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Cities have become critical drivers of global socio-economic, behavioural and environmental changes far beyond urbanised borders; their transformative force was recognised with the endorsement of SDG 11 to ‘make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable’. We provide an analysis of SDG 11’s impacts, considering global monitoring efforts and different local priorities linked to diverse urbanisation patterns. We focus particularly on the effects on forests and forest-based livelihoods, and propose a framework to assess synergies and trade-offs between SDG 11 and other SDGs, accounting for a range of city types. In terms of SDG 11 implementation, we found that countries tend to prioritise access to adequate housing and transport, with interlinkages to health, education and employment. Few countries enforce policies to ensure safe, green and accessible public places, or the protection of cultural and natural heritage in and around cities, despite the manifold benefits urban forests can bring. Little attention is given to building strategic social and environmental links between urban and rural areas. A more integrated approach to urban–rural territorial planning could have a positive impact by improving access to ecosystem services and socio-economic benefits generated by forests.
Conventional tests with written information used for the evaluation of sign language (SL) comprehension introduce distortions due to the translation process. This fact affects the results and conclusions drawn and, for that reason, it is necessary to design and implement the same language interpreter-independent evaluation tools. Novel web technologies facilitate the design of web interfaces that support online, multiple-choice questionnaires, while exploiting the storage of tracking data as a source of information about user interaction. This paper proposes an online, multiple-choice sign language questionnaire based on an intuitive methodology. It helps users to complete tests and automatically generates accurate, statistical results using the information and data obtained in the process. The proposed system presents SL videos and enables user interaction, fulfilling the requirements that SL interpretation is not able to cover. The questionnaire feeds a remote database with the user answers and powers the automatic creation of data for analytics. Several metrics, including time elapsed, are used to assess the usability of the SL questionnaire, defining the goals of the predictive models. These predictions are based on machine learning models, with the demographic data of the user as features for estimating the usability of the system. This questionnaire reduces costs and time in terms of interpreter dedication, as well as widening the amount of data collected while employing user native language. The validity of this tool was demonstrated in two different use cases.
The upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea is a benthic scyphozoan, considered a non-indigenous invasive species in the Mediterranean, forming large blooms in eutrophic areas. Taxonomy of the genus Cassiopea is extremely difficult because morphological/meristic characters used are variable within the same species, overlapping among different species, and cryptic species have been identified by molecular markers; nine Cassiopea species are recognized on the basis of molecular study. Mediterranean records of Cassiopea have been ascribed to andromeda species on the basis of a hypothesized invasion pathway from the Suez Canal. In the current study, an analysis of the main morphological characters of the sampled Cassiopea jellyfish from Palermo (Tyrrhenian Sea) was carried out and subsequently, molecular analyses were performed by using COI barcode in order to identify the species. Molecular data were compared with published information in GenBank. Morphological characters were highly variable, but molecular analyses confirmed that Mediterranean Cassiopea specimens belong to andromeda species. Moreover, high values of sequence divergence were found between Mediterranean Cassiopea and the other C. andromeda from the Red Sea, Hawaii and Florida. These results lead to a discussion of possible explanations linked to life history features of the species. Two different explanations are proposed; the first is that Mediterranean C. andromeda, finding a suitable ecological niche good for colonization and proliferation, could have been isolated in Palermo Harbour. The second considers the possibility of multiple introduction events by human transport as demonstrated for other non-indigenous jellyfish; in this case Cassiopea genetic differences increased in the invaded area.
Talking about odors and flavors is difficult for most people, yet experts appear to be able to convey critical information about wines in their reviews. This seems to be a contradiction, and wine expert descriptions are frequently received with criticism. Here, we propose a method for probing the language of wine reviews, and thus offer a means to enhance current vocabularies, and as a by-product question the general assumption that wine reviews are gibberish. By means of two different quantitative analyses—support vector machines for classification and Termhood analysis—on a corpus of online wine reviews, we tested whether wine reviews are written in a consistent manner, and thus may be considered informative; and whether reviews feature domain-specific language. First, a classification paradigm was trained on wine reviews from one set of authors for which the color, grape variety, and origin of a wine were known, and subsequently tested on data from a new author. This analysis revealed that, regardless of individual differences in vocabulary preferences, color and grape variety were predicted with high accuracy. Second, using Termhood as a measure of how words are used in wine reviews in a domain-specific manner compared to other genres in English, a list of 146 wine-specific terms was uncovered. These words were compared to existing lists of wine vocabulary that are currently used to train experts. Some overlap was observed, but there were also gaps revealed in the extant lists, suggesting these lists could be improved by our automatic analysis.
