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Situated on opposite flanks of Eurasia, ancient Mediterranean and Han-Chinese societies had a hazy understanding of each other's existence. But they had no grounded knowledge about one another, nor was there any form of direct interaction. In other words, their historical trajectories were independent. In recent years, however, many similarities between both cultures have been detected, which has energized the field of comparative history. The present volume adds to the debate a creative method of juxtaposing historical societies. Each contribution covers both ancient China and the Mediterranean in an accessible manner. Embarking from the observation that Greek, Roman, and Han-Chinese societies were governed by comparable features, the contributors to this volume explain the dynamic interplay between political rulers and the ruled masses in their culture specific manifestation as demos (Greece), populus (Rome) and min (China).
Introduction: Trauma care is highly complex and prone to medical errors. Accordingly, several studies have identified adverse events and conditions leading to potentially preventable or preventable deaths. Depending on the availability of specialized trauma care and the trauma system organization, between 10 and 30% of trauma-related deaths worldwide could be preventable if optimal care was promptly delivered. This narrative review aims to identify the main determinants and areas for improvements associated with potentially preventable trauma mortality. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1990 to a maximum of 6 months before submission for publication. Experimental or observational studies that have assessed determinants and areas for improvements that are associated with trauma death preventability were considered for inclusion. Two researchers independently selected eligible studies and extracted the relevant data. The main areas for improvements were classified using the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations patient event taxonomy. No statistical analyses were performed given the data heterogeneity. Results: From the 3647 individual titles obtained by the search strategy, a total of 37 studies were included. Each study included between 72 and 35311 trauma patients who had sustained mostly blunt trauma, frequently following a fall or a motor vehicle accident. Preventability assessment was performed for 17 to 2081 patients using either a single expert assessment (n = 2, 5,4%) or an expert panel review (n = 35, 94.6%). The definition of preventability and the taxonomy used varied greatly between the studies. The rate of potentially preventable or preventable death ranged from 2.4% to 76.5%. The most frequently reported areas for improvement were treatment delay, diagnosis accuracy to avoid missed or incorrect diagnosis and adverse events associated with the initial procedures performed. The risk of bias of the included studies was high for 32 studies because of the retrospective design and the panel review preventability assessment. Conclusion: Deaths occurring after a trauma remain often preventable. Included studies have used unstandardized definitions of a preventable death and various methodologies to perform the preventability assessment. The proportion of preventable or potentially preventable death reported in each study ranged from 2.4% to 76.5%. Delayed treatment, missed or incorrect initial diagnosis and adverse events following a procedure were commonly associated with preventable trauma deaths and could be targeted to develop quality improvement and monitoring projects.
To determine the impacts of using a whole grain food definition on measurement of whole grain intake compared with calculation of total grams of intake irrespective of the source.
The Australian whole grain database was expanded to identify foods that comply with the Healthgrain whole grain food definition (≥30 % whole grains on a dry weight basis, whole grain ingredients exceeds refined grain and meeting accepted standards for healthy foods based on local regulations). Secondary analysis of the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) 2011–2012 dietary intake data included calculation of whole grain intakes based on intake from foods complying with the Healthgrain definition. These were compared with intake values where grams of whole grain in any food had been included.
Australians (≥2 years) who participated in the NNPAS 2011–2012 (n 12 153).
Following expansion of the whole grain database, 214 of the 609 foods containing any amount of whole grain were compliant with the Healthgrain definition. Significant mean differences (all P < 0·05) of 2·84–6·25 g/d of whole grain intake (5·91–9·44 g/d energy adjusted) were found when applying the Healthgrain definition in comparison with values from foods containing any whole grain across all age groups.
Application of a whole grain food definition has substantial impact on calculations of population whole grain intakes. While use of such definitions may prove beneficial in settings such as whole grain promotion, the underestimation of total intake may impact on identification of any associations between whole grain intake and health outcomes.
To explore associations of whole grain and cereal fibre intake to CVD risk factors in Australian adults.
Cross-sectional analysis. Intakes of whole grain and cereal fibre were examined in association to BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), serum lipid concentrations, C-reactive protein, systolic BP, fasting glucose and HbA1c.
Australian Health Survey 2011–2013.
A population-representative sample of 7665 participants over 18 years old.
Highest whole grain consumers (T3) had lower BMI (T0 26·8 kg/m2, T3 26·0 kg/m2, P < 0·0001) and WC (T0 92·2 cm, T3 90·0 cm, P = 0·0005) compared with non-consumers (T0), although only WC remained significant after adjusting for dietary and lifestyle factors, including cereal fibre intake (P = 0·03). Whole grain intake was marginally inversely associated with fasting glucose (P = 0·048) and HbA1c (P = 0·03) after adjusting for dietary and lifestyle factors, including cereal fibre intake. Cereal fibre intake was inversely associated with BMI (P < 0·0001) and WC (P < 0·0008) and tended to be inversely associated with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apo-B concentrations, although associations were attenuated after further adjusting for BMI and lipid-lowering medication use.
