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Polycentric governance has emergent properties that we argue can be explained through an analysis of the dynamics of institutional change. In this chapter, we use institutional change theories and evolutionary and complex adaptive systems (CAS) thinking to trace mechanisms observed in the change and emergence of polycentric governance. We offer an explanatory model of how polycentric governance changes. Particularly, we consider institutional change of polycentric governance to be negotiated in interdependent (networks of) action situations. Change (or emergence) of governance is the result of endogenous changes (e.g. in power resources actors hold) and/ or of exogenous drivers such as technological change. Polycentric governance shares characteristics with Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) whose change is evolutionary. We highlight the particular difficulties this perspective entails for assessing institutional performance. We illustrate the evolution of polycentric governance arrangements through two vignettes summarizing case study material from Kenya and Mexico.
The efficient and effective movement of research into practice is acknowledged as crucial to improving population health and assuring return on investment in healthcare research. The National Center for Advancing Translational Science which sponsors Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) recognizes that dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences have matured over the last 15 years and are central to its goals to shift academic health institutions to better align with this reality. In 2016, the CTSA Collaboration and Engagement Domain Task Force chartered a D&I Science Workgroup to explore the role of D&I sciences across the translational research spectrum. This special communication discusses the conceptual distinctions and purposes of dissemination, implementation, and translational sciences. We propose an integrated framework and provide real-world examples for articulating the role of D&I sciences within and across all of the translational research spectrum. The framework’s major proposition is that it situates D&I sciences as targeted “sub-sciences” of translational science to be used by CTSAs, and others, to identify and investigate coherent strategies for more routinely and proactively accelerating research translation. The framework highlights the importance of D&I thought leaders in extending D&I principles to all research stages.
This paper investigates the impact of developments in Turkish migration management policy and changes in management of the Greek-Turkish border on border deaths prior to the 2015 mass inflow of refugees. As the locus of multiple and sustained Frontex operations, as well as several autonomous major changes in relevant policies and practices over the 2000–2014 period, the Greek-Turkish border can serve as a post hoc laboratory for analyzing the implications of EU-influenced migration and border management for deaths on the border. We conclude that a chaotic mix of national politics, policy development and law enforcement practices, flexible smuggling networks, and Frontex operations contributed to the mass inflows of 2015–2016 and ensured mass casualties.
Microscale testing has enjoyed significant developments, with the majority of testing focused on tensile/compression type tests and little focus on shear testing. With the recent advances in macroscale shear testing, we developed a novel shear structure for evaluating shear properties of bulk materials and films at the microscale. The shear response in single-crystal copper oriented along the  direction was found to have a yield strength of ∼180 MPa. Nanocrystalline copper specimens with different orientations showed sensitivity to the film texture with a shear yield strength nearly three times that of single-crystal copper. Shear specimens were fabricated with Cu film–Si substrate interface near the middle of the shear region and compressed to fracture. The shear response showed a mixed behavior of the stiff Si substrate and softer nanocrystalline film and failed in a brittle manner, indicating a response unique to the interface.
Thermal analyses of samples of thorium dicarbide in equilibrium with graphite show arrests which indicate phase transitions at 1427 ± 21°C arid 1481 ± 28°C. These thermal effects have been observed on heating and cooling both in standard thermal analysis and in differential thermal analysis using graphite as a reference material. The microstructure of thorium dicarbide samples shows the characteristic “herringbone” pattern of a material which has undergone a martensitic-type transition.
A high-temperature X-ray investigation has revealed that the observed thermal arrests correspond to erystallographic transformations. The monodinic modification found at room temperature is stable to 1427°C, at which temperature a tetragonal modification with a0 = 4.235 ± 0.002Å and c0 = 5.408 ± 0.002Å is formed. At 1481°C, the tetragonal is transformed to cubic with a0 = 5.809 ± 0.002 Å. The best agreement between observed and calculated intensities has been obtained with C-C units of 1.5-Å assumed bond length in space groups P42/mmc and Pa3 for the tetragonal and cubic modifications, respectively.
A relatively inexpensive camera which was designed for taking Borrmann topographs with standard X-ray diffraction equipment is described. This camera has been used to take stereo pairs of Borrmann topographs by rotating the crystal around an axis normal to the diffraction planes. Topographs have been taken of nearly perfect copper crystals up to 0.2 cm thick using silver, molybdenum, copper, and chromium radiation, and comparisons have been made with topographs obtained with crystal monochromated radiation. Geometrical factors affecting the resolving power of the technique are briefly reviewed. In addition, the resolution inherent in the diffraction phenomenon is analyzed on the basis of the theory of anomalous transmission. Comparisons are made between calculated and observed image widths of a few dislocations.
