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We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
Metamaterials offer the possibility to control and manipulate electromagnetic radiation. Spoof surface plasmon metamaterials are the focus of this Element of the Metamaterials Series. The fundamentals of spoof surface plasmons are reviewed, and advances on plasmonic metamaterials based on spoof plasmons are presented. Spoof surface plasmon metamaterials on a wide range of geometries are discussed: from planar platforms to waveguides and localized modes, including cylindrical structures, grooves, wedges, dominos or conformal surface plasmons in ultrathin platforms. The Element closes with a review of recent advances and applications such as Terahertz sensing or integrated devices and circuits.
Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites.
The overall sample consisted of 27 001 participants (37.5% males, n = 4251 drawn from the general population). The mean age was 22.12 years (s.d. = 6.28, range 16–55 years). The SPQ was used. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Multilevel CFA (ML-CFA) were used to evaluate the factor structure underlying the SPQ scores.
At the SPQ item level, the nine factor and second-order factor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit. At the SPQ subscale level, three- and four-factor models displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than other CFA models. ML-CFA showed that the intraclass correlation coefficients values were lower than 0.106. The three-factor model showed adequate goodness of fit indices in multilevel analysis. The ordinal α coefficients were high, ranging from 0.73 to 0.94 across individual samples, and from 0.84 to 0.91 for the combined sample.
The results are consistent with the conceptual notion that schizotypal personality is a multifaceted construct and support the validity and utility of SPQ in cross-cultural research. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of our results for diagnostic systems, psychosis models and cross-national mental health strategies.
Cen X-3 was first discovered by Chodil et al. Since then, observations using the UHURU satellite have shown it to be an X-ray pulsar, and it must now have become one of the most searched for objects in the sky. It is both an X-ray pulsar (P~4.8 secs) and an X-ray eclipsing binary (P~2.08712 days).
The variable X-ray source in the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SMC X-1 (2U 0115-73) was discovered by Leong et al. (1971). X-ray eclipses with a period of 3.8927 ± 0.0010 days were subsequently reported by Schreier et al. (1972). Identification of the X-ray source with SK 160, star number 160 in the list of Sanduleak (1968), was proposed by Webster et al. (1972) on the basis of the similarity of its spectrum with that of the optical counterpart of Cyg X-1.
Precise determination of dynamical masses of pre-main-sequence stars is essential for calibrating stellar evolution models, that are widely used to derive theoretical masses of young low-mass objects. We have determined the individual masses of the pair AB Dor Ba/Bb using Australian Long Baseline Array observations and archive infrared data, as part of a larger program directed to monitor binary systems in the AB Doradus moving group. We have detected, for the first time, compact radio emission from both stars. This has allowed us to determine the orbital parameters of both the relative and absolute orbits and, consequently, their individual dynamical masses: 0.28±0.05 M⊙ and 0.25±0.05 M⊙. Comparisons of the dynamical masses with the prediction of pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models show that the models underpredict the dynamical masses of the binary components Ba and Bb by 10–30% and 10–40%, respectively.
Stegophorus macronectes (Johnston & Mawson, 1942) is a gastrointestinal parasite found in Antarctic seabirds. The original description of the species, which was based only on females, is poor and fragmented with some unclear diagnostic characters. This study provides new morphometric and molecular data on this previously poorly described parasite. Nuclear rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions) were isolated from S. macronectes specimens collected from the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica Forster on Deception Island, Antarctica. Using 18S rDNA sequences, phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference) of the order Spirurida were performed to determine the phylogenetic location of this species. Primer pairs of the ITS regions were designed for genus-level identification of specimens, regardless of their cycle, as an alternative to coprological methods. The utility of this molecular method for identification of morphologically altered specimens is also discussed.
The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of a culture method and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of two Campylobacter species: C. jejuni and C. coli. Data were collected during a 3-year survey of UK broiler flocks, and consisted of parallel sampling of caeca from 436 batches of birds by both PCR and culture. Batches were stratified by season (summer/non-summer) and whether they were the first depopulation of the flock, resulting in four sub-populations. A Bayesian approach in the absence of a gold standard was adopted, and the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR and culture for each Campylobacter subtype was estimated, along with the true C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence in each sub-population. Results indicated that the sensitivity of the culture method was higher than that of PCR in detecting both species when the samples were derived from populations infected with at most one species of Campylobacter. However, from a mixed population, the sensitivity of culture for detecting both C. jejuni or C. coli is reduced while PCR is potentially able to detect both species, although the total probability of correctly identifying at least one species by PCR is similar to that of the culture method.
The present research discusses the thermal and structural properties of calcium alginate films synthesized by cross linking precursor sodium alginate films with Ca2+ ions. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analyses evinced the interchange of Na ions with Ca ions. Both techniques revealed a shift of the COO- vibration modes; the symmetrical COO- peak of calcium alginate exhibited a shift towards higher wavenumber (∼14 cm−1) from 1415 cm−1 to 1429 cm−1 in the Raman spectra. TGA and TMA analyses performed under a nitrogen atmosphere revealed that increasing the Ca-molarity and immersion time resulted in an increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the strain deformation of the Ca-alginate film. The increase in Tg can be attributed to the Ca-cross-linking that could restrict the molecular response to temperature change whereas the increased strain could be due to the enhanced entrapment of water between the molecular chains of the polymer.