The extent to which cereal fibre is responsible for the CVD-protective associations of whole grains may vary depending on the mediators involved. Longer-term intervention studies directly comparing whole grain and non-whole grain diets of similar cereal fibre contents (such as through the use of bran or added-fibre refined grain products) are needed to confirm independent effects.
To investigate how intakes of whole grains and cereal fibre were associated to risk factors for CVD in UK adults.
Cross-sectional analyses examined associations between whole grain and cereal fibre intakes and adiposity measurements, serum lipid concentrations, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, homocysteine and a combined CVD relative risk score.
The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme 2008–2014.
A nationally representative sample of 2689 adults.
Participants in the highest quartile (Q4) of whole grain intake had lower waist–hip ratio (Q1 0·872; Q4 0·857; P = 0·04), HbA1c (Q1 5·66 %; Q4 5·47 %; P = 0·01) and homocysteine (Q1 9·95 µmol/l; Q4 8·76 µmol/l; P = 0·01) compared with participants in the lowest quartile (Q1), after adjusting for dietary and lifestyle factors, including cereal fibre intake. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with C-reactive protein using multivariate analysis (P = 0·02), but this was not significant after final adjustment for cereal fibre. Cereal fibre intake was also inversely associated with waist–hip ratio (P = 0·03) and homocysteine (P = 0·002) in multivariate analysis.
Similar inverse associations between whole grain and cereal fibre intakes to CVD risk factors suggest the relevance of cereal fibre in the protective effects of whole grains. However, whole grain associations often remained significant after adjusting for cereal fibre intake, suggesting additional constituents may be relevant. Intervention studies are needed to compare cereal fibre intake from non-whole grain sources to whole grain intake.
The way social scientists think that others think about revolutions has been shaped primarily by Jack Goldstone. In his influential review essays, Goldstone (1982, 2001) presents the twentieth-century study of revolution as occurring in generations – from natural historians of the 1930s to general theorists of the mid-twentieth century, from state-centered scholars in the 1980s to a contemporary fourth generation basket of approaches. Because it is so familiar, his reading animates nearly all contemporary literature reviews in revolution studies.
In the last few decades, the discovery of large ditched enclosures in Iberia has revealed the diversity and complexity of deposition and manipulation of human bone remains. Alongside traditional ritual burials (mainly megalithic tombs and hypogea), fragmented and scattered human bones mixed with other kinds of material culture began to appear in many features. This is the case for Ditch 5 at Marroquíes, which offers an excellent opportunity to explore this ritual behaviour. Based on a multi-proxy approach, three main conclusions can be drawn: 1) the skeletal elements present show deliberate selection of particular categories of bones; 2) depositional episodes included the remains of people who died at different points in time and were subject to different taphonomic processes, and 3) mobility patterns indicate that all individuals, with one possible exception, were local. The movement and manipulations of body parts may reflect the active role of people after death as social and symbolic elements that retain agency and capacity for action.
The practice of medicine often requires procedures that cause pain and anxiety. With the advent of modern anaesthesia these procedures have become commonplace and tolerable. Procedures with the greatest degree of pain are frequently accomplished during a state of general anaesthesia. Many procedures, however, are performed under sedation and analgesia. In contrast to general anaesthesia, sedation and analgesia use short acting medications to alleviate pain and anxiety while leaving patients capable of maintaining their airway and basic physiological functions.
Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.
An ever-increasing number of laboratory facilities are enabling in situ spectral reflectance measurements of materials under conditions relevant to all the bodies in the Solar System, from Mercury to Pluto and beyond. Results derived from these facilities demonstrate that exposure of different materials to various planetary surface conditions can provide insights into the endogenic and exogenic processes that operate to modify their surface spectra, and their relative importance. Temperature, surface atmospheric pressure, atmospheric composition, radiation environment, and exposure to the space environment have all been shown to measurably affect reflectance and emittance spectra of a wide range of materials. Planetary surfaces are dynamic environments, and as our ability to reproduce a wider range of planetary surface conditions improves, so will our ability to better determine the surface composition of these bodies, and by extension, their geologic history.
The aim of the Avera Twin Register (ATR) is to establish a prospective longitudinal repository of twins, multiples, siblings and family members’ biological samples to study environmental and genetic influences on health and disease. Also, it is our intention to contribute to international genome-wide association study (GWAS) twin consortia when appropriate sample size is achieved within the ATR. The ATR is young compared with existing registers and continues to collect a longitudinal repository of biological specimens, survey data and health information. Data and biological specimens were originally collected via face-to-face appointments or the postal department and consisted of paper-informed consents and questionnaires. Enrollment of the ATR began on May 18, 2016 and is located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, a rural and frontier area in the Central United States with a regional population of approximately 880,000. The original target area for the ATR was South Dakota and the four surrounding states: Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota and Nebraska. The ATR has found a need to expand that area based on twin and multiple siblings who live in various areas surrounding these states. A description of the state of the ATR today and its transition to online data collection and informed consent will be presented. The ATR collects longitudinal data on lifestyle, including diet and activity levels, aging, plus complex traits and diseases. All twins and multiples participating in the ATR are genotyped on the Illumina Global Screening Array and receive zygosity results.