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This article compares the efforts of two Australian entrepreneurs to import Japanese entertainments for theatres in mid-twentieth-century Australia. David N. Martin of the Tivoli Circuit and Harry Wren, an independent producer, were rivals in the business of touring variety-revue. Both travelled to Japan in 1957, the year that the governments of Australia and Japan signed a landmark trade agreement. Whereas Martin's efforts were hampered by the legacy of wartime attitudes, Wren embraced the post-war optimism for trade. Wren became the Australian promoter for the Toho Company of Japan, touring a series of Toho revues until 1968. These Toho tours have been overlooked in Australian histories of cultural exchange with Japan. Drawing on evidence from archival sources and developing insights from foreign policy of the time, this article examines why Australian entrepreneurs turned to Japan, what Toho sent on tour, and how Toho's revues played in Australia. It analyses trade in touring entertainment as a form of entrepreneurial diplomacy that sought to realize the prospects of regional integration.
A rapid low-pressure plasma sintering process of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles is reported, yielding a conductivity of 11.4% of bulk silver within 1 min of plasma exposure and a final conductivity up to 40% of bulk silver for longer sintering times. The maximum processing temperature did not exceed 70 °C, which enabled the use of cost-effective polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foils. Fully functional radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags were prepared with inkjet-printed antennas, which showed similar results as screen-printed devices. The inkjet-printed antennas require significantly less materials, hence thinner layers, than the screen-printed references.
Factor models yield an R2 insignificantly different from 0 for one-third of hedge funds in a broad sample. These funds illustrate the concept of market neutrality and feature lower volatilities, higher Sharpe ratios, and higher alphas than other funds, indicating that they provide a successful alternative investment. However, large portfolios of zero-R2 funds contain fully half the volatility of portfolios of other funds, suggesting that they feature substantial systematic risk. Furthermore, these funds display an increased probability of failure even after controlling for idiosyncratic volatility. These results indicate the presence of an omitted factor that exposes investors to significant downside risk.
The analysis of long-term monitoring data is increasingly important; not only for the discovery and documentation of changes in environmental systems, but also as an enterprise whose fruits validate the allocation of effort and scarce funds to monitoring. In simple terms, we may distinguish between the detection of change in some ecosystem attribute versus the investigation of causes and consequences associated with that change. The statistical framework known as structural equation modeling (SEM) can contribute to both detection of changes and the search for causes. This chapter summarizes some of the capabilities of SEM and shows a few ways it can be used to model temporal change. Because of its ability to test hypotheses about whether rates of change are zero or nonzero, it can be used for change detection with repeated-measures data. As more of the capabilities of SEM are presented, its capacity for evaluating causal networks is highlighted. Here is where its potential for making a unique contribution to the analysis of long-term monitoring data is revealed. Thus, one's primary motivation for using SEM with monitoring data will be to investigate hypotheses about what factors may be driving change (Box 15.1).
We show that if true returns are independently distributed and a manager fully reports gains but delays reporting losses, then reported returns will feature conditional serial correlation. We use conditional serial correlation as a measure of conditional return smoothing. We estimate conditional serial correlation in a large sample of hedge funds. We find that the probability of observing conditional serial correlation is related to the volatility and magnitude of investor cash flows, consistent with conditional return smoothing in response to the risk of capital flight. We also present evidence that conditional serial correlation is a leading indicator of fraud.
I study the dynamics of investor cash flows in socially responsible mutual funds. Consistent with anecdotal evidence of loyalty, the monthly volatility of investor cash flows is lower in socially responsible funds than in conventional funds. I find strong evidence that cash flows into socially responsible funds are more sensitive to lagged positive returns than cash flows into conventional funds, and weaker evidence that cash outflows from socially responsible funds are less sensitive to lagged negative returns. These results indicate that investors derive utility from the socially responsible attribute, especially when returns are positive.
This paper measures changes in mutual fund trading costs following two reductions in the tick size of U.S. equity markets: the switch from eighths to sixteenths and the subsequent switch to decimals. We estimate trading costs by comparing a mutual fund's daily returns to the daily returns of a synthetic benchmark portfolio that matches the fund's holdings but has zero trading costs by construction. We find that the average change in trading costs of actively managed funds was positive following both reductions in tick size with a larger and statistically significant increase following decimalization. In contrast, index fund trading costs were unaffected.
