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Capturing service users’ perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications.
To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure.
An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language. Feasibility and comprehensive psychometric properties were established in two samples (N43 and N50). We investigated whether we could predict the three most important side effects for individuals from their frequency, severity and life impact.
MSE is a 53-item measure with good reliability and validity. Poorer mental and physical health, but not psychotic symptoms, was related to side-effect burden. Seventy-nine percent of items were chosen as one of the three most important effects. Severity, impact and distress only predicted ‘putting on weight’ which was more distressing, more severe and had more life impact in those for whom it was most important.
MSE is a self-report questionnaire that identifies reliably the side-effect burden as experienced by patients. Identifying key side effects important to patients can act as a starting point for joint decision making on the type and the dose of medication.
In November 2009, we initiated a multistate investigation of Salmonella Montevideo infections with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern JIXX01.0011. We identified 272 cases in 44 states with illness onset dates ranging from 1 July 2009 to 14 April 2010. To help generate hypotheses, warehouse store membership card information was collected to identify products consumed by cases. These records identified 19 ill persons who purchased company A salami products before onset of illness. A case-control study was conducted. Ready-to-eat salami consumption was significantly associated with illness (matched odds ratio 8·5, 95% confidence interval 2·1–75·9). The outbreak strain was isolated from company A salami products from an environmental sample from one manufacturing plant, and sealed containers of black and red pepper at the facility. This outbreak illustrates the importance of using membership card information to assist in identifying suspect vehicles, the potential for spices to contaminate ready-to-eat products, and preventing raw ingredient contamination of these products.
Listeriosis is a foodborne disease associated with significant mortality. This study attempts to identify risk factors for sporadic listeriosis in Australia. Information on underlying illnesses was obtained from cases' treating doctors and other risk factors were elicited from the patient or a surrogate. We attempted to recruit two controls per case matched on age and primary underlying immune condition. Between November 2001 and December 2004 we recruited 136 cases and 97 controls. Of perinatal cases, living in a household where a language other than English was spoken was the main risk factor associated with listeriosis (OR 11·3, 95% CI 1·5–undefined). Of non-perinatal cases we identified the following risk factors for listeriosis: prior hospitalization (OR 4·3, 95% CI 1·0–18·3), use of gastric acid inhibitors (OR 9·4, 95% CI 2·4–37·4), and consumption of camembert (OR 4·7, 95% CI 1·1–20·6). Forty percent of cases with prior hospitalization were exposed to high-risk foods during hospitalization.
We have chosen the name of GYES, one of the mythological giants with one hundred arms,
offspring of Gaia and Uranus, for our instrument study of a multifibre spectrograph for
the prime focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Such an instrument could provide an
excellent ground-based complement for the Gaia mission and a northern complement to the
HERMES project on the AAT. The CFHT is well known for providing a stable prime focus
environment, with a large field of view, which has hosted several imaging instruments, but
has never hosted a multifibre spectrograph. Building upon the experience gained at GÉPI
with FLAMES-Giraffe and X-Shooter, we are investigating the feasibility of a high
multiplex spectrograph (about 500 fibres) over a field of view one degree in diameter. We
are investigating an instrument with resolution in the range 15 000 to 30 000, which
should provide accurate chemical abundances for stars down to 16th magnitude and radial
velocities, accurate to 1 km s-1 for fainter stars. The study is led by
GÉPI-Observatoire de Paris with a contribution from Oxford for the study of the
positioner. The financing for the study comes from INSU CSAA and Observatoire de Paris.
The conceptual study will be delivered to CFHT for review by October 1st 2010.
In November 2002, the first of three outbreaks of Salmonella Montevideo infection in Australia and New Zealand was identified in New South Wales, Australia. Affected persons were interviewed, and epidemiologically linked retail outlets inspected. Imported tahini was rapidly identified as the source of infection. The contaminated tahini was recalled and international alerts posted. A second outbreak was identified in Australia in June–July 2003 and another in New Zealand in August 2003. In a total of 68 S. Montevideo infections, 66 cases were contacted. Fifty-four (82%) reported consumption of sesame seed-based foods. Laboratory analyses demonstrated closely related PFGE patterns in the S. Montevideo isolates from human cases and sesame-based foods imported from two countries. On the basis of our investigations sesame-based products were sampled in other jurisdictions and three products in Canada and one in the United Kingdom were positive for Salmonella spp., demonstrating the value of international alerts when food products have a wide distribution and a long shelf life. A review of the controls for Salmonella spp. during the production of sesame-based products is recommended.
Single walled carbon nanotubes are shown to interact with a conjugated polymer in a periodic manner. Here this interaction is probed using electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy optical and vibrational spectroscopy. The spectroscopic behaviour of the polymer is seen to be dramatically affected, which is attributed to conformational changes due to the effect of the nanotubes.
In order to provide a better understanding of the interaction between the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and the immune
system of its mammalian host immunoreactive λ bacteriophage clones containing F. hepatica cDNA have been isolated.
Plasmids from these clones were sequenced and found to encode a family of proteins containing certain common elementsThe nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper are
available in the GenBank database with the accession number AF153056..
All the clones contained a coding repeating sequence (RRRXCA) which is conserved at the nucleic acid level followed by
a non-repeating element coding for the C terminal used by the proteins which shows conservation of amino acids at certain
positions. Antisera raised against a β-galactosidase fusion protein with one of these sequences as a terminal extension was
used to localize the immunoreactive antigens. Binding was predominantly in the tegument of the juvenile fluke but was
reduced in the adult tegument. The wall of the uterus showed strong reactivity in the adult. Rats immunized with the β-
galactosidase fusion protein showed enhanced resistance to challenge infections. The role of these antigens in the host
response to infection by F. hepatica is discussed.
