To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recently, Penn World Tables include new data that enable calculation of total factor productivity in addition to output for a large set of countries. We use these new data to examine convergence and divergence across countries by applying a new approach, which differentiates between the dynamics of output and of productivity. Our empirical results lead to two main new contributions to the literature. The first is on the interpretation of “β-convergence” in “growth regressions.” It means that output per worker in each country converges to productivity but does not imply convergence across countries, since productivity tends to diverge from the global frontier. The second contribution is to the literature, which finds that income gaps across countries are due mainly to differential technology adoption. This paper shows that the gaps in technology are not only large but keep growing over time.
To collect and summarise all current data from observational studies, generating evidence of the association between health literacy (HL) and the dietary intake of sugar, salt and fat, to analyse intervention studies on the promotion of an appropriate dietary intake of the above-mentioned nutrients and to ascertain whether HL moderates the efficacy of such intervention.
A systematic literature search of analytical observational studies on the association between HL and dietary intake of sugar, salt and fat was performed in Medline and Scopus databases. Intervention studies on the promotion of healthy nutrition that concerned the intake of sugar, salt and fat were also assessed.
Of the eight observational studies included in this review, five investigated dietary intake of sugar, one focused on salt, one assessed sugar and salt and one analysed the fat intake. The results of the five studies assessing sugar were mixed: three found an association between low levels of HL and a high sugar intake, one found this association only for boys and two found no evidence of any association. The two studies assessing salt and the one assessing fat found no evidence of any association with HL. One intervention study on the sugar intake concluded that HL was not a significant moderator of the intervention’s effectiveness.
No evidence of any association between HL and salt and fat intake emerged, while for sugar, the results are mixed. More work is needed to better understand the moderating effects of HL on the outcomes of health promotion interventions.
The present study addresses the empirical basis for alerting health professionals to potential risk factors for excessive gambling. On the basis of international and Swiss literature on gambling, an explanatory model for the development of gambling problems is developed.
This work is based on the hypothesis that the prediction rule for excessive gambling, based on a sample of the general population and for different types of frequent gambling preferences, differs from the prediction rule for disordered gambling in patients, seeking psychiatric treatment. The goal of this study is, therefore, to contribute to an early identification of disordered gambling behaviour in the general population, as well as in the target group of patients seeking psychiatric treatment.
Various sources of information were analysed separately, in order to develop and test a prediction rule for excessive gambling, namely the 2002 Swiss Health Survey, which is a survey of the general population, involving 19'706 participants, as well as the data of psychiatric patients of Lausanne/Geneva, recruited consecutively from 1996 to 2004 at the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Lausanne. This patient population comprised a total of 886 patients. Further data from the Centre for Excessive Gambling are presented, covering 105 patients.
Results show that indicators of depressive behaviour as well as smoking are good candidates for the early identification of gambling problems. On the basis of these data it is safe to assume that signs of depressive behaviour should encourage health professionals to enquire about gambling problems.
Gambling was included in DSM III since 1980 as a psychiatric disorder. Compared to other forms of (compulsive) behavior for example substance abuse), the gambling problems have hardly solicited public and scientific concern. In particular a new generation of young adults raised in an environment of video and internet games has been neglected by researchers. Our knowledge of this population segment with respect to gambling disorders is wanting.
The present study aims to obtain a clearer description of gambling behavior in this segment of the Swiss population. The present project should allow us to gain a better understanding of problem burden and will help to identify the different forms of games that are used by young adults age 18 to 25 in Switzerland.
In a first step we have been planning an explorational and descriptive pilot study. 120 men age 18 to 25 are recruited from Universities, Technical Colleges, Professional Training Schools, Occupational Centers, and newspaper ads as well as via the Internet.
Participants will be evaluated in terms of the following instruments: socio-demographic questionnaire, structured interviews and tools to identify types and characteristics of gambling behavior and concomitant problems, namely SOGS (South Oaks Gambling Survey), Internet Dependence (YOUNG), the Fagerström scale (tobacco), AUDIT (alcohol), Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), BDI II (Beck), the Hamilton Scale for anxiety assessment.
