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Since the end of the nineteenth century, many paleontological studies have been developed on the Middle Triassic localities of the Monte San Giorgio area (Canton Ticino, Switzerland, and Lombardy, Italy). These localities were inscribed in 2003 and 2010 in the UNESCO World Heritage List due to their paleontological relevance. New crustaceans are here described from the Kalkschieferzone member of the upper Ladinian Meride Limestone, outcropping near Besnasca-Cà del Frate (Viggiù, Italy) and Meride (Mendrisio, Switzerland). Several hundred specimens of a new genus and new species of Lophogastrida, named here Vicluvia lombardoae, improve information on Triassic mysidaceans (sensu lato), a group of shrimp-like crustaceans presently including hundreds of species worldwide distributed in marine and freshwater environments. The paper discusses the relations between Vicluvia n. gen. and the other fossil genera belonging to the same family. Vicluvia lombardoae n. gen. n. sp. exhibits two dorsally vanishing transverse grooves with their branches regularly bending toward the posterior margin of the shield and a telson with a rounded and setose apex. It was probably a euryhaline species living in a transitional environment affected by frequent and ephemeral salinity variations. Middle Triassic taphonomic windows have preserved specimens of lophogastrids in shallow basins along the Tethys, from the present Alps to China as well as in the German Basin.
Plant nitrogen (N) links with many physiological progresses of crop growth and yield formation. Accurate simulation is key to predict crop growth and yield correctly. The aim of the current study was to improve the estimation of N uptake and translocation processes in the whole rice plant as well as within plant organs in the RiceGrow model by using plant and organ maximum, critical and minimum N dilution curves. The maximum and critical N (Nc) demand (obtained from the maximum and critical curves) of shoot and root and Nc demand of organs (leaf, stem and panicle) are calculated by N concentration and biomass. Nitrogen distribution among organs is computed differently pre- and post-anthesis. Pre-anthesis distribution is determined by maximum N demand with no priority among organs. In post-anthesis distribution, panicle demands are met first and then the remaining N is allocated to other organs without priority. The amount of plant N uptake depends on plant N demand and N supplied by the soil. Calibration and validation of the established model were performed on field experiments conducted in China and the Philippines with varied N rates and N split applications; results showed that this improved model can simulate the processes of N uptake and translocation well.
Whole-crop maize forage was ensiled without inoculant (control), inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri and L. plantarum at a rate of 1 × 105 cfu/g fresh forage per bacterium (LBLP), or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and L. plantarum at a rate 1 × 105 cfu/g fresh forage per bacterium (BSLP) with the goal to investigate the growth performance of finishing feedlot lambs. Thirty Dorper × Santa Ines lambs (29 ± 3.5 kg initial body weight) were used in the feedlot programme and assigned (n = 10) to one of three diets containing control, LBLP or BSLP silages in a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio. Inoculation of maize silage did not alter dry matter intake (overall mean = 1.16 kg/day) and average daily gain (overall mean = 0.217 kg/day) of lambs. Consequently, feed efficiency remained unchanged. Inoculation of maize silage did not alter carcass and meat traits of lambs, with the exception of meat colour, wherein yellowness (b*) decreased by feeding LBLP and BSLP diets compared with the untreated diet. Regarding ruminal fermentation, there was an interaction between diets and the interval at which ruminal fluid was sampled for determining total volatile fatty acid concentration, but inoculation yielded no obvious results. In conclusion, the use of diets based on maize silage inoculated with L. plantarum combined with either L. buchneri or B. subtilis did not display relevant effects on growth performance of lambs; this response might be related to the limited impact of these bacterial inoculants on silage composition.
