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Introduction: The Maximizing Aging Using Volunteer Engagement in the ED (MAUVE + ED) program connects specially trained volunteers with older patients whose personal and social needs are not always met within the busy ED environment. The objective of this study was to describe the development and implementation of the MAUVE + ED program and the activities performed with older patients by its volunteers. Methods: The MAUVE + ED program was implemented in the ED (annual census 65,000) of a large academic tertiary hospital in Toronto, Ontario. Volunteers were trained to identify and approach older patients and others at greater risk for adverse outcomes, including poor patient experience, in the ED and invite such patients to participate in the program. The program is available to all patients >65 years, and those with confusion, patients who were alone, those with mobility issues, and patients with increased length of stay in the ED. Volunteers documented their activities after each patient encounter using a standardized paper-based data collection form. Results: Over the program's initial 6-month period, the MAUVE + ED volunteers reported a total of 896 encounters with 718 unique patients. The median (IQR) time a MAUVE volunteer spent with a patient was 10 (5, 20) minutes, with a range of 1 to 130 minutes. The median (IQR) number of patients seen per shift was 7 (6, 9), with a range of 1 to 16 patients per shift. The most common activities the volunteer assisted with were therapeutic activities/social visits (n = 859; 95.9%), orientation activities (n = 501; 55.9%), and hydration assistance (n = 231; 25.8%). The least common were mobility assistance (n = 36; 4.0%), and vision/hearing assistance (n = 13; 1.5%). Conclusion: Preliminary data suggest the MAUVE + ED volunteers were able to enrich the experience of older adults and their families/carers in the ED.
Frascati international research criteria for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are controversial; some investigators have argued that Frascati criteria are too liberal, resulting in a high false positive rate. Meyer et al. recommended more conservative revisions to HAND criteria, including exploring other commonly used methodologies for neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV including the global deficit score (GDS). This study compares NCI classifications by Frascati, Meyer, and GDS methods, in relation to neuroimaging markers of brain integrity in HIV.
Two hundred forty-one people living with HIV (PLWH) without current substance use disorder or severe (confounding) comorbid conditions underwent comprehensive neurocognitive testing and brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Participants were classified using Frascati criteria versus Meyer criteria: concordant unimpaired [Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un)], concordant impaired [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Imp)], or discordant [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un)] which were impaired via Frascati criteria but unimpaired via Meyer criteria. To investigate the GDS versus Meyer criteria, the same groupings were utilized using GDS criteria instead of Frascati criteria.
When examining Frascati versus Meyer criteria, discordant Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter, greater sulcal cerebrospinal fluid volume, and greater evidence of neuroinflammation (i.e., choline) than concordant Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. GDS versus Meyer comparisons indicated that discordant GDS(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter and lower levels of energy metabolism (i.e., creatine) than concordant GDS(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. In both sets of analyses, the discordant group did not differ from the concordant impaired group on any neuroimaging measure.
The Meyer criteria failed to capture a substantial portion of PLWH with brain abnormalities. These findings support continued use of Frascati or GDS criteria to detect HIV-associated CNS dysfunction.
Systematic data collection for direct statistical analysis of biodiversity trends tends to be focused on charismatic fauna and flora such as birds or vascular plants. When subsequently applied by conservation agencies in summary metrics tracking habitat and species protection, these patterns in biodiversity loss or gain can fail to capture outcomes for groups that have a prominent importance in habitat composition, diversity and ecological function, such as algae, bryophytes, lichens and other fungi. Such species are primarily recorded on an ad hoc basis by taxonomic specialists, yielding noisy data that present problems in robustly identifying trends. This study explored the use of ad hoc field-recorded data as a potential source of biodiversity information, by comparing the pattern of recording for carefully selected indicator species with those for benchmark or control species as a proxy for recording effort. Focusing on Scotland’s internationally important epiphytic lichens, and especially ‘old-growth’ indicator species, British Lichen Society data revealed a decline in the extent of these species in Scotland, relative to recording effort, over a period of five decades. A recent slowing in the rate of decline is observed but remains to be confirmed. The long-term decline is consistent with the effect of land use intensification, resulting in small and isolated populations that are vulnerable to extinction debt. We caution that remedial protection and monitoring for such populations remains vital as a complement to Scotland’s larger scale ambition for increased woodland extent and connectivity.