We have described a novel experimental technique to separate nanotubes from other unwanted carbon species in arc generated carbon soot. A conjugated polymer was used to bind to nanotubes in solution. The resultant hybrid was soluble while extraneous carbon material formed a sediment at the bottom of the sample bottle. This process was monitored using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) which showed that 63% of nanotubes were kept in solution while 98.1% of impurities were rejected. This allowed the calculation of the nanotube content in the carbon soot using EPR and thermo-gravitational analysis (TGA) yielding a purity value of 34% for the soot used in this study. This is compatible with estimates made using electron microscopy.
Because enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is not identified by routine stool culture
methods, ETEC outbreaks may go unrecognized, and opportunities for treatment and
prevention may be missed. To improve recognition of adult ETEC outbreaks, we compared
them with reported outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis. During 1975–95, we identified 14 ETEC
outbreaks in the United States and 7 on cruise ships, caused by 17 different serotypes and
affecting 5683 persons. Median symptom prevalences were: diarrhoea 99%, abdominal cramps
82%, nausea 49%, fever 22%, vomiting 14%. The median incubation period was 42 h, and
for 8 of 10 outbreaks, the mean or median duration of illness was >72 h (range 24–264). For
17 (81%) ETEC outbreaks, but for only 2 (8%) viral outbreaks, the prevalence of diarrhoea
was [ges ]2·5 times the prevalence of vomiting. ETEC outbreaks may be differentiated from viral
gastroenteritis outbreaks by a diarrhoea-to-vomiting prevalence ratio of [ges ]2·5 and a longer
duration of illness.
The tailoring of organic molecules and polymers has enabled the recent development of multifunctional materials such as photorefractive polymers and organic electroluminescent materials. This paper presents recent advances in both areas.
A new technique for the deposition of amorphous organic thin films, low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD), was used to fabricate organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) and optically pumped organic lasers. The OLED consisted of a film of aluminum tris- (8 hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) grown on the surface of a film of N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3- methylphenyl)1–l'biphenyl-4–4'diamine (TPD). Growth on both glass and polyester substrates was accomplished and the resulting heterojunction devices were found to have a performance similar to conventional, small molecular weight OLEDs grown using thermal evaporation in vacuum. The LP-OVPD grown OLED has an external quantum efficiency of 0.40 ± 0.05% and a turn-on voltage of approximately 6V. The optically pumped organic laser consisted of a film of Alq3 doped with the laser dye, benzoic acid, 2-[6-(ethylamino)-3-(ethylimino)-2,7-dimethyl-3Hxanthen- 9-yl]-ethyl ester, monohydrochloride (Rhodamine 6G). The laser output was centered at approximately 610nm and the lasing threshold was 30μJcm−2. The rapid throughput of LP-OVPD and its use of low vacuum in a horizontal reactor demonstrate its potential to facilitate low cost, roll-to-roll deposition of organic films for many photonic device applications.
A series of bis-(diphenylamino)diphenylpolyenes containing up to eight double bonds has been synthesized, both as parent model compounds, and functionalized for attachment as pendant chromophores. Oxidative doping of these new materials yields exceptionally stable bipolaronlike dications, even at the triene level. These new materials show promise as bimechanistic optical limiters by reverse saturable absorption and by 2-photon absorption.
Diazoluminomelanin (DALM) is an electroluminescent polymer which has shown significant optical activity in response to perturbing fields. The current model for this process features optical excitation of a polymer backbone containing conducting conjugation, with subsequent energy transfer to a luminescent group. In this paper we have performed electronic structure calculations using the AM1 Hamiltonian with configuration interaction to estimate the electronic properties of two potential models for the DALM backbone. Contrary to the conventional picture of conjugation, the phenyl groups in the DALM backbone show significant twist angles (42° –55°) depending on substitutional group, resulting in localized electronic excitations.
Electroluminescence from a series of polymers and copolymers which exhibit photoinduced excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) is reported. Among these polymers containing ESIPT moieties in the main chain or side chain are poly(1,4-(2-hydroxy)phenylene benzobisthiazole-co-decamethylene benzobisthiazole), poly(styrene-co-3-hydroxy-4′-ethenylflavone) and poly(2,5-benzoxazolediyl(2,2,2,-trifluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl) ethylidene)-5,2-benzoxazolediyl-4-hydroxy-1,3-phenylene). The electroluminescence spectra of these polymers are identical to their photoluminescence spectra, indicating that electroluminecence originates from electrically-generated intramolecular proton transfer (EGIPT). Because electroluminescence from EGIPT implies electrically-induced population inversion, these results demonstrate the possibility of electrically-pumped organic solid-state laser diodes.
We review our results from spectral studies of the ultrafast excited-state absorption in fullerenes and derivatized fullerenes. These results allow determination of both the spectral response of reverse saturable absorption (RSA) nonlinearities such as optical limiting (OL) in fullerenes, and the dynamical response for different morphologies. We have investigated the effects of thin film and various sol-gel glass environments on the nanosecond OL and femtosecond dynamics of derivatized fullerenes. These data provide evidence of decay pathways which compete with the intersystem crossing to a triplet from the initial singlet states. With appropriate processing, however, the OL response of derivatized-fullerene sol-gel glasses can be enhanced to approach that of the same molecule in solution, while significantly enhancing the optical damage threshold. The optical limiting of these derivatized fullerenes is compared with that of various porphyrin and phthalocyanine molecules.