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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Tail docking of new born lambs is a routine practice in the United Kingdom. It has been used as a strategy to reduce the impact of myriasis (blowfly strike). There is only a limited period of time after birth (up to seven days) during which lambs can be docked without the use of anaethesia. Tail docking may have a detrimental effect on the ewe-lamb bond if the process leads to significant and sustained pain. French, Wall and Morgan (1994) suggested lambs suffer acute pain immediately after the procedure of docking but this potential disturbance of normal behaviour during the first few days of life did not seem to affect the long-term performance of lambs. The study reported in this paper considers the effect of tail docking on the behaviour of lambs during the first 90 minutes after docking and on lamb performance to slaughter.
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