Survivors of mass casualty incidents are vulnerable to both physical and psychological injuries. Hospitals need to triage the walking wounded victims, their loved ones, and witnesses for symptoms of emotional distress to ensure that those who are traumatized benefit from proactive psychological treatment. Hospitals must also manage the influx of searching family and friends, and be able to reunite them with their loved ones, to reduce chaos and prevent hospital skipping.
To analyze previous research on institutional psychosocial disaster response, what has or has not worked, and lessons learned in order to develop evidence-based future planning suggestions.
A literature search was conducted on the following electronic databases: (Medline 2007 to July 2018), (Embase 2007 to July 2018), (PsycInfo 2007 to July 2018). A combination of subject headings and free text keywords were used to perform the searches. After removing duplicates, abstracts were screened independently by two reviewers for the following inclusion criteria: 1) crisis intervention (in a disaster situation), 2) mention of psychosocial response or lack thereof and lessons learned, 3)relevant outcomes, 4) OECD countries, and 5) journal articles published 2007–Present. Review articles were excluded. Primary and secondary reviewers are in the process of discussing discrepancies. Data extraction will be conducted from all articles that meet the inclusion criteria. Key themes to be analyzed include psychological casualties, searching family and friends, and family reunification plans.
The initial search yielded 6,267 results. 5,294 articles remained after duplicates were removed. Of the 4,890 reviewed thus far, 269 articles met inclusion criteria.
Although a wealth of existing literature notes the need for an effective psychosocial response in mass trauma and disaster situations, no prior study has analyzed the efficacy of such interventions or laid out an evidence-based plan. This study will fill this much-needed gap in the literature.
Introduction: Little is known about the variety of roles volunteers play in the emergency department (ED), and the potential impact they have on patient experience. The objective of this scoping review was to identify published and unpublished reports that described volunteer programs in EDs, and determine how these programs impacted patient experiences or outcomes. Methods: Electronic searches of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CINAHL were conducted and reference lists were hand-searched. A grey literature search was also conducted (Web of Science, ProQuest, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Database ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global). Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, reviewed full text articles, and extracted data. Results: The search strategy yielded 4,589 potentially relevant citations. After eliminating duplicate citations and articles that did not meet eligibility criteria, 87 reports were included in the review. Of the included reports, 18 were peer-reviewed articles, 6 were conference proceedings, 59 were magazine or newspaper articles, and 4 were graduate dissertations or theses. Volunteer activities were categorized as non-clinical tasks (e.g., provision of meals/snacks, comfort items and mobility assistance), navigation, emotional support/communication, and administrative duties. 52 (59.8%) programs had general volunteers in the ED and 35 (40.2%) had volunteers targeting a specific patient population, including pediatrics, geriatrics, patients with mental health and addiction issues and other vulnerable populations. 20 (23.0%) programs included an evaluative component describing how ED volunteers affected patient experiences and outcomes. Patient satisfaction, follow-up and referral rates, ED and hospital costs and length of stay, subsequent ED visits, medical complications, and malnutrition in the hospital were all reported to be positively affected by volunteers in the ED. Conclusion: This scoping review demonstrates the important role volunteers play in enhancing patient and caregiver experience in the ED. Future volunteer engagement programs implemented in the ED should be formally described and evaluated to share their success and experience with others interested in implementing similar programs in the ED.