The present study serves as the basis for a large scale population based study.
Excessive gambling touch between 1 and 3% of the adult population (Shaffer et al. 1999).
Studies of treatment-seeking gamblers establish a relationship between gambling and suicide. We investigated clinical characteristics in excessive gamblers of a Swiss University Hospital(CHUV).
The aim of this study is to compare gamblers with prior suicide attempts (GPSA) with gamblers without prior suicide attempts (Non-GPSA) and with the international literature.
- GPSA are confronted with a higher problem load than Non-GPSA.
- GPSA lack social networks and family support as compared to Non-GPSA.
Patients treated for gambling disorders typically show a high level of co-morbidity. Bourget, Data are based on medical files of our treatment center. Among our consecutively admitted patients (2002-2006), we identified pathological gamblers who reported prior suicide attempts directly or not directly linked with gambling.
Results and discussion
– GPSA were more likely to be women, separated or divorced, referred by the forensic network.
– GPSA were more likely to be disabled and had a history of alcohol abuse. GPSA showed no difference with respect to age at intake or employment status as compared to NON-GPSA.
Further research is needed to find out whether the higher proportion of women with prior suicide attempts is due to the fact that men are more likely to complete suicide.
Actually, the suicidal risk in people with gambling problems is insufficiently evaluated; this risk is all the more hard to specify within a population which underreports gambling behaviour and associated co-morbidities. Estimations of suicidal behaviour vary between studies, suicide attempts were observed in 4% to 40% of gamblers studied. Suicidal thoughts were reported for 25% to 92% of people with gambling problems. 64% of gamblers that committed suicide did neither inform family or friends nor health professionals about their suicidal intents. In the context of a pilot study, we wish to study suicidal behaviour in people with gambling problems.
The goal of the study consists in the early identification of gambling problems associated with suicidal behaviour. A short intervention, specifically targeted towards the prevention of suicide will be compared with the current treatment for gambling problems. Gambling and suicidal behaviour will be monitored over 6 meetings during 12 months.
Results and discussion
On the basis of this study, we wish to develop a blended E-Learning tool for professionals in psychiatry and primary health care that help to detect and treat people with gambling and suicidal behaviour.
The internal dynamics of multiple stellar populations in Globular Clusters (GCs) provides unique constraints on the physical processes responsible for their formation. Specifically, the present-day kinematics of cluster stars, such as rotation and velocity dispersion, seems to be related to the initial configuration of the system. In recent work (Milone et al. 2018), we analyzed for the first time the kinematics of the different stellar populations in NGC 0104 (47 Tucanae) over a large field of view, exploiting the Gaia Data Release 2 proper motions combined with multi-band ground-based photometry. In this paper, based on the work by Cordoni et al. (2019), we extend this analysis to six GCs, namely NGC 0288, NGC 5904 (M 5), NGC 6121 (M 4), NGC 6752, NGC 6838 (M 71) and further explore NGC 0104. Among the analyzed clusters only NGC 0104 and NGC 5904 show significant rotation on the plane of the sky. Interestingly, multiple stellar populations in NGC 5904 exhibit different rotation curves.
Nuclear star clusters hosted by dwarf galaxies exhibit similar characteristics to high-mass, metal complex globular clusters. This type of globular clusters could, therefore, be former nuclei from accreted galaxies. M54 resides in the photometric center of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, at a distance where resolving stars is possible. M54 offers the opportunity to study a nucleus before the stripping of their host by the tidal field effects of the Milky Way. We use a MUSE data set to perform a detailed analysis of over 6600 stars. We characterize the stars by metallicity, age, and kinematics, identifying the presence of three stellar populations: a young metal-rich (YMR), an intermediate-age metal-rich (IMR), and an old metal-poor (OMP). The evidence suggests that the OMP population is the result of accretion of globular clusters in the center of the host, while the YMR population was born in-situ in the center of the OMP population.
