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Carnivores play an important role in ecosystem functioning as apex predators. However, most carnivore species are threatened or have been extirpated in human-dominated landscapes. The Mediterranean region of central Chile is a biodiversity hotspot, but expansion of agricultural areas such as vineyards is degrading wildlife habitat. We estimated the species richness and composition of carnivore communities in remnant fragments of sclerophyllous forest-shrubland in the vineyard landscapes of central Chile to evaluate the effects of human disturbance at different spatial scales. We tested two hypotheses: (1) vineyard landscapes with higher levels of human disturbance support a lower diversity of native carnivores in fragments of remnant native vegetation compared to landscapes with larger areas of natural habitat, and (2) habitat specialists and generalists respond differentially to human influence at the habitat vs landscape spatial scale. We used camera traps at 12 sites across the study area and evaluated the impact of human disturbance indicators on the richness and detection frequency of carnivore species. We found that human population density negatively affected carnivore richness and was associated with a lower detection frequency of the Vulnerable guiña Leopardus guigna. The presence of domestic dogs also had a negative effect on the detection frequency of the guiña and the two native species of foxes, the culpeo Lycalopex culpaeus and South American grey fox Lycalopex griseus. We conclude that protecting remnants of native forest in vineyard landscapes is crucial for carnivore conservation in central Chile.
Essential oils (EOs) are considered a new class of ecological products aimed at the control of insects for industrial and domestic use; however, there still is a lack of studies involving the control of fleas. Ctenocephalides felis felis, the most observed parasite in dogs and cats, is associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity, the establishment of LC50 and toxicity of EOs from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm, Cinnamomum spp., Laurus nobilis L., Mentha spicata L., Ocimum gratissimum L. and Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle against immature stages and adults of C. felis felis. Bioassay results suggest that the method of evaluation was able to perform a pre-screening of the activity of several EOs, including the discriminatory evaluation of flea stages by their LC50. Ocimum gratissimum EO was the most effective in the in vitro assays against all flea stages, presenting adulticide (LC50 = 5.85 μg cm−2), ovicidal (LC50 = 1.79 μg cm−2) and larvicidal (LC50 = 1.21 μg cm−2) mortality at low doses. It also presented an excellent profile in a toxicological eukaryotic model. These findings may support studies involving the development of non-toxic products for the control of fleas in dogs and cats.
Mistletoes are considered keystone species on woodlands and savannas worldwide, providing a food resource for a diversified fauna, as well as a nutrient-enriched litter. Infections can be large (∼1–3 m) and, in some parts of the Amazonian savannas, parasitize up to 70% of hosts locally. Despite these facts, biomass of mistletoes is rarely investigated. Here we constructed allometric models to predict the biomass stock of the shrubby mistletoe Psittacanthus plagiophyllus in an Amazonian savanna. In addition, we determined whether host size could be used as a proxy for mistletoe biomass. Finally, we compared the biomass of mistletoes with that of trees, to evaluate their relative importance. We have shown that: (1) biomass of leaves (46.1% ± 13.5%) are as important as of stems (47.8% ± 13.5%), and relative contribution of stems increases as plant grows; (2) the model including width, breadth and vertical depth was the best (SE = 0.39, R2 = 0.9) for predicting individual mistletoe biomass; (3) mistletoe load and biomass per host had a positive, but weak (R2 = 0.11 and 0.09, respectively), relationship with host size, and thus such host information is a poor predictor of mistletoe biomass; and (4) in comparison with trees, mistletoes constituted less than 0.15% (0.5–22 kg ha−1) of the total above-ground biomass, suggesting that this life-form is irrelevant to the local biomass stock despite its unequivocal biological importance.