The littoral forest of the Fort Dauphin region of south-east Madagascar is expected to lose numerous endemic plant and animal species in the near future as a result of deforestation and consequent habitat changes. The disruption of plant-animal interactions is of particular concern. This review describes the conservation status of the littoral forest of Sainte Luce, Fort Dauphin, and examines the role of animal-facilitated seed dispersal in regeneration. The main threats to this habitat are described and possible management implications are discussed in relation to existing initiatives. Protection of the largest remaining forest fragments has been agreed by local communities and a draft plan for forest management is currently under evaluation. Over the next few years plantations will be created to provide local people with wood for fuel and other purposes. An important flying fox Pteropus rufus roost site needs to be included in conservation plans because of its importance for long-distance seed dispersal. Despite the presence of natural barriers, the creation of forest corridors will be crucial for connecting isolated fragments and facilitating genetic exchange between subpopulations. Increased attention needs to be given to the need to promote conservation-related income activities.
The major surface protease (msp or gp63) of Leishmania plays a major role in the host–parasite interaction. We analysed here the structure of the msp gene locus in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and compared it to results obtained in other species. Physical mapping of cosmid contigs revealed a minimum of 37 genes per haploid genome and at least 8 different msp gene families. Within the same organism, these genes showed a nucleotide sequence varying in certain stretches from 3 to 34%, and a mosaic structure. From an evolutionary point of view, major differences were observed between subgenera Viannia and Leishmania, both in terms of msp gene number and sequence. Within subgenus Viannia, phenetic analysis revealed three clusters in which sequence variants of L. (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (Viannia) guyanensis were interspersed. Functional implications of our results were explored from predicted L. (Viannia) braziliensis protein sequences: regions encoding the msp catalytic site showed a conserved sequence, while regions encoding surface domains possibly involved in the host–parasite interaction (macrophage adhesion sites and immunodominant B-cell and T-cell epitopes) were variable. We speculate that this would be an adaptive strategy of the parasite.
Increased growth of meningiomas during pregnancy as well as postpartum clinical regression of symptoms have been reported but remain poorly understood. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to these observations, including potential factors associated with pregnancy, could enable design of more effective adjuvant therapies.
We describe the presentation of a meningioma during the immediate postpartum period. Serial imaging demonstrated subsequent rapid decrease in size of the tumour prior to any intervention. The lesion was resected, and the tissue was subjected to immunostaining for gene products associated with pregnancy, including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB), fibroblastic growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human placental lactogen (hPL).
The lesion proved to be an atypical fibroblastic meningioma grade II (WHO). Immunostaining demonstrated significant staining for PR, PDGFRB, and FGFR-2. No specific staining for ER, EGFR, or hPL was identified.
Although clinical regression of meningioma following pregnancy is well-recognized, imaging data are much less abundant. This report provides clear clinical and imaging documentation of a meningioma associated with pregnancy. In addition, the growth factor profile of this tumour suggests the importance of PR, PDGFRB, and FGFR-2 as potential therapeutic targets.
Although, in principle, states decide completely autonomously which persons are given their nationality, they can limit their autonomy by concluding treaties with each other. Thereby they accept certain international obligations. This article contains critical reflections on the nationality law of the Netherlands in international perspective. The authors provide an overview of the treaties that are relevant in the field of nationality law and that have been ratified by the Netherlands. They proceed by describing the nationality law of the Netherlands. The various grounds for the acquisition – ex lege, by declaration of option and by naturalisation – and loss of Netherlands nationality are discussed. Special attention is paid to the relation of the new provisions of the Nationality Act with the international obligations deriving from the treaties that have been ratified by the Netherlands. The authors conclude that, although some modifications to the Nationality Act that were realised in 2003 were aimed specifically at bringing Netherlands nationality law better in compliance with international obligations, there are still several points which are problematic in perspective of international law.
Interactions among fleshy fruits and frugivore assemblages are presented from a 1-y study in the littoral forest of Sainte Luce, south-eastern Madagascar. This community-level approach allowed us to determine food selection by all consumer species and to evaluate the role different frugivores play in seed dispersal and predation. For this, interactions between 136 consumed fruit species and 13 frugivorous species were studied. Fruit and seed size were the most important physical factors determining food selection of all consumer species. Nutritionally birds favoured and mammals avoided lipid-rich fruits. For Cheirogaleus spp., that go into torpor, there was a trend to select sugar-rich fruit pulp. However, for numerous fruit traits the consumer species had no clear feeding preferences and they seemed to be quite flexible, eating whatever was available. This might be related to unpredictable fruit availability and low fruit productivity in the littoral forest, which may also partially explain the low number of frugivores present. Nevertheless frugivores have different impacts on seed dispersal. Eulemur fulvus collaris is particularly important for the dispersal of large-seeded species, while frugivorous birds and flying foxes ensure plant regeneration between and outside forest fragments. In terms of conservation, heterogeneous seed transport is particularly important for this severely degraded littoral forest.