The Galactic globular cluster system went and is still going through dynamical processes that require to be explored in detail. Here we illustrate how primordial massive globular clusters born in the Milky Way’s disc evolved by stripping material from each other or even merging very early during their lives. These processes might explain the puzzling presence of star-by-star spreads in iron content observed in massive globular clusters and should be taken into account when studying globular cluster stellar populations. In this context, we show how the direct comparison between the predictions provided by our direct N-body simulations and observations can shed light on the origin and chemo-dynamical evolution of globular clusters.
In this paper, we study the relationship between changes in the world interest rate and within-country inequality during the 1985–2005 period in which the world interest rate sharply declined. In line with the predictions of the seminal model of Galor and Zeira [Income distribution and macroeconomics. Review of Economic Studies 60, 35–52], the analysis suggests that the decrease in the world interest rate is associated with a decrease in inequality in poor countries and an increase in inequality in rich ones.
The University of Georgia (USA) is partnering with the University of Padova (Italy) for a dual Master’s degree program in sustainable agriculture, promoting collaboration on some of the biggest challenges facing agriculture today. This innovative program which was launched during 2016 provides students with outstanding training and a unique opportunity to learn about the challenges, opportunities, and leading edges of precision agriculture on another continent – an experience which will serve graduates well when they enter the job market in an increasingly global economy. This paper presents the goals of the program, the curriculum, and describes the opportunities available to prospective students. In addition it describes the process of developing the dual degree which can be used as guide by others wishing to develop similar programs.
We removed plastic meso- and macro-litter (PML) during a beach clean-up practice on a protected Mediterranean sandy beach in central Italy from the high tide line to a berm half-way up the beach and from the berm to a sand dune the rest of the way up the beach. Plastic fragments, cotton buds, and expanded polystyrene (EPS) fragments were the most common categories constituting about 90% of total abundance. We separated sand from PML and found that the weight of the sand was about 14% of the total weight removed. Although our data may be affected by local factors, they have general implications for management actions. Environmental practitioners who develop projects in beach cleaning should pay attention when removing PML since a significant amount of sand could be unintentionally removed resulting in unnecessary material in landfills or other disposal, and over time potentially could significantly affect sandy beaches.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.
Nuclear Star Clusters (NSCs) are commonly observed in the centers of most galaxies, including our Milky Way (MW). While their study can reveal important information about the innermost regions of galaxies, the physical processes regulating their formation are still poorly understood. We explore a possible merger origin of NSCs by studying direct N-body simulations of globular clusters (GCs) that are initially randomly distributed in the outskirts and consecutively infall to the center of a MW-like nuclear bulge. We find that the NSC that forms through this process shows a significant amount of rotation, and both morphological and kinematic properties are comparable with observations of the MW NSC. We show that no fine-tuning of the orientation of the infalling GCs is necessary to result in a rotating NSC. This study shows the plausibility of the cluster infall scenario and can help towards setting better constraints to the formation history of NSCs.
Brazil is one of the most important soybean producers in the world. Soybean is a very important crop for the country as it is used for several purposes, from food to biodiesel production. The levels of soybean yield in the different growing regions of the country vary substantially, which results in yield gaps of considerable magnitude. The present study aimed to investigate the soybean yield gaps in Brazil, their magnitude and causes, as well as possible solutions for a more sustainable production. The concepts of yield gaps were reviewed and their values for the soybean crop determined in 15 locations across Brazil. Yield gaps were determined using potential and attainable yields, estimated by a crop simulation model for the main maturity groups of each region, as well as the average actual famers’ yield, obtained from national surveys provided by the Brazilian Government for a period of 32 years (1980–2011). The results showed that the main part of the yield gap was caused by water deficit, followed by sub-optimal crop management. The highest yield gaps caused by water deficit were observed mainly in the south of Brazil, with gaps higher than 1600 kg/ha, whereas the lowest were observed in Tapurah, Jataí, Santana do Araguaia and Uberaba, between 500 and 1050 kg/ha. The yield gaps caused by crop management were mainly concentrated in South-central Brazil. In the soybean locations in the mid-west, north and north-east regions, the yield gap caused by crop management was <500 kg/ha. When evaluating the integrated effects of water deficit and crop management on soybean yield gaps, special attention should be given to Southern Brazil, which has total yield gaps >2000 kg/ha. For reducing the present soybean yield gaps observed in Brazil, several solutions should be adopted by growers, which can be summarized as irrigation, crop rotation and precision agriculture. Improved dissemination of agricultural knowledge and the use of crop simulation models as a tool for improving crop management could further contribute to reduce the Brazilian soybean yield gap.