A high-fat (H) diet increases metabolic disorders in offspring. However, there is great variability in the literature regarding the time of exposure, composition of the H diets offered to the genitors and/or offspring and parameters evaluated. Here, we investigated the effect of a H diet subjected to the genitors on different cardio-metabolic parameters on first (F1)- and second (F2)-generation offspring. Female Fischer rats, during mating, gestation and breast-feeding, were subjected to the H diet (G0HF) or control (G0CF) diets. Part of F1 offspring becomes G1 genitors for generating the F2 offspring. After weaning, F1 and F2 rats consumed only the C diet. Nutritional, biometric, biochemical and haemodynamic parameters were evaluated. G0HF genitors had a reduction in food intake but energy intake was similar to the control group. Compared with the control group, the F1H and F2H offspring presented increased plasma leptin, insulin and fasting glucose levels, dietary intake, energy intake, adiposity index, mean arterial pressure, sympathetic drive evidenced by the hexamethonium and insulin resistance. Our data showed that only during mating, gestation and breast-feeding, maternal H diet induced cardio-metabolic disorders characteristic of human metabolic syndrome that were transferred to both females and males of F1 and F2 offspring, even if they were fed control diet after weaning. This process probably occurs due to the disturbance in mechanisms related to leptin that increases energy intake in F1H and F2H offspring. The present data reinforce the importance of balanced diet during pregnancy and breast-feeding for the health of the F1 and F2 offspring.
To examine the relationship between unit-wide Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) susceptibility and inpatient mobility and to create contagion centrality as a new predictive measure of CDI.
Retrospective cohort study.
A mobility network was constructed using 2 years of patient electronic health record data for a 739-bed hospital (n = 72,636 admissions). Network centrality measures were calculated for each hospital unit (node) providing clinical context for each in terms of patient transfers between units (ie, edges). Daily unit-wide CDI susceptibility scores were calculated using logistic regression and were compared to network centrality measures to determine the relationship between unit CDI susceptibility and patient mobility.
Closeness centrality was a statistically significant measure associated with unit susceptibility (P < .05), highlighting the importance of incoming patient mobility in CDI prevention at the unit level. Contagion centrality (CC) was calculated using inpatient transfer rates, unit-wide susceptibility of CDI, and current hospital CDI infections. The contagion centrality measure was statistically significant (P < .05) with our outcome of hospital-onset CDI cases, and it captured the additional opportunities for transmission associated with inpatient transfers. We have used this analysis to create easily interpretable clinical tools showing this relationship as well as the risk of hospital-onset CDI in real time, and these tools can be implemented in hospital EHR systems.
Quantifying and visualizing the combination of inpatient transfers, unit-wide risk, and current infections help identify hospital units at risk of developing a CDI outbreak and, thus, provide clinicians and infection prevention staff with advanced warning and specific location data to inform prevention efforts.
The BW has been largely used as a selection criterion in genetic selection programmes; however, increases in BW can affect animal metabolism and metabolites. The knowledge of how genetic potential for growth affects the metabolites can give a footprint of growth metabolism. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic potential for post-weaning growth (GG) on performance, carcass traits and serum metabolome of non-castrated Nellore males during the finishing phase. Forty-eight Nellore non-castrated males, with divergent potential for post-weaning growth, were selected and divided into two groups: high potential for post-weaning growth (HG; n = 24) and low potential for post-weaning growth (LG; n = 24). Animals were kept and fed for 90 days where performance and ultrasound carcass traits were evaluated. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of feeding period to analyse serum metabolites concentration. The hot carcass weight and dressing percentage were recorded at slaughter. The feedlot performance and carcass traits were not affected by genetic potential. The HG animals had a lower glucose (P = 0.039), glutamate (P = 0.038), glutamine (P = 0.004), greater betaine (P = 0.039) and pyruvate (P = 0.039) compared to the LG group at the beginning of feedlot. In addition, higher creatine phosphate concentrations were observed at the beginning of feeding period, compared to final, for both groups (P = 0.039). In conclusion, the genetic potential for post-weaning growth does not affect performance and carcass traits during the finishing period. Differences in metabolite concentrations can be better found at the beginning of feedlot, providing a footprint of growth metabolism, but similar metabolite concentration at the end of finishing period.