Diagnosing heart failure (HF) in primary care can be challenging, especially
in elderly patients with comorbidities. Insight in the prevalence, age,
comorbidity and routine practice of diagnosing HF in general practice may
improve the process of diagnosing HF.
To examine the prevalence of HF in relation to ageing and comorbidities, and
routine practice of diagnosing HF in general practice.
A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from electronic health
records of 56 320 adult patients of 11 general practices. HF patients were
compared with patients without HF using descriptive analyses and
χ2 tests. The following comorbidities were considered: chronic
obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension,
anaemia and renal function disorder (RFD). Separate analyses were performed
for men and women.
The point prevalence of HF was 1.2% (95% confidence interval
1.13–1.33) and increased with each age category from 0.04%
(18–44 years) to 20.9% (⩾85 years). All studied
comorbidities were significantly (P<0.001) more
common in HF patients than in patients without HF: COPD (24.1% versus
3.1%), DM (34.7% versus 6.5%), hypertension
(52.7% versus 16.0%), anaemia (10.9% versus
2.3%) and RFD (61.8% versus 7.5%). N-terminal pro-BNP
(NT-proBNP) was recorded in 38.1% of HF patients.
HF is highly associated with ageing and comorbidities. Diagnostic use of
NT-proBNP in routine primary care seems underutilized. Instruction of GPs to
determine NT-proBNP in patients suspected of HF is recommended, especially
In elderly patients with comorbidities.
We examined the role of the most important metabolic enzyme families in the detoxification of neurotoxic insecticides on adult males and females from susceptible populations of Cydia pomonella (L.), Grapholita molesta (Busck), and Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). The interaction between the enzyme families – carboxylesterases (EST), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and polysubstrate monooxygenases (PSMO) – with the insecticides – chlorpyrifos, λ-cyhalothrin, and thiacloprid – was studied. Insect mortality arising from the insecticides, with the application of enzyme inhibitors – S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), diethyl maleate (DEM), and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) – was first determined. The inhibitors' influence on EST, GST, and PSMO activity was quantified. EST and PSMO (the phase-I enzymatic activities) were involved in the insecticide detoxification in the three species for both sexes, highlighting the role of EST, whereas GST (phase-II enzymes) was involved only in G. molesta insecticide detoxification. L. botrana exhibited, in general, the highest level of enzymatic activity, with a significantly higher EST activity compared with the other species. It was the only species with differences in the response between sexes, with higher GST and PSMO activity in females than in males, which can be explained as the lower susceptibility of the females to the tested insecticides. A positive correlation between PSMO activity and the thiacloprid LD50s in the different species-sex groups was observed explaining the species-specific differences in susceptibility to the product reported in a previous study.
The chapter explores the history of African linguistics in the Southern African region on Bantu and the so-called Khoisan languages, from an inside-Africa perspective. The focus is on research activities and methodological approaches which were established and home-grown and are largely conducted in loco by African researchers with or without (further) outside stimuli at local universities and research institutions. Such a perspective regards the impact from Europe as more or less imposed or solicited ‘academic fertilization’ for the growth of local and regional structures and institutions. Furthermore, stories of success and failure on African soil are included, suggesting a clear-cut distinction of the apartheid and post-apartheid periods in South Africa and Namibia.
In this paper, we address query-based summarization of discussion threads. New users can profit from the information shared in the forum, Please check if the inserted city and country names in the affiliations are correct. if they can find back the previously posted information. However, discussion threads on a single topic can easily comprise dozens or hundreds of individual posts. Our aim is to summarize forum threads given real web search queries. We created a data set with search queries from a discussion forum’s search engine log and the discussion threads that were clicked by the user who entered the query. For 120 thread–query combinations, a reference summary was made by five different human raters. We compared two methods for automatic summarization of the threads: a query-independent method based on post features, and Maximum Marginal Relevance (MMR), a method that takes the query into account. We also compared four different word embeddings representations as alternative for standard word vectors in extractive summarization. We find (1) that the agreement between human summarizers does not improve when a query is provided that: (2) the query-independent post features as well as a centroid-based baseline outperform MMR by a large margin; (3) combining the post features with query similarity gives a small improvement over the use of post features alone; and (4) for the word embeddings, a match in domain appears to be more important than corpus size and dimensionality. However, the differences between the models were not reflected by differences in quality of the summaries created with help of these models. We conclude that query-based summarization with web queries is challenging because the queries are short, and a click on a result is not a direct indicator for the relevance of the result.
