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Authentic learning is an approach to teaching where the learning is embedded in a real world context, in real situations or simulations, and offers students opportunities for problem solving challenges much like they will encounter in real life. This paper discusses and reflects upon the development a course designed to teach Socially Responsible Design approaches, methods and tools to Product Design Engineering students using global projects. Our research question was to investigate if this Socially Responsible Design course, it's structure, delivery, learning activities and assessments combined to deliver an authentic learning experience. Through informal interviews with staff, review of student reflections, review of university student feedback comments and consideration of final outcomes, all within the framework of Herrington and Oliver's nine elements of authentic learning, we found that this course did provide an authentic learning experience for many reasons. This study offers academics a frame work for reviewing existing and future courses with a view to creating or enhancing authentic learning experiences using project based learning
The ‘Digital Index of North American Archaeology’ (DINAA) project demonstrates how the aggregation and publication of government-held archaeological data can help to document human activity over millennia and at a continental scale. These data can provide a valuable link between specific categories of information available from publications, museum collections and online databases. Integration improves the discovery and retrieval of records of archaeological research currently held by multiple institutions within different information systems. It also aids in the preservation of those data and makes efforts to archive these research results more resilient to political turmoil. While DINAA focuses on North America, its methods have global applicability.
The author's experience of the day-to-day issues faced as an educator in an Aboriginal school are recounted, along with perspectives gained as part of a research project. The proposition is argued that an Education for Sustainability approach, where learning is structured around a negotiated environmental issue within local community, represents a cultural accommodation or halfway point between mainstream formal schooling and the needs of Indigenous learners. This article contends that such an educative approach meets Indigenous learners ‘halfway’, through compatibility with Indigenous values frameworks and employing culturally appropriate pedagogical methods. The argument is made that by demonstrating a willingness to negotiate worthwhile environmentally based projects that address community ecological concerns, EfS may be able to improve community support and mitigate impediments to the engagement of Indigenous learners with formal education. A critical pedagogy of place (Grunewald, 2003) is discussed as a theoretical framework that combines place-based pedagogy with empowering educational theory. Indigenous learners’ connection with place is recognised in this approach and ascribed a positive rather than negative value.
This paper reviews and summarizes preliminary data on the taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of oribatid mites of Canadian peatlands, primarily those of eastern Canada. This fauna is a heterogenous assemblage comprising 71 species in 49 genera and 34 families, found in four main types of habitats: aquatic, mesic, xeric, and epigeal. About half of the oribatid fauna of peatlands, and most aquatic species, are restricted in distribution to the Nearctic. Oribatid taxa known or suspected to be parthenogenetic are much better represented in peatlands than in the general Canadian fauna. Data on the feeding habits of odonate larvae in Newfoundland bog pools, based on gut content analysis, show that oribatid mites, in particular species of Limnozetes Hull and Hydrozetes Berlese, are common prey of species of Aeshna Fabricius, Leucorrhina Brittinger, and Libellula L. A synopsis of available data suggests that assemblages of Limnozetes species may be useful in characterizing peatlands.
Recently, conservation estate in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province has increased 10-fold resulting in large predators being increasingly reintroduced to restore ecological integrity and maximize tourism. We describe the reintroductions of large carnivores (>10 kg) that have occurred in the Eastern Cape and use various criteria to assess their success. Lion Panthera leo reintroduction has been highly successful with a population of 56 currently extant in the region and problems of overpopulation arising. The African wild dog Lycaon pictus population has increased to 24 from a founder population of 11. Preliminary results for spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta also indicate success. Wild populations of leopards Panthera pardus exist on several reserves and have been supplemented by translocated individuals, although deaths of known individuals have occurred and no estimate of reproduction is available. Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus reintroduction has also been less successful with 36 individuals reintroduced and 23 cubs being born but only 41 individuals surviving in 2005. Criteria for assessing the success of reintroductions of species that naturally occur in low densities, such as top predators, generally have limited value. Carrying capacity for large predators is unknown and continued monitoring and intensive management will be necessary in enclosed, and possibly all, conservation areas in the Eastern Cape to ensure conservation success.
Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a biphasic anorexia in laboratory rats, the first phase coincident with lung invasion (ca
day 2) and the second when the worms mature in the intestine (ca day 8). Using the anthelminthic, mebendazole (MBZ),
N. brasiliensis infections of the rat were eliminated between the first and second anorexic episodes. This intervention
prevented the expression of the second phase of anorexia. Rats exposed to a second infection with N. brasiliensis, 3 weeks
after the primary infection, exhibited only a first phase anorexic response which was not influenced by MBZ termination
of the primary infection. The lower cumulative food intake and weight gain of all infected rats after 8 days of infection
were accompanied by elevated plasma insulin and, in some individuals, by elevated plasma leptin, compared with
uninfected controls and previously-infected MBZ-treated rats. Messenger RNA levels for neuropeptide Y were higher in
the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of 8-day infected rats than in recovering MBZ-treated animals. Inoculation of rats with
heat-killed N. brasiliensis larvae failed to induce anorexia and did not alter the severity of biphasic anorexia on subsequent
injection of viable larvae. The first anorexic episode is therefore dependent upon viable migrating larvae. The second
phase of anorexia clearly requires the continuing presence of the parasite beyond the lung phase. Viable migrating larvae
are also required to confer ‘resistance’ to reinfection.