Epiphytes are an important component of the diversity of tropical forests, and they also have several ecological functions. Vegetation heterogeneity is one of the features responsible for the high biodiversity of the Atlantic Forest, especially in the domain’s seasonal semideciduous forest (SSF). This biodiversity presents as high endemism and species richness. Owing to the seasonal nature of SSF, organisms that require high humidity (e.g. epiphytes) would be expected to show low species richness in these forests. The aims of this study were to conduct a survey of the vascular epiphytes in remnants of montane SSF in the Serra do Ibitipoca, Brazil, and to evaluate the importance of habitat heterogeneity for the richness and composition of species in these areas. We also evaluated whether the intrinsic characteristics of the SSF phytophysiognomy and fragmentation could result in low species richness and a high number of accidental epiphyte species. The study was conducted in the course of 18 expeditions undertaken between September 2013 and December 2016, covering five fragments of montane SSF (totalling 23.6 ha). We recorded 96 species (only one of which is an accidental epiphyte), distributed across 41 genera and 10 families. This is the highest epiphytic species richness recorded in Brazilian SSF to date. The results refuted the initial hypothesis and reinforce the importance to the epiphytic community of conservation of fragments with different structures.
The burrower bug Scaptocoris castanea Perty, 1830 (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) is an agricultural pest feeding on roots of several crops. The histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of S. castanea were described. The salivary system has a pair of principal salivary glands and a pair of accessory salivary glands. The principal salivary gland is bilobed with anterior and posterior lobes joined by a hilus where an excretory duct occurs. The accessory salivary gland is tubular with a narrow lumen that opens into the hilus near the excretory duct, suggesting that its secretion is stored in the lumen of the principal gland. The cytoplasm of the secretory cells is rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles with different electron densities and mitochondria. At the base of the accessory gland epithelium, there were scattered cells that do not reach the gland lumen, with the cytoplasm rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a role in protein production. Data show that principal and accessory salivary glands of S. castanea produce proteinaceous saliva. This is the first morphological description of the S. castanea salivary system that is similar to other Hemiptera Pentatomomorpha, but with occurrence of basal cells in the accessory salivary gland.
Herbicide-resistant Echinochloa species are among the most problematic weeds in agricultural crops globally. Recurring herbicide selection pressure in the absence of diverse management practices has resulted in greater than 20% of sampled Echinochloa populations from rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields demonstrating multiple resistance to herbicides in Arkansas, USA. We assessed the resistance profile and potential mechanisms of resistance in a multiple herbicide–resistant junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] (ECO-R) population. Whole-plant and laboratory bioassays were conducted to identify the potential mechanisms of non–target site resistance in this population. ECO-R was highly resistant to propanil (>37,800 g ha−1) and quinclorac (>17,920 g ha−1) and had elevated tolerance to cyhalofop (R/S = 1.9) and glufosinate (R/S = 1.2) compared to the susceptible standard. The addition of glufosinate (590 g ha−1) to cyhalofop (314 g ha−1), propanil (4,500 g ha−1), or quinclorac (560 g ha−1) controlled ECO-R 100%. However, cyhalofop applied with propanil (48% control) or quinclorac (15% control) was antagonistic. The application of the known metabolic enzyme inhibitors malathion, carbaryl, and piperonyl butoxide increased control of ECO-R with propanil (>75%) but not with other herbicides. Neither absorption nor translocation of [14C]cyhalofop or propanil was different between ECO-R and ECO-S. [14C]Quinclorac absorption was also similar between ECO-R and ECO-S; however, translocation of quinclorac into tissues above the treated leaf of ECO-R was >20% higher than that in ECO-S. The abundance of metabolites was higher (∼10%) in the treated leaves of ECO-R than in ECO-S beginning 48 h after treatment. The activity of β-cyanoalanine synthase, which detoxifies hydrogen cyanide, was not different between ECO-R and ECO-S following quinclorac treatment. Resistance to propanil was due to herbicide detoxification by metabolic enzymes. Resistance to quinclorac was due to a detoxification mechanism yet to be understood. The reduction in sensitivity to cyhalofop and glufosinate might be a secondary effect of the mechanisms conferring high resistance to propanil and quinclorac.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the reliability and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ to assess food group consumption in South American children and adolescents.
The SAYCARE (South American Youth/Child cARdiovascular and Environmental) study is an observational, multicentre, feasibility study performed in a sample of 3- to 18-year-old children and adolescents attending private and public schools from six South American countries. Participants answered the FFQ twice with a two-week interval and three 24-h dietary recalls. Intraclass and Spearman’s correlations, weighted Cohen’s kappa (κw), percentage of agreement and energy-adjusted Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated.