Objectives: Studies of neurocognitively elite older adults, termed SuperAgers, have identified clinical predictors and neurobiological indicators of resilience against age-related neurocognitive decline. Despite rising rates of older persons living with HIV (PLWH), SuperAging (SA) in PLWH remains undefined. We aimed to establish neuropsychological criteria for SA in PLWH and examined clinically relevant correlates of SA. Methods: 734 PLWH and 123 HIV-uninfected participants between 50 and 64 years of age underwent neuropsychological and neuromedical evaluations. SA was defined as demographically corrected (i.e., sex, race/ethnicity, education) global neurocognitive performance within normal range for 25-year-olds. Remaining participants were labeled cognitively normal (CN) or impaired (CI) based on actual age. Chi-square and analysis of variance tests examined HIV group differences on neurocognitive status and demographics. Within PLWH, neurocognitive status differences were tested on HIV disease characteristics, medical comorbidities, and everyday functioning. Multinomial logistic regression explored independent predictors of neurocognitive status. Results: Neurocognitive status rates and demographic characteristics differed between PLWH (SA=17%; CN=38%; CI=45%) and HIV-uninfected participants (SA=35%; CN=55%; CI=11%). In PLWH, neurocognitive groups were comparable on demographic and HIV disease characteristics. Younger age, higher verbal IQ, absence of diabetes, fewer depressive symptoms, and lifetime cannabis use disorder increased likelihood of SA. SA reported increased independence in everyday functioning, employment, and health-related quality of life than non-SA. Conclusions: Despite combined neurological risk of aging and HIV, youthful neurocognitive performance is possible for older PLWH. SA relates to improved real-world functioning and may be better explained by cognitive reserve and maintenance of cardiometabolic and mental health than HIV disease severity. Future research investigating biomarker and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity) correlates of SA may help identify modifiable neuroprotective factors against HIV-related neurobiological aging. (JINS, 2019, 25, 507–519)
Introduction: Our study objectives were to assess the acceptability of using the emergency department (ED) waiting room to provide knowledge on, and offer opportunities for organ and tissue donor registration; and to identify barriers to the donor registration process in Ontario. Methods: We conducted a paper based in-person survey over nine days for eight hour blocks in March and April 2017. The survey instrument was created in English using existing literature and expert opinion, pilot tested and then translated into French. The study collected data from patients and visitors in an urban academic Canadian tertiary care ED waiting room. All adults in the waiting room were approached to participate during the study periods. Individuals waiting in clinical care areas were excluded, as well as those who required immediate treatment. Results: The number of attempted surveys was 324; 67 individuals (20.7%) refused to partake. A total of 257 surveys were distributed and five were returned blank. This gave us a response rate of 77.8% with 252 completed surveys. The median age group was 51-60 years old with 55.9% female. Forty-six percent were Christian (46.0%) and 34.1% did not declare a religious affiliation. Nearly half of participants (44.1%) were registered organ donors. The majority of participants agreed or were neutral (83.3%) that the ED waiting room was an acceptable place to provide information on organ and tissue donation. Further, 82.1% agreed or were neutral that the ED was an acceptable place to register as an organ donor. Nearly half (47.2%) agreed that they would consider registering while in the ED waiting room. A number of barriers to registering as an organ and tissue donor were identified. The most common were: not knowing how to register (22.0%), a lack of time to register (21.1%), and having unanswered questions regarding organ and tissue donation (18.7%). Conclusion: Individuals waiting in the ED are supportive of using the ED waiting room for distributing information regarding organ and tissue donation, and facilitating organ and tissue donation registration. Developing such a practice could help to reduce some of the identified barriers, including a lack of time and having unanswered questions regarding donation.
Introduction: There is a significant gap between the number of organ donors and people awaiting an organ transplant; therefore it is essential that all potential donors are identified. Given the nature of Emergency Medicine it is a potential source of organ donors. The purpose of this study is to determine what percent of successful donors come from the Emergency Department (ED) and whether there are any missed potential donors. Methods: Electronic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were performed July 7, 2017 using PRISMA guidelines. Primary literature in human adults were included if they described identification of patients in the ED who went on to become successful solid organ donors, or described missed potential donors in the ED. Data on the total population of actual or missed donors was required to allow calculation of a percentage. Studies describing non-solid organ donation, consent, ethics, survey of attitudes, teaching curricula, procurement techniques, donation outside the ED, and recipient factors were excluded. 2 authors independently screened articles for inclusion and discrepancies were resolved through consensus. Quality was assessed using STROBE for observational studies. Heterogeneity of patient populations precluded pooling of the data to conduct a meta-analysis. Results: 1058 articles were identified, 17 duplicates were removed, 800 articles were excluded based on title and abstract, and 217 full text articles were excluded, yielding 24 articles for the systematic review. For neurologic determination of death (NDD), ED patients comprised 4 44% of successful donors. ED death reviews revealed 0 84% of patients dying in the ED are missed as potential donors and hospital-wide death reviews revealed 13 80.9% of missed donors die in the ED. For donation after cardiac death (DCD), 4 20% of successful donors came from the ED and studies investigating potential donors suggest 2 36% of patients dying the in the ED could be potential DCD donors. The most common population of successful DCD organ donors was in traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (TCPA), with 3.6 8.9% of TCPA patients presenting to the ED becoming successful donors. Conclusion: Patients dying in the Emergency Department are a significant source of both successful organ donors and missed potential donors. Emergency physicians should be familiar with their local organ donation protocol to ensure potential organ donors are not missed.
