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Although much is known about the anatomy of adult primates, particularly chimpanzees, the same cannot be said for the anatomy of young primates, especially non-hominoid primates such as lemurs and marmosets. This is the first book dedicated to newborn skeletal and dental anatomy and how it varies across primate species, which is important for interpreting adult primate skeletal form, as well for comprehending primate and human evolution. Structured according to anatomical regions, the book includes hundreds of detailed anatomical illustrations, a color atlas illustrating entire skeletons in representative taxa, and boxes at the end of each chapter providing further detail on key aspects covered in the main text. Whilst the book is primarily a guide to comparative anatomy, it also highlights the links between development and behavior. An indispensable resource for students and researchers in the fields of biological anthropology, anatomy, primatology, growth and development, dental biology, and veterinary medicine.
Smoking prevalence is higher amongst individuals with schizophrenia and depression compared with the general population. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can examine whether this association is causal using genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We conducted two-sample MR to explore the bi-directional effects of smoking on schizophrenia and depression. For smoking behaviour, we used (1) smoking initiation GWAS from the GSCAN consortium and (2) we conducted our own GWAS of lifetime smoking behaviour (which captures smoking duration, heaviness and cessation) in a sample of 462690 individuals from the UK Biobank. We validated this instrument using positive control outcomes (e.g. lung cancer). For schizophrenia and depression we used GWAS from the PGC consortium.
There was strong evidence to suggest smoking is a risk factor for both schizophrenia (odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67–3.08, p < 0.001) and depression (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.71–2.32, p < 0.001). Results were consistent across both lifetime smoking and smoking initiation. We found some evidence that genetic liability to depression increases smoking (β = 0.091, 95% CI 0.027–0.155, p = 0.005) but evidence was mixed for schizophrenia (β = 0.022, 95% CI 0.005–0.038, p = 0.009) with very weak evidence for an effect on smoking initiation.
These findings suggest that the association between smoking, schizophrenia and depression is due, at least in part, to a causal effect of smoking, providing further evidence for the detrimental consequences of smoking on mental health.
“Where is the proper place to break it?” asked Major General Henry W. Halleck of his officers as they peered at the Confederate line drawn on a map of the western theater. It was a cold December 1861 evening and several officers, including George W. Cullum and William T. Sherman, had gathered to discuss strategy. It was an obvious question that begged to be answered as the men examined the long Confederate defensive line that ran from the Mississippi River to the mountains of eastern Kentucky and Tennessee near the Cumberland Gap. Halleck was one of the main Union generals Abraham Lincoln had tapped to find the best possible route of advance through this enemy defensive line and into the heart of the Confederacy, and he was certainly aware of the enormity of the task.
Data preservation, reuse, and synthesis are important goals in contemporary archaeological research that have been addressed by the recent collaboration of the Eastern Archaic Faunal Working Group (EAFWG). We used the Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR) to preserve 60 significant legacy faunal databases from 23 Archaic period archaeological sites located in several contiguous subregions of the interior North American Eastern Woodlands. In order to resolve the problem of synthesizing non-standardized databases, we used the ontology and integration tools available in tDAR to explore comparability and combine datasets so that our research questions about aquatic resource use during the Archaic could be addressed at multiple scales. The challenges of making digital databases accessible for reuse, including the addition of metadata, and of linking disparate data in queryable datasets are significant but worth the effort. Our experience provides one example of how collaborative research may productively resolve problems in making legacy data accessible and usable for synthetic archaeological research.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Conservatism and modernity are both terms that suffer from considerable ambiguity and both are in need of considerable refinement. In common parlance, conservatism is opposed to liberalism, even though in practice as well as in theory, the distinction is not so easy to maintain. Conservatism and liberalism are both the products of modernity and could not exist elsewhere. The distinction between conservatism and liberalism is even more difficult to maintain in continental Europe. The term “conservatism” was coined by René de Chateaubriand whose journal Le Conservateur was issued to propagate the cause of the clerical and political restoration in France. On the continent, conservatism was frequently associated with reaction to the legacy of the French Revolution. From Joseph de Maistre to Juan Donoso Cortes and Carl Schmitt, these radicals of the Right saw themselves as engaged in a wholesale struggle against the Revolution and the intellectual tradition of the Enlightenment that helped to inspire it. They were not conservatives attempting to restore the status quo ante, but political messianists who imagined a Counter-Revolution, a mirror image of the very Revolution they sought to overthrow.
Introduction and regular application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of bronchoalveolar specimens for community-acquired respiratory viruses in January 2017 led to the identification of adenovirus in multiple patients in a surgical intensive unit in July 2017, which was attributed to a pseudo-outbreak.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
The frost susceptibility of Australian commercial cereal crops, in particular wheat and barley, has become an economically devastating issue for growers. The relative risk to frost damage of the currently available varieties is obtained through testing varieties in a series of field experiments at locations susceptible to frost events (FEs). The experimental design, measurement protocols and resultant data from these frost expression experiments (FEEs) are complex due to the unpredictability of the timing and severity of FEs, and the maturity of the plants at the time of the events. Design and protocol complexities include the use of multiple sowing dates and the recording of plant maturity. Data difficulties include a high degree of unbalance, and in the instance of multiple frosts in a FEE, there is a longitudinal aspect. A linear mixed model analysis was adopted to accommodate these characteristics of individual FEEs and the multi-environment trial analysis of 17 FEEs. Finally, an approach is demonstrated for dissemination of results that are of use to both growers and breeders.