Seven cities in South America (Buenos Aires, Lima, Medelin, Montevideo, Santiago, Sao Paulo and Teresina).
A sample of 200 children and 244 adolescents for reliability analyses and 252 children and 244 adolescents for validity analyses were included.
Depending on the food group, for children and adolescents, reliability analyses resulted in Spearman’s coefficients from 0·47 to 0·73, intraclass correlation coefficients from 0·66 to 0·99, κw coefficients from 0·35 to 0·63, and percentage of agreement between 72·75 and 83·52 %. In the same way, validity analyses resulted in Spearman’s coefficients from 0·17 to 0·37, energy-adjusted Pearson’s coefficients from 0·17 to 0·61, κw coefficients from 0·09 to 0·24, and percentages of agreement between 45·79 and 67·06 %.
The SAYCARE FFQ achieved reasonable reliability and slight-moderate validity for almost all food groups intakes. Accordingly, it can be used for the purpose of ranking the intake of individuals within a population.
To evaluate differences in food consumption of Brazilian adults according to the presence of children and adolescents in the household.
Averages of two non-consecutive days of food records from the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey were analysed and classified into eighteen food groups according to nutritional characteristics and use in diet. We compared the mean percentage contribution to total daily energy intake of each food group according to three groups of household composition: adults living alone or with other adults (32·7 %), adults living with children (35·6 %) and adults living with adolescents (31·7 %).
Brazilian nationwide survey, 2008–2009.
Adults aged 20–59 years (n 6312; 52·1 % female).
Women living alone or with other adults had higher consumption of vegetables, milk and other drinks, and lower consumption of beans and rice, compared with those living with children or adolescents. Men living alone or with other adults had higher consumption of sweets & desserts and vegetables, and lower consumption of beans, compared with those living with children or adolescents. According to household income, adults in the highest tertile who lived with children or adolescents presented a mixed consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas their counterparts in the first income tertile presented a marked consumption of foods considered traditional of the Brazilian population.
There are differences in food consumption based on the presence of children and adolescents in the household, with greater variation according to gender and household income.
Kinematic indicators, including certain strain fringes, represent an important group of structures related to the progressive deformation in rocks. The evolution of these fibrous textures can be explained by the combination of multiple mechanisms of deformation and fluid flow, mainly controlled by the orientation of the strain field and the morphology of the grains. In general, the observations are done with an optical microscope and compared with computational models of growth. This work proposes a combination of crystallographic and cathodoluminescence data obtained in rocks from banded iron formations of the Iron Quadrangle in Brazil to represent an example of how complementary analytical techniques can be useful to understand geological problems. The chosen sample exhibits a strain fringe structure of quartz around a clast of magnetite partially transformed into goethite and hematite. Through the crystallographic data it was possible to identify the grain boundary morphology and domains of low deformation areas. On the other hand, the cathodoluminescence signal evidenced the occurrence of grains with a higher concentration of crystalline defects.
Flower and leaf herbivory might cause relevant and negative impacts on plant fitness. While flower removal or damage by florivores produces direct negative effects on plant fitness, folivores affect plant fitness by reducing resource allocation to reproduction. In this study, we examine the effects of both flower and leaf herbivory by leaf-cutting ants on the reproductive success of the shrub species Miconia nervosa (Smith) Triana (Family Melastomataceae) in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a randomized block-designed field experiment with nine replicates (blocks), in which three plants per block were assigned to one of the three following treatments: undamaged plants (ant exclusion), leaf-damaged plants (ant exclusion from reproductive organs, but not from leaves), and flower + leaf-damaged plants (no exclusion of ants). We then measured flower production, fruit set, and fruit production. Our results showed that flower + leaf-damaged plants reduced flower production nearly twofold in relation to undamaged plants, while flower set in leaf-damaged plants remained constant. The number of flowers that turned into fruits (i.e., fruit set), however, increased by 15% in flower + leaf-damaged plants, while it slightly decreased in leaf-damaged compared to undamaged plants. Contrastingly, fruit production was similar between all treatments. Taken together, our results suggest a prominent role of ant floral herbivory across different stages of the reproductive cycle in M. nervosa, with no consequences on final fruit production. The tolerance of M. nervosa to leaf-cutting ant herbivory might explain its high abundance in human-modified landscapes where leaf-cutting ants are hyper-abundant.