Introduction: Emergency departments (ED) across Canada acknowledge the need to transform in order to provide high quality care for the increasing proportion of older patients presenting for treatment. Older people are more complex than younger ED users. They have a disproportionately high use of EDs, increased rates of hospitalization, and are more likely to suffer adverse events. The objective of this initiative was to develop minimum standards for the care of older people in the emergency department. Methods: We created a panel of international leaders in geriatrics and emergency medicine to develop a policy framework on minimum standards for care of older people in the ED. We conducted a literature review of international guidelines, frameworks, recommendations, and best practices for the acute care of older people and developed a draft standards document. This preliminary document was circulated to interdisciplinary members of the International Federation of Emergency Medicine (IFEM) geriatric emergency medicine (GEM) group. Following review, the standards were presented to the IFEM clinical practice group. At each step, verbal, written and online feedback were gathered and integrated into the final minimum standards document. Results: Following the developmental process, a series of eight minimum standard statements were created and accepted by IFEM. These standards utilise the IFEM Framework for Quality and Safety in the ED, and are centred on the recognition that older people are a core population of emergency health service users whose care needs are different from those of children and younger adults. They cover key areas, including the overall approach to older patients, the physical environment and equipment, personnel and training, policies and protocols, and strategies for navigating the health-care continuum. Conclusion: These standards aim to improve the evaluation, management and integration of care of older people in the ED in an effort to improve outcomes. The minimum standards represent a first step on which future activities can be built, including the development of specific indicators for each of the minimum standards. The standards are designed to apply across the spectrum of EDs worldwide, and it is hoped that they will act as a catalyst to change.
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos in the United States, yet little is known about neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in this group. We compared the rates of NCI in large well-characterized samples of HIV-infected (HIV+) Latinos and (non-Latino) Whites, and examined HIV-associated NCI among subgroups of Latinos. Methods: Participants included English-speaking HIV+ adults assessed at six U.S. medical centers (194 Latinos, 600 Whites). For overall group, age: M=42.65 years, SD=8.93; 86% male; education: M=13.17, SD=2.73; 54% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. NCI was assessed with a comprehensive test battery with normative corrections for age, education and gender. Covariates examined included HIV-disease characteristics, comorbidities, and genetic ancestry. Results: Compared with Whites, Latinos had higher rates of global NCI (42% vs. 54%), and domain NCI in executive function, learning, recall, working memory, and processing speed. Latinos also fared worse than Whites on current and historical HIV-disease characteristics, and nadir CD4 partially mediated ethnic differences in NCI. Yet, Latinos continued to have more global NCI [odds ratio (OR)=1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13–2.23; p<.01] after adjusting for significant covariates. Higher rates of global NCI were observed with Puerto Rican (n=60; 71%) versus Mexican (n=79, 44%) origin/descent; this disparity persisted in models adjusting for significant covariates (OR=2.40; CI=1.11–5.29; p=.03). Conclusions: HIV+ Latinos, especially of Puerto Rican (vs. Mexican) origin/descent had increased rates of NCI compared with Whites. Differences in rates of NCI were not completely explained by worse HIV-disease characteristics, neurocognitive comorbidities, or genetic ancestry. Future studies should explore culturally relevant psychosocial, biomedical, and genetic factors that might explain these disparities and inform the development of targeted interventions. (JINS, 2018, 24, 163–175)
We present the concept of a novel facility dedicated to massively-multiplexed spectroscopy. The telescope has a very wide field Cassegrain focus optimised for fibre feeding. With a Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 degrees diameter and a 11.4m pupil, it will be the largest etendue telescope. The large focal plane can easily host up to 16.000 fibres. In addition, a gravity invariant focus for the central 10 arc-minutes is available to host a giant integral field unit (IFU). The 3 lenses corrector includes an ADC, and has good performance in the 360-1300 nm wavelength range. The top level science requirements were developed by a dedicated ESO working group, and one of the primary cases is high resolution spectroscopy of GAIA stars and, in general, how our Galaxy formed and evolves. The facility will therefore be equipped with both, high and low resolution spectrographs. We stress the importance of developing the telescope and instrument designs simultaneously. The most relevant R&D aspect is also briefly discussed.
Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species. Based on cytochrome b sequences, we recovered 89 lineages of Plasmodium from 136 infected individuals sampled across seven localities. Plasmodium prevalence was homogeneous over time (dry season and flooding season) and space, but heterogeneous among 51 avian host species. Variation in prevalence among bird species was not explained by avian ecological traits, density of avian hosts, or mosquito abundance. However, Plasmodium lineage diversity was positively correlated with mosquito abundance. Interestingly, our results suggest that avian host traits are less important determinants of Plasmodium prevalence and diversity in southeastern Amazonia than in other regions in which they have been investigated.
Parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) are a diverse group of pathogens that infect birds nearly worldwide. Despite their ubiquity, the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape the diversity and distribution of these protozoan parasites among avian communities and geographic regions are poorly understood. Based on a survey throughout the Neotropics of the haemosporidian parasites infecting manakins (Pipridae), a family of Passerine birds endemic to this region, we asked whether host relatedness, ecological similarity and geographic proximity structure parasite turnover between manakin species and local manakin assemblages. We used molecular methods to screen 1343 individuals of 30 manakin species for the presence of parasites. We found no significant correlations between manakin parasite lineage turnover and both manakin species turnover and geographic distance. Climate differences, species turnover in the larger bird community and parasite lineage turnover in non-manakin hosts did not correlate with manakin parasite lineage turnover. We also found no evidence that manakin parasite lineage turnover among host species correlates with range overlap and genetic divergence among hosts. Our analyses indicate that host switching (turnover among host species) and dispersal (turnover among locations) of haemosporidian parasites in manakins are not constrained at this scale.
Field survey by a taxonomist or specialist biologist (‘taxonomic survey’) provides a comprehensive inventory of species in a habitat. Common and conspicuous species are rapidly recorded and search effort can be targeted to inconspicuous or rare species. However, the subjective nature of taxonomic survey limits its usefulness in ecological monitoring and analysis. In contrast, ‘ecological sampling’, focused on the standardized use of repeated sub-units such as quadrats, is designed to quantify the observational error of results, allowing for more robust statistical treatment. Nevertheless, the spatial extent of recording will be lower during ecological sampling, and rarities might be missed. Despite their differences, these two approaches are often assumed to be congruent for decision making. Taxonomic survey is commonly used to identify priority sites for conservation (including species-rich sites, or those with many rare/threatened species) while ecological sampling is used to design conservation strategy by relating species richness or composition to habitat dynamics. If these contrasting approaches are indeed congruent, then trends in species richness and community composition, detected by ecological sampling, will mirror the results of taxonomic survey so that management confidently protects the attributes for which a site was prioritized. This study performed both taxonomic survey and ecological sampling for lichen epiphytes in 13 woodland study sites in Scotland. To understand the procedure of taxonomic survey, fieldwork by a professional taxonomist was structured by effort into 15-minute time intervals. As expected, taxonomic survey discovered more species per site, while ecological sampling (allowing a measure of species frequency) resolved greater variation in community composition. However, the patterns of richness and species composition obtained from the different methods were correlated, suggesting an overall high degree of congruence in identifying and then managing priority sites. Furthermore, when exploring the taxonomic survey in detail, we found that a minimum effort of 45 minutes was required to accurately determine species richness differences among contrasting woodland sites.
Dense, controlled-impedance, superconducting cables with small cross-sections are desirable, especially for quantum computing applications. In this study, superconductivity properties, rf microwave response and mechanical reliability performance of embedded Nb dc cables and Nb microstrip transmission line resonators with different thicknesses of polyimide PI-2611 encapsulation layers (0, 4 and 8 μm) have been investigated. Critical temperature (Tc) and critical current (Ic) of embedded Nb dc cables are ∼ 8.2 K and ∼ 0.2 A, respectively. Embedded Nb resonators yield high loaded quality factor (QL), with values as high as 14481 at ∼ 1.2 K and at a fundamental resonance of ∼ 2 GHz. From mechanical fatigue testing, we have observed that a polyimide encapsulation layer can effectively enhance the mechanical reliability of superconducting Nb flexible cables.