In this paper we extend results due to Vogt on line bundles over Cousin groups to the case of domains stable by the maximal compact subgroup. This is used to show that the algebraic dimension of Oeljeklaus—Toma manifolds (OT-manifolds) is 0. In the last part we establish that certain Cousin groups, in particular those arising from the construction of OT-manifolds, have finite-dimensional irregularity.
The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a simple crop yield model for 101 Brazilian soybean cultivars, and through the calibrated water deficit sensitivity index (Ky) to classify groups of cultivars in relation to drought tolerance. The cultivars’ actual yield was obtained from field experiments conducted by Pro-Seeds Foundation in 17 locations in southern Brazil from 2008 to 2011. Daily weather data were obtained from the government weather networks and rainfall was recorded at each experimental location. The crop yield model FAO–Agroecological zone was used to estimate potential yield (Yp), while the water deficit yield depletion model was used to estimate actual yield (Ya) and to determine Ky. Calibrated Ky values were used in a cluster analysis to determine groups of soybean cultivars with the same degree of drought tolerance. The crop yield model performed very well with lower values of mean absolute error (284 kg ha−1) and mean error (7 kg ha−1). The Ky values of 0.97, 0.90, 0.88 and 0.78 were obtained for the most sensitive soybean phenological phase to water deficit (flowering/yield formation), and were used to identify the groups of low, medium-low, medium-high and high drought tolerance respectively. In spite of Ky differences in cultivar groups, harvest index (CH) also varied, ranging from 0.31 to 0.35 for the group of high to low drought tolerance. The crop yield model proved to be an efficient tool for identifying drought tolerance of Brazilian soybean cultivars and for choosing the best cultivar for a given environment.
Nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar systems known to exist at the center of most of the galaxies. Some of them host a central massive black hole (MBH). They are though to form through in-situ star formation following the infall of gas to the galactic center and/or because of the infall and merger of several stellar clusters. Here we explore the latter scenario by means of detailed self-consistent N-body simulations, proving that a NSC built by the infall and following merger of stellar clusters shows many of the observed features of the Milky Way NSC. We also explore the possibility that the infalling clusters host intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Once decayed to the center, the IMBHs act as massive-perturbers accelerating the relaxation of the NSC, filling the loss-cone and boosting the tidal disruption rate of stars up to a value larger than the observational estimates, therefore providing a cumulative constraint on the existence of IMBHs in NSCs. Studying how the properties of the infalling clusters map to the properties of the resulting NSC, we find that, in the IMBHs-free case, the infall mechanism is able to produce many different observational signatures in the form of age segregation.
We present continuous, monochromatic star formation rate (SFR) indicators over the mid-infrared wavelength range of 6–70 μm. We use a sample of 58 star forming galaxies (SFGs) in the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) at z<0.2, for which there is a rich suite of multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet through to the infrared. The data from the Spitzer infrared spectrograph (IRS) of these galaxies, which spans 5–40 μm, is anchored to their photometric counterparts. The spectral region between 40-70 μm is interpolated using dust model fits to the IRS spectrum anchored by Spitzer 70 and 160 μm photometry. Since there are no sharp spectral features in this region, we expect these interpolations to be robust. This spectral range is calibrated as a SFR diagnostic using several reference SFR indicators to mitigate potential bias. Our band-specific continuous SFR indicators are found to be consistent with monochromatic calibrations in the local universe, as derived from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel photometry. Additionally, in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope this will become a flexible tool, applicable to any SFG up to z∼3.