The relationship among social determinants, vitamin D serum concentration and the health and nutrition conditions is an important issue in the healthcare of pregnant women and newborns. Thus, the present study analyses how vitamin D, prenatal monitoring and social determinants are associated with birth weight. The cohort comprised 329 pregnant women, up to 34 weeks gestational age at the time of admission, who were receiving care through the prenatal services of Family Health Units. Structural equation modelling was used in the statistical analysis. The mean birth weight was 3340 (sd 0·545) g. Each nmol increase in maternal vitamin D serum concentration was associated with an increase in birth weight of 3·06 g. Prenatal healthcare with fewer appointments (β −41·49 g, 95 % CI −79·27, −3·71) and late onset of care in the second trimester or third trimester (β −39·24 g, 95 % CI −73·31, −5·16) favoured decreased birth weight. In addition, low socio-economic class and the practice of Afro-Brazilian religions showed a direct association with high vitamin D serum concentrations and an indirect association with high birth weight, respectively. High gestational BMI (β 23·84, 95 % CI 4·37, 43·31), maternal education level (β 24·52 g, 95 % CI 1·82, 47·23) and length of gestation (β 79·71, 95 % CI 52·81; 106·6) resulted in high birth weight. In conclusion, maternal vitamin D serum concentration, social determinants and prenatal care, evaluated in the context of primary healthcare, directly determined birth weight.
Given the difficulty in obtaining robust chronologies from tree rings in tropical regions, the search for appropriate species is very important. Both dendrochronology and radiocarbon (14C) measurements are required to validate the use of any specific tree. Some species have proved to be reliable for representing atmospheric 14C concentration over time, such as Cedrela fissilis and Araucaria angustifolia. However, not only the species have to be validated, but also different climatic conditions may result in different growth patterns for the same species. In this work, we study the annual growth rings of Cedrela fissilis from a dry tropical forest patch typical of a highly seasonal climate in central Brazil. 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to compare the isotopic ratios of tree rings with the 14C concentrations in the atmosphere during the nuclear tests based on curve Bomb13SH 1-2. Results are similar to the bomb peak curve within the period from 1958 to 1980 AD and serve as a crucial test for the cross-dating analyses using the skeleton plot technique.
The Colombian industrial sector is moving toward alternative forms of treatment of industrial waste, considering that the waste can be a source of raw material in the production chain. Thus, aiming at the decrease in mineral fertilizer use, and maintaining or even raising the crop yield, the sugarcane industry has recently advanced in the composting of the industrial waste and application in the field, both of them being potentially sustainable practices. This manuscript reports the economic benefits and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the sugarcane production system in Colombia that has been simulated in this study to evaluate the beneficial effects of reusing industrial waste from ethanol production. This study was performed using the Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery (VSB) modeling software for the simulation of agricultural and industrial parameters on integrated alternatives for the sugarcane industry. Colombian sugarcane sector was modeled using three scenarios representing agricultural systems that do not use composted industrial waste vs a paired scenario for each condition where composted waste is utilized. Regarding compost and vinasse use as fertilizer and soil conditioner, GHG emissions from the biogenic origin are not included as a reported item in the matrix of GHG emissions of the sugarcane sector. Inputs for the economic and environmental assessment models are based on actual operational data from two mill sites, one located in the traditional sugarcane production region of Cauca River Valley and the other one, on the agricultural expansion region of Llanos Orientales. Here, we have found that the reuse of composted industrial waste is beneficial and provides an economic cost savings of 2–6% per year. However, it also results in an annual increase of 10–20% in the GHG emissions.