This paper provides an overview of the legal regulation of intestate succession in Catalonia. In particular, it explores the principles that govern its operation and the main novelties introduced in it by the Law 10/2008, of 10 July, which enacted Book IV of the Catalan Civil Code, on the law of succession.
We document the occurrence of micro-diorite magmatic sills, with magmatic enclaves, in the Ceuta Peninsula within metapelites from the Lower Sebtides units (Internal Rif). All magmatic rocks show a primary magmatic mineralogy and geochemical signature diagnostic for high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic island arc magmatism. Moreover, these rocks are significantly affected by secondary metamorphic transformations under greenschist- to amphibolite-facies conditions, regionally dated at c. 21 Ma. Geometric relationships between the sills and the main regional foliation, developed under intermediate-pressure granulite-facies conditions at c. 28 Ma, demonstrate that the sills emplaced during the late stage of this main tectonic event. New U–Pb in situ analyses of monazite performed on the micro-diorite sills provide an age of 20.64 ± 0.19 Ma, coherent with this chronological framework and interpreted as the age of greenschist-facies re-equilibration. The discovery of pre-Miocene high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic arc-related magmatism is clearly consistent with the subduction context proposed for the Alboran Basin evolution, according to geophysical investigations. In this framework, the Lower Sebtides units could be considered as part of the upper plate of the subduction system, while the Upper Sebtides must be regarded as the lower subducted plate.
In this exploratory case study based on qualitative research, we explore the perspectives and experiences of autistic self-advocates in the Netherlands regarding autism, (self-)advocacy, and consumer-run organizations. The focus of our study is a consumer-run organization by and for adult Persons on the Autism Spectrum in the Netherlands: PAS-Nederland or PAS for short. Our analysis reveals four themes relevant to the acceptance and integration of adults with autism into society and work: (1) invisibility of autistic adults; (2) diversity of the autism spectrum; (3) autistic leadership; and (4) collaboration between people with and without autism. We discuss the practical implications of our findings for the inclusion of people with autism in work and society. Our study underscores the importance of putting autistic people at the center of decision-making processes and solutions aimed at improving their outcomes in society, in general, and in the workplace specifically.
Following stage 1 palliation, delayed sternal closure may be used as a technique to enhance thoracic compliance but may also prolong the length of stay and increase the risk of infection.
We reviewed all neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation at our institution between 2010 and 2017 to describe the effects of delayed sternal closure.
During the study period, 193 patients underwent stage 1 palliation, of whom 12 died before an attempt at sternal closure. Among the 25 patients who underwent primary sternal closure, 4 (16%) had sternal reopening within 24 hours. Among the 156 infants who underwent delayed sternal closure at 4 [3,6] days post-operatively, 11 (7.1%) had one or more failed attempts at sternal closure. Patients undergoing primary sternal closure had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay. Patients who failed delayed sternal closure had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (123±42 versus 99±35 minutes, p=0.029) and circulatory arrest time (39±28 versus 19±17 minutes, p=0.0009) than those who did not fail. Failure of delayed sternal closure was also closely associated with Technical Performance Score: 1.3% of patients with a score of 1 failed sternal closure compared with 18.9% of patients with a score of 3 (p=0.0028). Among the haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters studied, only superior caval vein saturation following sternal closure was different between patients who did and did not fail sternal closure (30±7 versus 42±10%, p=0.002). All patients who failed sternal closure did so within 24 hours owing to hypoxaemia, hypercarbia, or haemodynamic impairment.
When performed according to our current clinical practice, sternal closure causes transient and mild changes in haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters. Monitoring of SvO2 following sternal closure may permit early identification of patients at risk for failure.