In the southern Gulf of Mexico, the spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) is the second most frequently caught batoid in small-scale fisheries off Campeche. Ecological aspects of this ray are unknown in this region, hampering the understanding of the relationship between its distribution and prey availability in the fishing area. In order to study the feeding habits of this batoid and characterize its potential prey in the study area, stomachs and intestines of 154 specimens (68 females and 86 males) were analysed. The results indicated that A. narinari near Campeche is a specialist and selective predator that feeds mainly on gastropods (92.7% IRI), with no significant differences in the diet found between sexes, size groups, or between stomach and intestine contents. In addition, the results indicated that the most important prey species in the diet were among the most common benthic species in three of the four sampling transects positioned in or adjacent to fishing areas for rays. These most important prey species were Strombus pugilis (53.33% IRI) and Americoliva reticularis (25.6% IRI). Other prey species included Lobatus costatus (5.6% IRI) and Petrochirus diogenes (3.6% IRI). This study suggests that this widely distributed ray species feeds in Campeche's coastal waters and that the study of its potential prey increases the understanding of ecological aspects of the species, which emphasizes the added importance of monitoring fishery impacts on prey species (e.g. the conch fishery off Campeche) to help support integrated assessment and management of fisheries.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Incomplete spinal cord injury typically results in life-long disability, often in the form of profound loss of locomotion capability. Individuals who have experienced incomplete spinal cord injury exhibit persistent eccentric motor deficits, which are particularly prevalent in the weight acceptance phase of gait and emphasized in sagittal plane knee motion and frontal plane hip motion. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Motion analysis can capture the kinematic and joint-level deficits of these individuals, but it is impossible to directly calculate the contributions of individual muscles to weight acceptance due to the complexity of the musculoskeletal system. Instead, those muscle contributions must be simulated in order to approximate muscle power during locomotion. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The traditional method for driving these simulations with electromyography readings is unavailable for individuals who have neuromuscular deficits (e.g., spasticity or paralysis), due to the need to generate reliable maximum voluntary isometric contractions for baseline purposes. Instead, this research develops a novel method for using resting electromyography data to drive musculoskeletal simulations using a muscle activation threshold paradigm. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The simulation results of this method more closely resemble experimental results, but further simulation refinement is needed to fully capture the true muscle activity.
This study addresses aspects of the phylogenetic relationships of the commercial Tehuelche scallop, Aequipecten tehuelchus s.l. (Bivalvia: Pectinidae), from southern South America using molecular techniques. The Tehuelche scallop presents two different putative subspecies, A. t. tehuelchus and A. t. madrynensis, and a potentially related sympatric species, Flexopecten felipponei. The Tehuelche scallop is a very important component of ecosystems and is the target of artisanal fisheries in the northern Patagonian gulfs of Argentina. Despite its importance, the systematic relationships of these taxa have not been fully addressed. The main goal of this study is to place the Tehuelche scallop within a partial phylogenetic framework of the family Pectinidae. Scallops were sampled at 10 localities distributed along the south-western Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic reconstructions were carried out from two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and two nuclear markers (28S rRNA and H3) using Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that the two putative subspecies of the Tehuelche scallop together with F. felipponei form a monophyletic clade, without differentiating at the specific level. Observed differences would be the result of phenotypic plasticity, probably caused by environmental factors. However, further analysis using genes with faster evolution rate are needed to corroborate it. Our phylogenetic analysis resolved to Aequipecten as polyphyletic. The Tehuelche scallop has a basal position within the Argopecten group and we recommend that it should be transferred to this genus. The relationship between the hypotheses about the origin of the Tehuelche scallop implicit in the literature and our results are discussed.
Geometrical features are known to be very important in neuronal growth and the formation of neuronal networks. We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of axonal growth and dynamics for neurons cultured on patterned polydimethylsiloxane surfaces. We utilize fluorescence microscopy to image the axonal dynamics and show that these substrates impart a strong directional bias to neuronal growth. We model axonal dynamics using a general stochastic model and use this framework to extract key dynamical parameters. These results provide novel insight into how geometrical cues influence neuronal growth and represent important advances toward bioengineering neuronal growth platforms.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) is a life-long disability that typically results in a profound loss of locomotion capability. Current rehabilitation methods rarely restore full community ambulation, which in turn limits quality of life. Most individuals with iSCI exhibit persistent deficits in eccentric muscle control and reach recovery plateaus below the levels necessary for independent community ambulation. Eccentric motor control is essential during the weight acceptance phase of gait, which is emphasized during downhill walking. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The overground locomotion of subjects with chronic iSCI was analyzed both prior to and following a 12-week downhill body-weight-supported treadmill training regimen and compared to that of matched healthy controls in terms of kinematics, kinetics, and EMG activation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect to find significant differences between the controls and subjects with iSCI, with deficits in eccentric motor control accounting for some of these differences. In addition, we expect the downhill training to yield significant improvement in eccentric muscle control that translates into improvements in functional, overground walking for the subjects with iSCI. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The goal is to determine if downhill training can improve eccentric motor control and extend recovery beyond established plateaus. OpenSim modeling of the experimental data will help quantify changes in eccentric control of individual muscles to clarify where specific gains are made.