We studied the variability of germination, dormancy and viability loss of Hirschfeldia incana seeds in relation to seed size. Seeds were stored at 35°C under humid [75% relative humidity (RH)] or dry (33% RH) conditions. Seed germination and electrolyte leakage were evaluated periodically. Small seeds had lower longevity at humid or dry storage conditions (5 or 407 days, respectively) than large or intermediate seeds (7–9 or 536–727 days, respectively). Moreover, H. incana shows variability in seed dormancy related to seed size within a population, with small seeds having lower dormancy (13%) than intermediate (50%) or large seeds (72%). Dormancy was partially released after a short storage at 35°C and humid conditions. Under dry storage conditions, endogenous dormancy cycles were observed for over a year, and longer times of storage had a dormancy-breaking effect through dry after-ripening. Results suggest a dual strategy producing non-dormant seeds with low longevity that will germinate immediately after dispersal, and seeds with greater longevity that will delay germination. Membrane permeability increased linearly with ageing at both humid and dry storage (R2 = 0.60). Small seeds showed greater conductivity than intermediate or large seeds (0.7, 0.4 or 0.3 mS g–1 dry weight, respectively, at the 80% germination). The conductivity test could be used to evaluate the quality of H. incana seeds and would allow us to identify dormant (non-germinating) seed lots as viable. However, the influence of storage conditions and variability within a seed population on seed longevity should be taken into account when evaluating seed quality.
In this work, a multifunctional system was developed in which antibacterial and luminescent properties were inserted into the matrix of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and its efficiency as a support for an antineoplastic drug was evaluated, aiming its application in the treatment of osseous diseases. The precipitation method was used for the synthesis of HAp, EuCl3 was used for the incorporation of Eu3+ as imaging agents, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antimicrobial function were used, and a model of drug, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) was used. The developed material is characterized by several techniques, where crystalline peaks attributed to HAp were identified in the X-ray diffractogram, whereas the luminescence spectrum of the material presented emissions attributed to the Eu3+ ion. The identification and the uniform distribution of AgNPs, 5FU, and Eu3+ were confirmed by mapping the sample using energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The measurements indicated that 82% (±2.8) of 5FU was incorporated into the HAp matrix, and a gradual and increasing release of it as a function of time was observed. Assays carried out for different bacteria confirmed the antimicrobial action of the samples and the efficiency of the drug inserted into the matrix. An in vitro assay showed the bioactivity of the material and its potential to bind to living osseous tissue.
Chagas Disease is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Several high-resolution markers have subdivided T. cruzi taxon into at least seven lineages or Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) (TcI-TcVI and TcBat). Trypanosoma cruzi I is the most diverse and geographically widespread DTU. Recently a TcI genotype related to domestic cycles was proposed and named as TcIDOM. Herein, we combined traditional markers and housekeeping genes and applied a Multispecies Coalescent method to explore intra-TcI relationships, lineage boundaries and genetic diversity in a random set of isolates and DNA sequences retrieved from Genbank from different countries in the Americas. We found further evidence supporting TcIDOM as an independent and emerging genotype of TcI at least in Colombia and Venezuela. We also found evidence of high phylogenetic incongruence between parasite's gene trees (including introgression) and embedded species trees, and a lack of genetic structure among geography and hosts, illustrating the complex dynamics and epidemiology of TcI across the Americas. These findings provide novel insights into T. cruzi systematics and epidemiology and support the need to assess parasite diversity and lineage boundaries through hypothesis testing using different approaches to those traditionally employed, including the Bayesian Multispecies coalescent method.
Disasters are a major challenge for public health because of damage caused by death, injury, or illness that exceeds health services’ ability to respond. Health professionals and students require awareness and understanding of particular aspects of disaster planning, mitigation, response, or recovery. In Brazil, despite the increase in the number and intensity of disasters, there is no formal acceptance regarding the need to integrate disaster content into curriculum guidelines (1)
To develop and test referential and models for disaster management health professional education.
Competence-based education has been proposed. The methodology adopted was developed by the Association (2) and adapted to be used in the Brazilian context. An initial literature search was performed in MEDLINE via PubMed, Google Scholar, Lilacs, and Scielo databases using disaster and competencies as descriptors.
Articles and documents in Portuguese, Spanish, and English were identified for: public health (21), nursing (20), multi-professional (16), psychology (4), pharmacy (4), dentistry (2), medicine (1), veterinary (2), and nutrition (1). Data were organized according to a proposal from the literature (3) Selection of benchmarks for the preparation of education models identified 27 referential, three of them developed in Brazil.
Application and evaluation of the methodology developed with undergraduate students of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul consisted of an initiative to prepare health care professionals for disaster management.