Geoffrey T. Manley, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA,
Miki Fujimura, Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA,
Tonghui Ma, Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA,
Ferda Filiz, Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA,
Andrew W. Bollen, Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA,
Pak H. Chan, Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA,
Alan S. Verkman, Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA
Abnormalities in brain water balance, such as edema and increased intracranial pressure, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute head trauma, stroke and a variety of neurological disorders. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for these alterations in cerebral water balance. Consequently, at present the therapeutic options are limited to neurosurgical decompression, intravenous administration of hyperosmolar agents and steroids, therapies that were introduced more than 40 years ago. There is recent evidence that molecular water channels called aquaporins, which have recently been identified in mammals, may play an important role in brain edema, thus offering therapeutic alternatives.
Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that function primarily as bidirectional water-selective transporters in many cell types in the kidney, lung and other fluid-transporting tissues where water flow is driven by osmotic gradients and hydrostatic pressure differences. The brain expresses at least two members of the aquaporin family in areas that are known to participate in the production and absorption of brain fluid. Aquaporin-1 is selectively expressed on the ventricular surface of choroid plexus epithelium where it may play a role in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is abundantly expressed throughout the brain, particularly at the blood–brain and brain–CSF interfaces. AQP4 is expressed to a much lesser extent in tissue outside of the nervous system.
To determine the relative importance of different risk factors for the development of surgical-site infections (SSIs) in orthopedic surgery with prosthetic implants.
In a cohort of 272 patients, the following possible risk factors were studied: age, gender, method of hair removal, duration of operation, surgeon, underlying illness, and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Infections were recorded following the Centers for Disease Control criteria. The relation between risk factors and SSI was tested in univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis.
Community hospital in Breda, The Netherlands.
18 (6.6%) of 272 patients experienced SSI: 11 superficial and 7 deep SSI. These infections led in three cases to removal of the prosthesis and caused 286 extra days in hospital. The main causative pathogen was S aureus. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were independent risk factors for the development of SSI: high-level nasal carriage of S aureus (P=.04), male gender (P=.005), and surgeon 1 (P=.006). The only independent risk factor for SSI with S aureus was high-level nasal carriage of S aureus (P=.002).
High-level nasal carriage of S aureus was the most important and only significant independent risk factor for developing SSI with S aureus.
In response to the need for a faster, more reliable method for
identifying Phytophthora cinnamomi in cork oak soils in Portugal,
simple, fast, sensitive molecular identification method is described.
It is based on a colorimetric assay which involves an
oligonucleotide capture probe covalently immobilised on microtitration
a multi-biotinylated oligonucleotide detection probe
and the PCR-amplified target DNA. The target DNA is a 349 bp DNA fragment
partially covering the 3′-translated and 3′-untranslated regions
of the cinnamomin gene. When the specificity of the PCR reaction was evaluated
in vitro using isolates of
P. cinnamomi and eight other Phytophthora species,
including the related P. cambivora, it was specific to P.
cinnamomi. When 30
isolates of P. cinnamomi from oak roots in southern Portugal were
assayed, 26 gave a strong positive response. The assay has a
sensitivity of about 2–5 genome equivalents of P.
cinnamomi. The reason for the negative response of four isolates
Leishmania infantum immunoelectrophoretic antigen 24 (AG
visceral leishmaniasis associated immunodominant
antigen, has been characterized with a monospecific antiserum by combining
SDS–PAGE, immunoblotting, metabolic
labelling, radio-immunoprecipitation and in vitro poly A+
mRNA translation. AG 24 appeared to correspond to a multi-antigen family
6–9 members ranging from 20 to 31 kDa and proteinic by nature with
no post-translational modifications.
A similar banding pattern was recognized by infection sera. AG 24 was
not found exposed on the cell surface.
The parasomnias are important yet badly recognised dysfunctions in clinical psychiatry. The clinical presentation and consequences in adults differ considerably from the often benign dysfunction in childhood. We present a case of incubus in a patient suffering from recurrent unipolar affective psychosis (type mania). The polysomnographic features are discussed and the differentiation from other paroxysmal amnestic conditions is emphasized. Pathophysiology encompasses a Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) arousal disorder probably related to a serotoninergic dysfunction. The relationship withpsychopa-thology is discussed.