Anthracycline cardiotoxicity is an important side-effect in long-term childhood cancer survivors. We evaluated the incidence of and factors associated with anthracycline cardiotoxicity in a population of patients diagnosed with bone or soft tissue sarcoma.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively enrolled patients diagnosed with bone or soft tissue sarcoma, from 1995 to 2011, treated with anthracycline chemotherapy at our Centre and with a follow-up echocardiography carried out ⩾3 years from cardiotoxic therapy completion. Cardiac toxicity was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0.
A total of 82 patients were eligible. The median age at treatment was 11.9 years (1.44–18). We evaluated the median cumulative anthracycline dose, age at treatment, sex, thoracic radiotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and high-dose cyclophosphamide treatment as possible risk factors for cardiotoxicity. The median cumulative anthracycline dose was 390.75 mg/m2 (80–580). Of the 82 patients, 12 (14.6%) developed cardiotoxicity with grade ⩾2 ejection fraction decline: four patients were asymptomatic and did not receive any treatment; six patients were treated with pharmacological heart failure therapy; one patient with severe cardiomyopathy underwent heart transplantation and did not need any further treatment; and one patient died while waiting for heart transplantation. The median time at cardiac toxicity, from the end of anthracycline frontline chemotherapy, was 4.2 years (0.05–9.6). Cumulative anthracycline dose ⩾300 mg/m2 (p 0.04) was the only risk factor for cardiotoxicity on statistical analyses.
In our population, the cumulative incidence of cardiotoxicity is comparable to rates in the literature. This underlines the need for primary prevention and lifelong cardiac toxicity surveillance programmes in long-term childhood cancer survivors.
While there may be an important, but transitory, cyclical component in the poor performance of the past decade, we will emphasise the secular forces: the impact of demographic structure and innovation. We draw on the empirical and theoretical work reported in Aksoy, Basso, Smith and Grasl (2015), ABSG, about the impact of changes in demographic structure on macroeconomic outcomes. This suggests that changes in age profile not only have significant implications for savings, investment, real interest rates and growth but also for innovation. The size of the effects seems plausible. For instance, if in 2015 the UK had the 1970 age structure, it would have added 0.68 percentage points to the long-run annual growth rate. The model suggests that the population ageing predicted for the next decades will tend to reduce output growth and real interest rates across OECD countries.
The integration of conservation agriculture with the benefits of precision farming represents an innovative feature aimed to achieve better economic and environmental sustainability. The synergy between these principles was assessed through a technical feasibility and energy efficiency to define the best approach depending on different agricultural systems, spatial and temporal field variability. The study compares three conservation tillage techniques supported by precision farming with conventional tillage in a specific crop rotation: wheat, rapeseed, corn and soybean. The preliminary results show a positive response of precision farming in all the conservation tillage systems, increasing yields until 22%. The energy efficiency achieves highest level in those techniques supported by precision farming, gaining peak of 9% compared to conventional tillage.
RÉSUMÉ. Gênes dès le XIIe siècle s'est intéressée à l'Occident : installation d'une communauté génoise à Séville en 1251, ouverture de la route atlantique en 1277, expédition sans retour des frères Vivaldi vers la côte africaine en 1291. Jusqu'à la fin du XVe siècle, la route de l'Occident vers Middelburg, Anvers, L'Écluse et Southampton reste, malgré des crises dans les relations avec l'Angleterre, la pierre angulaire de toute la structure de l'empire génois.
ABSTRACT. As early as the 12th century, Genoa is interested in the West: installation of the Genoese community in Seville in 1251, opening of the Atlantic route in 1277, and the Vivaldi brothers' one-way expedition towards the African coast in 1291. Until the end of the 15th century, the route to the West towards Middelburg, Anvers, Sluis, and Southampton remains the cornerstone of the structure of the Genoese Empire despite the crises in relations with England.
LA POUSSEE VERS L'OCCIDENT
Même si l'expansion du grand commerce génois est traditionnellement liée au développement du réseau des établissements coloniaux au Levant et dans le bassin de la Mer Noire, à partir de la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle, l'intérêt vers le bassin occidental de la Méditerranée, et au-delà vers l'Atlantique, constitue en réalité l'un des aspects les plus anciens et les plus durables de l'affirmation politico-économique poursuivie par les consortia de l'aristocratie marchande génoise au cours du Moyen Âge.
Dès les premières décennies du XIIe siècle, parallèlement à l'affirmation de la présence génoise dans les États croisés d'Outremer, célébrée à maintes reprises dans les chroniques contemporaines, nous assistons à une politique d'expansion génoise vers l'Occitanie, la Péninsule ibérique et l'Afrique du Nord, affirmée et cohérente.