The cabbage stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Mrsh.)) (Col., Curculionidae) is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera Metzg.) in central and northern Europe. Although host-plant resistance is a key tool in integrated pest management systems, resistant genotypes are not yet available for this species. Resynthesized rapeseed lines (B. oleracea L.×B. rapa L.) are broadening the genetic diversity and might have potential as sources of resistance to pest insects. The host quality, of nine resynthesized rapeseed lines and six genotypes of B. napus to cabbage stem weevil, was evaluated in laboratory screening tests and in a semi-field experiment. In dual-choice oviposition tests, female C. pallidactylus laid significantly fewer eggs on five resyntheses and on swede cv ‘Devon Champion’ than on the moderately susceptible oilseed rape cv ‘Express’, indicating a lower host quality of these genotypes. Results of laboratory screenings were confirmed in a semi-field experiment, in which twelve genotypes were exposed to C. pallidactylus females. The number of larvae was significantly lower in two resyntheses and in cv ‘Devon Champion’ than in oilseed rape cv WVB 9. The total, as well as individual, glucosinolate (GSL) content in the leaves differed substantially among the genotypes tested. The amount of feeding by larvae of C. pallidactylus, as measured by a stem-injury coefficient, was positively correlated with the indolyl GSL compounds 3-indolylmethyl and 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl, and with the aromatic GSL 2-phenylethyl, whereas it was negatively correlated with 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl. Thus, the composition and concentration of GSL compounds within the plant tissue might be a key factor in breeding for pest resistance in oilseed rape.
Adverse childhood experiences have been described as one of the major environmental risk factors for depressive disorder. Similarly, the deleterious impact of early traumatic experiences on depression seems to be moderated by individual genetic variability. Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulate the effect of childhood adversity on adult depression, although inconsistencies across studies have been found. Moreover, the gene×environment (G×E) interaction concerning the different types of childhood adversity remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyse the putative interaction between the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR polymorphism), the BDNF gene (Val66Met polymorphism) and childhood adversity in accounting for adult depressive symptoms.
A sample of 534 healthy individuals filled in self-report questionnaires of depressive symptomatology [the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R)] and different types of childhood adversities [the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)]. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (5-HTT gene) and the Val66Met polymorphism (BDNF gene) were genotyped in the whole sample.
Total childhood adversity (β=0.27, p<0.001), childhood sexual abuse (CSA; β=0.17, p<0.001), childhood emotional abuse (β=0.27, p<0.001) and childhood emotional neglect (β=0.22, p<0.001) had an impact on adult depressive symptoms. CSA had a greater impact on depressive symptoms in Met allele carriers of the BDNF gene than in the Val/Val group (F=5.87, p<0.0001), and in S carriers of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (5-HTT gene) (F=5.80, p<0.0001).
Childhood adversity per se predicted higher levels of adult depressive symptoms. In addition, BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms seemed to moderate the effect of CSA on adult depressive symptoms.
Commission 53 on Extrasolar Planets was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the pulsar planets in 1992 and the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets WG-ESP, which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding president of Commission 53 is Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The vice-president is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WG-ESP, and the members of the Commission 53 Organizing Committee are the other former members of the WG-ESP.
The SOPHIE Consortium started a large program of exoplanets search and characterization in the Northern hemisphere with the new spectrograph SOPHIE at the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, France. The objectives of this program are to characterize the zoo of exoplanets and to bring strong constraints on their processes of formation and evolution using the radial velocity technique. We present here new SOPHIE measurements of the transiting planet host star XO-3. This allowed us to observe the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and to refine the parameters of the planet. The unusual shape of the radial velocity anomaly during the transit provides a hint for a nearly transverse Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The sky-projected angle between the planetary orbital axis and the stellar rotation axis should be λ = 70° ± 15° to be compatible with our observations. This suggests that some close-in planets might result from gravitational interaction between planets and/or stars rather than migration. This result requires confirmation by additional observations.
Exoplanet search programs need to study how to disentangle radial-velocity (RV) variations due to Doppler motion and the noise induced by stellar activity. We monitored the active K2V HD 189733 with the high-resolution SOPHIE spectrograph (OHP, France). We refined the orbital parameters of HD 189733b and put limitations on the eccentricity and on a long-term velocity gradient. We subtracted the orbital motion of the planet and compared the variability of activity spectroscopic indices (HeI, Hα, Ca II H&K lines) to the evolution of the RV residuals and the shape of spectral lines. All are in agreement with an active stellar surface in rotation. We used such correlations to correct for the RV jitter due to stellar activity. This results in achieving a high precision on the orbital parameters, with a semi-amplitude: K=200.56±0.88m⋅s−1 and a derived planet mass of MP=1.13±0.03 MJup.