The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fab.), is a domesticated pollinator important for alfalfa seed production in western Canada. Populations of M. rotundata are highly susceptible to chalkbrood, a disease caused by the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata Skou. The disease has caused high mortalities in M. rotundata populations in the northwestern United States since 1972. It was found in Manitoba in 1982, Alberta in 1983, and Saskatchewan in 1984 (Richards 1985). In subsequent surveys, A. aggregata has been detected only sporadically and at low levels of infection in Saskatchewan M. rotundata populations (Goerzen 1991). A previously reported observation of A. aggregata in the native leafcutting bee M. relativa Cresson (Goerzen et al. 1990) indicated that the disease is present in native leafcutting bee species which commonly immigrate into alfalfa leafcutting bee nest material.
The CSF concentrations of CRF, somatostatin and β-endorphin were determined in nine patients who fulfilled DSM–III criteria for major depression with psychotic features. CSF samples were obtained at baseline in the depressed state, and again after a course of ECT. Concentrations of both CRF and β-endorphin decreased after ECT, while the concentration of somatostatin increased, although the latter difference did not attain statistical significance. The increase in CSF concentrations of CRF and β-endorphin in depressed patients is therefore seen to be state-dependent.
The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fab.), is an important domesticated pollinator of alfalfa grown for seed in Canada. Chalkbrood, a disease caused by the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata Skou, has caused high mortalities in M. rotundata populations in the northwestern United States since 1972. Chalkbrood was found in Manitoba in 1982, Alberta in 1983, and Saskatchewan in 1984 (Richards 1985). Although subsequent surveys have indicated the presence of A. aggregata at high levels in some southern Alberta M. rotundata populations, the disease has been detected only sporadically and at low levels in Saskatchewan populations (Goerzen 1990).
The investigators explored whether electromyographic (EMG) mediated biofeedback would help patients with cervico-brachial pain syndrome (CBPS) reduce muscle contraction and aid in pain relief. Twenty seven volunteer subjects with medically diagnosed CBPS were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received EMG biofeedback mediated muscle relaxation of the neck for five, 40 minute sessions. The participants in the other group acted as "wait list" controls, and in turn, received treatment at the end of the study. Pre and post intervention measures consisted of EMG recordings of neck muscle activity; self-report measures of neck and general body relaxation, level of pain intensity, depression, anxiety and functional impairment. The results indicated that neck muscle activity, as measured by EMG, was significantly lower at the end of training. Associated with this reduction were a significant increase in self-reported neck and body relaxation and a significant reduction in the average intensity level of pain experienced by subjects over the pre to post intervention period. No changes were reported for the other measures.
This investigation of methods used in Astronomical Navigation has been carried out by means of questionnaires completed by senior students at a few of our Navigation Schools. The data has been classified into fairly broad categories since some of it has been rather difficult to assess, due to incomplete information on such details as trading areas, which watch was being kept, and the actual time spent at sea during the year.
The subject for our annual conference this year — Ethics and Theology — forces us to face one of the most difficult problems of religious thought, — the relation between God and morality. To this problem several solutions — all quite familiar — have been proposed and it will not be the purpose of my paper to suggest a new one of my own. In fact, as the sequel will show, I am very uncertain whether any completely satisfactory solution to the problem be possible. My aim is the much less ambitious one of placing the matter, with some of its difficulties, before the Society for discussion, in the hope that your collective wisdom may be able to throw more light upon this dark theme than the Society's benighted president for this year — who is no theologian — is able to contribute.
One of the simplest and most popular modes of conceiving the relation between God and the laws of morality is to equate righteousness with obedience to the divine will. God is good, we are told, and our goodness is to be defined as conformity to the will of God. One relatively superficial and pragmatic difficulty in accepting this view consists in the obvious fact that it is by no means easy to know with certainty what the will of God may be. Different philosophers, different prophets, different religions give us different and sometimes quite contradictory answers to this question.
Eighteen years ago, when Emerson Hall was nearing its completion, the motto chosen for its portal was that insistent query of the psalmist, “What is man that Thou art mindful of him?” No words could have been more appropriate for a building devoted to philosophy and psychology; and if we knew the answer to the question they propound we should have at least the key to the more fundamental problems of Natural Religion.
The individual's attitude toward the Determiner of Destiny, which is religion, has always an essentially practical coloring. It involves a belief, to be sure, but this belief is never a matter of pure theory; it bears a reference, more or less explicit, to the fate of the individual's values. Hence in nearly every religion which history has studied or anthropology discovered, the question of the future in store for the individual believer has been one of prime importance. The content of this belief is a question for the theologian and the historian of religion; the psychologist, however, may be able to throw some light on the related question why people believe, or fail to believe, in immortality at all. What, in short, are the psychological sources from which this belief springs, and what are the leading types of this belief?