measurement which first highlighted the issue: Lyman-α effective optical depth along high-z quasar lines of sight. We nearly triple on the previous sample size in such a study thanks to the cooperation of the DES-VHS, SHELLQs, and SDSS collaborations as well as new reductions and spectra. We find that a uniform UVB model is ruled out at 5.1 < z < 5.3, as well as higher redshifts, which is perplexing. We provide the first such measurements at z ∼ 6. None of the numerical models we confronted to this data could reproduce the observed scatter.
The major histocompatibility complex region has been implicated in explaining some of the variation observed in adaptability and tick susceptibility of cattle. The bovine leukocyte antigen region of 192 cattle representing indigenous, composite and exotic breeds used in commercial beef production in Namibia and South Africa was investigated using four microsatellite markers. Ticks counted under the tail were taken as an indicator of tick susceptibility. Tick scores of all but one population was low (11 to 20 ticks), with only the South African Bonsmara population having an average score of 31 to 40 ticks per animal. The observed variation based on four microsatellite markers ranged from 5.5 alleles in Namibian Afrikaner to 7.7 alleles in South African Nguni and Bonsmara cattle. Unbiased heterozygosity values ranged from 0.66 (Namibian Afrikaner) to 0.76 (South African Bonsmara). Structure analyses grouped the five populations into three indistinct clusters with limited genetic variation between the populations.
The most popular beef breed in South Africa is the Bonsmara, a locally developed composite breed adapted to sub-tropical conditions. The establishment of a genomic reference population is currently ongoing for the application of genomic selection. To date, 583 Bonsmara cattle (388 bulls and 195 cows) have been genotyped with the GeneSeek® Genomic Profiler Bovine HD™ Chip (GGP-HD) 80 K chip, and the population structure of the reference population was studied. The average minor allele frequency for the Bonsmara was 0.280 across 56 248 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.361 and 0.365, respectively. After pruning the data set for SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, 19 119 SNPs were retained, averaging 659 SNPs per autosomal chromosome. This generated an average SNP density of 1 SNP per 90 kb. Structure analysis revealed a non-homogenous population with a high level of genetic admixture, which may negatively influence genomic breeding value prediction accuracy. Genotyping of a further 990 Bonsmara cattle are pending, using the GeneSeek® GGP-HD 150 K chip. As more animals will be added to the reference population, the profile of the reference population are expected to change in such a way to ensure improved genomic estimated breeding value accuracies.
Various types of systems across a broad range of disciplines contain tandem queues with nested sessions. Strong dependence between the servers has proved to make such networks complicated and difficult to study. Exact analysis is in most of the cases intractable. Moreover, even when performance metrics such as the saturation throughput and the utilization rates of the servers are known, determining the limiting factor of such a network can be far from trivial. In our work, we present a simple, tractable and nevertheless relatively accurate method for approximating the above mentioned performance measurements for any server in a given network. In addition, we propose an extension to the intuitive “slowest server rule” for identification of the bottleneck, and show through extensive numerical experiments that this method works very well.
Depressive symptoms are common in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The association between depressive symptoms and conversion to dementia is not yet clear. This longitudinal study was conducted to ascertain whether depressive symptoms in aMCI patients are predictive of conversion to dementia.
35 aMCI patients participated in this study. All participants underwent cognitive testing and were administered the geriatric depression scale (GDS) to determine the presence of depressive symptoms. A score equaling or higher than 11 on the GDS was taken as the cut-off point for presence of significant depressive symptoms. Conversion to dementia was assessed at follow-up visits after 1.5, 4, and 10 years.
31.4% of the patients reported depressive symptoms at baseline. None of the cognitive measures revealed a significant difference at baseline between patients with and without depressive symptoms. After 1.5, 4, and 10 years respectively 6, 14, and 23 patients had converted to dementia. Although the GDS scores at baseline did not predict conversion to dementia, the cognitive measures and more specifically a verbal cued recall task (the memory impairment scale-plus) was a good predictor for conversion.
Based on this dataset, the presence of depressive symptoms in aMCI patients is not predictive of conversion to dementia.
Secure attachment is characterised by a secure base script regarding the attachment figure as a source for support. Having such a cognitive script should affect the stability of state attachment. Specifically, incongruent attachment-related information should get assimilated to this secure base script, leading to state attachment scores that hardly fluctuate. For children without a script, state attachment should vary depending on the quality of attachment-related interactions. Two diary studies were carried out in 9- to 13-year-old children. Results suggested that with assimilation: (1) securely attached children fluctuated less in their daily attachment-related appraisals; (2) fluctuations were related to conflicts with mother; (3) this relation was stronger for less securely attached children. Consequently, these studies further support the secure base script hypothesis and provide insight into the interplay of trait and state components of attachment-related appraisals.
In order to minimise drag, the front part of most modern glider fuselages is shaped so that laminar flow is preserved to a position close to the wing-to-fuselage junction. Experimental investigations on a full-scale JS1 competition glider however revealed that the laminar boundary layer in fact trips to turbulent flow at the fuselage-to-canopy junction position, increasing drag. This is possibly due to ventilation air leaking from the cockpit to the fuselage surface through the canopy seal, or that the gap is merely too large and therefore trips the boundary layer to turbulent flow. The effect of air leaking from the fuselage-to-canopy gap as well as the size of the gap was thus investigated with the use of computational fluid dynamics. It was found that if air was leaking through this gap the boundary layer would be tripped from laminar to turbulent flow. It was also found that the width of the canopy-to-fuselage gap plays a significant role in the preservation of laminar flow. If the gap is less than 1mm wide, the attached boundary layer is able to negotiate the gap without being tripped to turbulent flow, while if the gap is 3mm and wider, it will be tripped from laminar to turbulent flow. The work shows that aerodynamic drag on a glider can be significantly minimised by completely sealing the fuselage-to-canopy gap and by ensuring a seal gap-width of less than 1mm.
The origin of the condensation of water begins at the nanoscale, a length-scale that is challenging to probe for liquids. In this work we directly image heterogeneous nucleation of water nanodroplets by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Using gold nanoparticles bound to a flat surface as heterogeneous nucleation sites, we observe nucleation and growth of water nanodroplets. The growth of nanodroplet radii follows the power law: R(t)~(t−t0)β, where β~0.2−0.3.
The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for their phenotypical resistance against amoxicillin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Logistic regression analysis revealed the following risk factors (P < 0·05); farmer wearing the same work clothes for several days [ciprofloxacin, odds ratio (OR) 2·6; tetracycline, OR 2·4], administration of trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations (TMP/SMX, OR 3·0; amoxicillin, OR 3·1; tetracycline, OR 2·6), ⩾0·3 animal daily dosage per production cycle (ADD/pc), quinolones (ciprofloxacin, OR 2·8), ⩾1·3 ADD/pc, penicillins (ciprofloxacin, OR 3·3; tetracycline, OR 3·4), 20–40 ADD/pc, tetracyclines (tetracycline, OR 3·2) and >40 ADD/pc, tetracyclines (tetracycline, OR 13·1; amoxicillin, OR 6·5). In this study antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli was mainly associated with antimicrobial drug use.