Interspecific competition between an introduced parasitoid species aimed at controlling a herbivorous pest species and a native parasitoid parasitising the same host may influence the success of classical biological control programmes. In Kenya, interspecific competition between an introduced and a local parasitoid on two diamondback moth populations (DBM, Plutella xylostella) was investigated on two different host plants. We tested simultaneous and delayed competition of the local parasitoid Diadegma mollipla Holmgren and its exotic congenus D. semiclausum Hellen on a newly aquired DBM host plant (snowpea) in the laboratory. Under simultaneous competition, D. mollipla produced more progeny than D. semiclausum on snowpea. A head start of D. Mollipla, of four and eight hours before its congenus was introduced, resulted in a similar number of progeny of both species. In delayed competition (time intervals of 24 h, 48 h and 72 h), progeny production was similar for both parasitoids when the time interval was 24 h, irrespective of which species parasitized first. More progeny was produced by the species which attacked first, when the time interval was greater than 24 h, although it was only significant at 72 h. Competitive abilites of both parasitoids on the new host plant differed largely between laboratory and semi-field conditions. The influence of two host plants (snowpea and cabbage) on competition was studied in the greenhouse with different host and parasitoid densities. Parasitism levels of D. semiclausum were significantly higher than those of D. mollipla, regardless of host plant, host and parasitoid densities, but progeny production of D. mollipla on snowpea was still slightly higher than on cabbage. As compared to the confinement of parasitoids and larvae to small containers, D. mollipla parasitized very few larvae in the cages. Competitive ability of the two parasitoid species tested was influenced both by the density of the searching females and by parameters related to either the host plant and/or the herbivorous hosts.
Host shifts in herbivorous insects are thought to sometimes provide enemy-free space on the novel host plant. A population of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), an oligophagous pest on crucifers, recently shifted to sugar snap- and snowpeas (Pisum sativum) in Kenya, resulting in heavy damage to these crops. The impact of this host shift on the interaction with Diadegma mollipla (Holmgren), one of the most frequent parasitoid species attacking P. xylostella in this area, was investigated. Parasitism rates and development of two strains of D. mollipla, one reared from a cabbage-feeding strain of P. xylostella and the second from the new pea-feeding strain, changed based on the host-plant that P. xylostella fed upon, with both parasitoid strains more effective on the novel host plant. Parasitism by the cabbage-D. mollipla strain on P. xylostella infesting peas was four times higher than on P. xylostella infesting cabbage when a single plant species was present. However, when both crops were offered together, the level of parasitism dropped to the level seen when cabbage was offered alone. Diadegma mollipla developed on both hosts, but cabbage-D. mollipla had a longer total development time. Pupae of cabbage-feeding P. xylostella were significantly heavier than pupae of pea-feeding P. xylostella and parasitism had no influence on these differences. Diadegma mollipla preferred to parasitize the pea-feeding P. xylostella. Thus, the host shift by P. xylostella to a novel host plant did not necessarily provide enemy-free space, with the parasitoid species tested. The implications of these findings for the host–parasitoid relationship are discussed.
The Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (hereafter the WGESP) was created at a meeting of the IAU Executive Council in 1999 as a Working Group of IAU Division III and was renewed for three more years at the IAU General Assembly in 2003. The charge of the WGESP is to act as a focal point for international research on extrasolar planets. The membership of the WGESP has remained unchanged for the last three years.
The dispersion, which expresses the variation with wavelength of the guided-mode group velocity, is one of the most important properties of optical fibers. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer much larger flexibility than conventional fibers with respect to tailoring of the dispersion curve. This is partly due to the large refractive-index contrast available in silica/air microstructures, and partly due to the possibility of making complex refractive-index structures over the fiber cross section. We discuss the fundamental physical mechanisms determining the dispersion properties of PCFs guiding by either total internal reflection or photonic bandgap effects, and use these insights to outline design principles and generic behaviours of various types of PCFs. A number of examples from recent modeling and experimental work serve to illustrate our general conclusions.
A hexagonal lattice photonic crystal was fabricated inside the metallic microcavity. And a thin film of Alq3 was incorporated inside the textured cavity as an active medium. The microcavity is designed such that the modified photonic modes due to the textured structure can couple to the excited electronic states of Alq3. This leads to changes in the emission characteristics of Alq3. From the angle-resolved transmission (ARTR) results, the photonic bandgap was observed at all angles from normal incident to 60°. The presence of surface plasmon (SP) was observed in both TM and TE modes of the transmission. Compare to the bulk Alq3 photoluminescence spectrum, significant modification of the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum was observed in the angle-resolved photoluminescence (ARPL). The photoluminescence spectra showed clear suppression in luminescence intensity for the range inside the photonic bandgap. We use decouple approximation for the standing wave modes and derive the photonic waveguide characteristics for two-dimensional textured metallic microcavities. The theoretical result is in good agreement to the experimental result.
We present and characterize hexagonal point defects in a two dimensional photonic crystal based on macroporous silicon. These point defects are prepatterned periodically, forming a superstructure within the photonic crystal after electrochemical etching. Spatially resolved, optical investigations related to morphological properties, like defect concentration and pore radius, are compared to bandstructure calculations. The confined defect states are identified and their interaction is evaluated quantitatively.