Three states and one county now allow Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers to transport injured law enforcement K9s (LEK9s) as long as no human needs the ambulance at the time. Several other states either have pending legislation or are in discussions about this topic. As additional states ponder these laws, it is likely that the EMS transport of LEK9s will become legal in many states. In the wake of this legislation, a significant void was created. Currently, there are no published protocols for the safe transport of LEK9s by EMS providers. Additionally, the transport destination for these LEK9s is unlikely to be programmed into vehicle Global Positioning Systems. The authors of this report convened a Joint Task Force on Working Dog Care, consisting of veterinarians, EMS directors, EMS physicians, and LEK9 handlers, who met to develop a protocol for LEK9s being transported to a veterinary facility. The protocol covers the logistics of getting the LEK9 into the ambulance (eg, when the handler is or is not available), appropriate restraint, and the importance of prior arrangements with a veterinary emergency facility. A LEK9 hand-off form and a Transport Policy Form are provided, downloadable, and customizable for each EMS provider. This protocol provides essential information on safety and transport logistics for injured LEK9s. The hope is that this protocol will assist EMS providers to streamline the transport of an injured LEK9 to an appropriate veterinary facility.
This document is a resource for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) treating an injured law enforcement K9 (LEK9) in the field and/or during transport by ambulance to a veterinary hospital. A Joint Task Force on Working Dog Care was created, which included veterinarians, EMS directors, EMS physicians, and canine handlers, who met to develop a treatment protocol for injured LEK9s. The protocol covers many major life-threatening injuries that LEK9s may sustain in the line of duty, and also discusses personnel safety and necessary equipment. This protocol may help train EMS providers to save the life of an injured LEK9.
Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding in faba beans (Vicia faba Linnaeus (Fabaceae)) often results in a reduction in seed quality and economic losses. Traditionally, seed damage is assessed subjectively through visual examination by a trained individual, but the use of non-destructive imaging to evaluate seed quality is gaining momentum. The focus of this study was to determine the ability to quantify Lygus species damage in faba bean using shortwave-infrared imaging and two analysis techniques: (1) spectral angle mapper and (2) simple reflectance indices. Seed samples were visually assessed for damage before imaging in 242 wavebands between 980 and 2500 nm. Four spectral intervals, involving 102 wavebands, were identified as optimal for the detection of seed damage using spectral angle mapper. A strong relationship was obtained between the area of seed damage derived using spectral angle mapper and visually (R2 = 0.95). Seed damage derived by thresholding of two normalised faba bean damage indices involving reflectance at 1086 and 1313 nm and 2218 and 2342 nm also showed a strong relationship with the visual assessment (R2 = 0.92). The two image analysis techniques provided similar results. The study suggests that imaging in the shortwave-infrared wavelengths and the derivation of simple indices can effectively quantify faba bean damage by Lygus feeding.
Scaling laws for the thrust production and energetics of self-propelled or fixed-velocity three-dimensional rigid propulsors undergoing pitching motions are presented. The scaling relations extend the two-dimensional scaling laws presented in Moored & Quinn (AIAA J., 2018, pp. 1–15) by accounting for the added mass of a finite-span propulsor, the downwash/upwash effects from the trailing vortex system of a propulsor and the elliptical topology of shedding trailing-edge vortices. The novel three-dimensional scaling laws are validated with self-propelled inviscid simulations and fixed-velocity experiments over a range of reduced frequencies, Strouhal numbers and aspect ratios relevant to bio-inspired propulsion. The scaling laws elucidate the dominant flow physics behind the thrust production and energetics of pitching bio-propulsors, and they provide guidance for the design of bio-inspired propulsive systems.
Background: Observational studies have reported an association between childhood obesity and a higher risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the difficulties to fully account for confounding and long recall periods make causal inference from these studies challenging. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of childhood obesity to the development of MS through Mendelian randomization, which uses genetic associations to minimize the risk of confounding. Methods: We selected 23 independent genetic variants strongly associated with childhood body mass index (BMI) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) which included 47,541 children. The corresponding effects of these variants on risk of MS were obtained from a GWAS of 14,802 MS cases and 26,703 controls. Standard two-sample Mendelian randomization methods were performed, with additional sensitivity analyses to assess the likelihood of bias from genetic pleiotropy. Results: The inverse-variance weighted MR analysis revealed that one standard deviation increase in childhood BMI increased odds of MS by 26% (odds ratio=1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.45, p=0.001). There was no significant heterogeneity across the individual estimates. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings and provided no evidence of pleiotropy. Conclusions: This study provides genetic support of a role for increased childhood BMI in the development of MS.
Infections due to Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Salmonella pose a significant health burden in Canada, resulting in major costs to the health care system and economic impacts due to lost productivity resulting from illness. Recent literature suggests that climate may play a role in the prevalence of these pathogens along the food chain. This study used integrated surveillance data to examine associations between weather variables, serving as a proxy for climate, in agricultural areas and Campylobacter, generic E. coli and Salmonella contamination on samples of beef, poultry and swine meat products in Canada. Various temperature metrics (average, maximum and variability) were correlated with Campylobacter prevalence along the food chain. The prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella was correlated with both precipitation and temperatures metrics; however, analysis for E. coli was limited to beef and swine meats at retail settings, because prevalence in other combinations approached 100%, which obviated further analysis. Campylobacter contamination in poultry and swine at abattoir and retail settings demonstrated a seasonal trend, with increased prevalence generally from June or July through November, compared to the baseline month of December. Based on these analyses, Campylobacter is the most likely foodborne bacteria studied whose occurrence in meat products is affected by climatic changes in Canada. An exploratory analysis of data at the provincial scale, using Ontario as an example, revealed similar directional relationships between climate and bacterial prevalence.