We derive two fixed point theorems for a class of metric spaces that includes all Banach spaces and all complete Busemann spaces. We obtain our results by the use of a
-Lipschitz barycenter construction and an existence result for invariant Radon probability measures. Furthermore, we construct a bounded complete Busemann space that admits an isometry without fixed points.
This paper documents a positive correlation between the genetic distance to the world technological frontier (United Kingdom, United States) and the year of the onset of the fertility transition across countries. This result is robust to controlling for a large set of geographical, climatic, historical, and institutional variables. Two main mechanisms could explain this reduced-form relationship. First, genetic distance to the world technological frontier can affect the onset of the fertility transition through its impact on the timing and intensity of technology adoption. Second, genetic distance to the technological frontier can capture other cultural differences and the process of diffusion of cultural norms that are related to fertility but not through technology adoption. We find suggestive evidence supporting both mechanisms.
Although the passive frame theory (PST) seems to be very plausible, the encapsulation of content generation deserves further elaboration. Many concepts and data considering the capacity theory, perception, and higher cognitive processes seem to contradict this principle. In general, PST can be suitable in many cases, but it needs to be completed by other mechanisms.
The effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive functions in humans have been the subject of much investigation; however, these studies are limited by several factors, including a lack of randomized controlled designs, focus on only a single cognitive function, and testing during or shortly after exercise. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study asked how a single bout of aerobic exercise affects a range of frontal- and medial temporal lobe-dependent cognitive functions and how long these effects last. We randomly assigned 85 subjects to either a vigorous intensity acute aerobic exercise group or a video watching control group. All subjects completed a battery of cognitive tasks both before and 30, 60, 90, or 120 min after the intervention. This battery included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Modified Benton Visual Retention Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Digit Span Test, the Trail Making Test, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Based on these measures, composite scores were formed to independently assess prefrontal cortex- and hippocampal-dependent cognition. A three-way mixed Analysis of Variance was used to determine whether differences existed between groups in the change in cognitive function from pre- to post-intervention testing. Acute exercise improved prefrontal cortex- but not hippocampal-dependent functioning, with no differences found between delay groups. Vigorous acute aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on prefrontal cortex-dependent cognition and these effects can last for up to 2 hr after exercise. (JINS, 2015, 21, 791–801)
Nanometric Zn1–xCoxO (x = 0.020, 0.025 and 0.030 in mol.%) nanopowders were obtained from low temperature calcination of a resin prepared using the Pechini’s method. Firing the Zn1–xCoxO resin at 400 °C/2 h a powder with hexagonal structure was obtained as measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The powder presented average particle size of 40 nm observed by field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM) micrographs and average crystallite size of 10 nm calculated from the XRD using Scherrer’s equation. Nanocrystalline Zn1–xCoxO films with good homogeneity and optical quality were obtained with 280–980 nm thicknesses by electron beam physical vapour deposition (EBPVD) under vacuum onto silica substrate at 25 °C. Scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun showed that the film microstructure is composed by spherical grains and some needles. In these conditions of deposition the films presented only hexagonal phase observed by XRD. The UV-visible-NIR and diffuse reflectance properties of the films were measured and the electric properties were calculated using the reflectance and transmittance spectra.
Rocky shore intertidal communities along the cold- and warm-temperate coasts of the south-western Atlantic are dominated by small mussels of the genus Brachidontes s.l. (Mytilidae), yet the status of species occurring in the region remains unresolved. Taxonomic studies have been based on shell morphology, but high phenotypic variability has led to much confusion. Based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 28S rDNA and ITS1) from nine localities in Uruguay and Argentina we confirmed the occurrence of three species in the south-western Atlantic: Brachidontes darwinianus and B. rodriguezii in the warm-temperate and B. purpuratus in the cold-temperate sector. The latter two species coexist in the same beds along the transition zone (41–43°S). The phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes, indicate an early divergence of B. purpuratus. At the intra-specific level, low genetic differentiation and absence of fossil record for B. purpuratus from the earlier Quaternary marine terraces of Patagonia likely result from a relatively recent (post-LGM) colonization originated from populations in the south-eastern Pacific. In the case of B. rodriguezii, by contrast, genetic intraspecific differentiation, a fossil record of phenotypically-related forms going back to the Late Miocene, and phylogenetic position in the COI-based phylogeny, prompts the hypothesis that this species is derived from a local stock with a long history of occurrence in the warm-temperate region of the south-western Atlantic. While intertidal mussel beds from the south-western Atlantic are ecologically similar in appearance, their assembly involves components clearly differentiated in terms of historical biogeography and phylogeny.