For the past ten years Metalysis have produced tantalum, titanium and titanium alloy powders for high performance applications using their solid state salt electrolysis process. This low energy and environmentally friendly process is now being used to manufacture the next generation of High Entropy Alloys (HEAs).
In most cases the manufacture of HEAs involves high temperatures which put all of the alloying elements into the liquid phase. This can lead to numerous problems and restrict the number of HEAs which can be made, particularly the alloys where one needs to combine low melting point elements with refractory elements and also where there are significant liquid density differences between the constituents causing melt segregation.
The aim is to present the preliminary work carried out by Metalysis and to show how the solid state diffusion process based on molten salt electrolysis lends itself to the industrial scale manufacture of the next generation of HEAs. This study will focus on the HEAs whose constituent alloying elements have large differences in both their melting points and liquid densities, for example, chromium, niobium, tantalum, titanium and aluminum.
In practice cattle may be slaughtered at different combinations of age and weight. As each of these factors could affect meat quality traits, the present work aimed to identify which combination can be expected to increase overall meat quality of m. rectus abdominis of Charolais heifers. Totally, 40 heifers were slaughtered either at 26±1 or at 36±1 months of age. Young heifers were sampled at two different carcass weights (349±12 and 394±8 kg). Old heifers were also sampled at two different carcass weights (397±6 and 451±9 kg). The m. rectus abdominis was excised 24 h postmortem to determine metabolic enzyme activities, myosin heavy-chain isoform proportions, lipid contents, collagen content and collagen solubility. Shear force measurements were evaluated on raw and broiled meat after 14 days of ageing. Meat quality traits scored between 0 and 10 by sensory analysis. Increasing slaughter age from 26 to 36 months had no impact on either raw/broiled shear force (0.31⩽P⩽0.47) and/or meat quality traits (0.62⩽P⩽0.91) or on physicochemical properties of heifer’s meat samples. Increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 26 months had also impact neither on meat quality traits (0.52⩽P⩽0.91) nor on muscular properties. On the contrary, increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 36 months had induced a decrease of muscular shear force (raw muscle; P=0.009) and a concomitant decrease of total collagen content (P=0.03). Nevertheless, no significant impact on meat quality traits was revealed by the sensorial panel (0.13⩽P⩽0.49). Metabolic enzyme activities (0.13⩽P⩽0.86) and myosin heavy-chain proportions (0.13⩽P⩽0.96) were not significantly impacted by slaughter age and carcass weight. Thus, the impact of increasing carcass weight and/or slaughter age in young Charolais heifers has a limited impact on meat quality traits and associated muscular characteristics. Modulating heifer’s cycles (age and/or carcass weight in the studied range) appears to be a way to answer to the numerous marketing chains, without penalising meat quality traits.
FFQ are commonly used to examine the association between diet and disease. They are the most practical method for usual dietary data collection as they are relatively inexpensive and easy to administer. In Australia, the Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ (CCVFFQ) version 2 and the online Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation FFQ (CSIROFFQ) are used. The aim of our study was to establish the level of agreement between nutrient intakes captured using the online CSIROFFQ and the paper-based CCVFFQ. The CCVFFQ and the online CSIROFFQ were completed by 136 healthy participants. FFQ responses were analysed to give g per d intake of a range of nutrients. Agreement between twenty-six nutrient intakes common to both FFQ was measured by a variety of methods. Nutrient intake levels that were significantly correlated between the two FFQ were carbohydrates, total fat, Na and MUFA. When assessing ranking of nutrients into quintiles, on average, 56 % of the participants (for all nutrients) were classified into the same or adjacent quintiles in both FFQ, with the highest percentage agreement for sugar. On average, 21 % of participants were grossly misclassified by three or four quintiles, with the highest percentage misclassification for fibre and Fe. Quintile agreement was similar to that reported by other studies, and we concluded that both FFQ are suitable tools for dividing participants’ nutrient intake levels into high- and low-consumption groups. Use of either FFQ was not appropriate for obtaining accurate estimates of absolute nutrient intakes.