We describe techniques for constructing models of size continuum in ω steps by simultaneously building a perfect set of enmeshed countable Henkin sets. Such models have perfect, asymptotically similar subsets. We survey applications involving Borel models, atomic models, two-cardinal transfers and models respecting various closure relations.
Professor F. J. Fisher wrote in 1940 that the twentieth century has been ‘busily recreating the sixteenth century in its own image’. Historical re-evaluation is always in part narcissistic. Two world wars have left their scars on our view of history and, if nothing else, have given us insights into the Tudor age which, like our own, faced ideological wars of survival. The quest for economic and military security and the dream of the welfare state have led the twentieth century to forsake not only the ethical and institutional standards of the nineteenth century but also to deny its interpretation of history. The ancient shibboleths, the familiar landmarks of Tudor history, and the comfortable generalizations about despotism, mercantilism, and ‘new monarchy’ are all being swept aside by a generation of historians who claim greater understanding of the past.
Over the last decade, Larry Goves, composer and lecturer of music at the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM), has been steadily enriching the experimental music community in Manchester, UK. As an artistic director and curator, Goves regularly presents his and other's work through the ensemble The House of Bedlam, the annual New Music North West festival, and the Decontamination series. This review covers the twelfth and thirteenth instalments of the Decontamination series, presented as a double-bill at RNCM's Carol Nash Recital Room on 28 February 2018.
To examine whether social media and online behaviours are associated with unhealthy food and beverage consumption in children.
A cross-sectional online survey was used to assess Internet and social media use, including engagement with food and beverage brand content, and frequency of consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages. Linear regression models were used to examine associations between online behaviours, including engagement with food and beverage brand content, and consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages, adjusting for age, sex and socio-economic status.
New South Wales, Australia, in 2014.
Children aged 10–16 years (n 417).
Watching food brand video content on YouTube, purchasing food online and seeing favourite food brands advertised online were significantly associated with higher frequency of consumption of unhealthy foods and drinks after adjustment for age, sex and socio-economic status.
Children who have higher online engagement with food brands and content, particularly through online video, are more likely to consume unhealthy foods and drinks. Our findings highlight the need to include social media in regulations and policies designed to limit children’s exposure to unhealthy food marketing. Social media companies have a greater role to play in protecting children from advertising.
In this work, the deformation mechanisms underlying the room temperature deformation of the pseudomorphic body centered cubic (BCC) Mg phase in Mg/Nb nanolayered composites are studied. Nanolayered composites comprised of 50% volume fraction of Mg and Nb were synthesized using physical vapor deposition with the individual layer thicknesses h of 5, 6.7, and 50 nm. At the lower layer thicknesses of h = 5 and 6.7 nm, Mg has undergone a phase transition from HCP to BCC such that it formed a coherent interface with the adjoining Nb phase. Micropillar compression testing normal and parallel to the interface plane shows that the BCC Mg nanolayered composite is much stronger and can sustain higher strains to failure than the HCP Mg nanolayered composite. A crystal plasticity model incorporating confined layer slip is presented and applied to link the observed anisotropy and hardening in the deformation response to the underlying slip mechanisms.
Violence and aggression are relatively common and serious occurrences in health and social care and rates are higher in mental health settings. Despite the National Health Service's policy of ‘zero tolerance’ of such behaviour, reporting of violence and aggression against mental health staff remains low. This article considers the nature of violence and aggression against staff in psychiatric settings and the process of involving the police to ensure an effective outcome. It outlines each step, from the initial the multidisciplinary team assessment of the incident and its reporting to the police to the making of witness statements, should the case come to court. It also explains the discretionary role of the police in deciding whether to charge and of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) in deciding whether to prosecute. The article stresses that NHS organisations need to provide an effective, streamlined and time-efficient reporting process, as this should reduce levels of patient violence, improve staff's well-being and morale, save costs and make the working environment safer for all.
•Raise awareness of the underreporting to the police of incidents of violence and aggression against staff by psychiatric patients and recognise the benefits of reporting such incidents
•Develop a framework for assessment and reporting of such incidents committed to the police and to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), in the event of possible or actual criminal proceedings
•Develop an understanding of the role of the healthcare organisation, the police and the CPS when such incidents are reported to the police