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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are useful tools in ornithological studies. Importantly, though, UAV-caused disturbance has been noted to vary among species. This study evaluated guidelines for UAVs as a tool for researching geese. Twenty-four flocks of foraging geese were approached at an altitude of 50–100 m with a quadcopter UAV and disturbance effects were analysed across different horizontal distances between the UAV and the flocks. Geese were increasingly disturbed when approached by a UAV, with birds showing increased vigilance behaviour within approximately 300 m. Increasing UAV flight altitude as well as increasing take-off distance from the flocks both decreased the risk of bird flocks flushing. In conclusion, when monitoring geese using UAVs, flight altitudes of 100 m and take-off distances of ideally ∼500 m are recommended, to minimise initial disturbance and reducing the risk of birds flushing.
Women suffering from first onset postpartum mental disorders (PPMD) have a highly elevated risk of suicide. The current study aimed to: (1) describe the risk of self-harm among women with PPMD and (2) investigate the extent to which self-harm is associated with later suicide.
We conducted a register-based cohort study linking national Danish registers. This identified women with any recorded first inpatient or outpatient contact to a psychiatric facility within 90 days after giving birth to their first child. The main outcome of interest was defined as the first hospital-registered episode of self-harm. Our cohort consisted of 1 202 292 women representing 24 053 543 person-years at risk.
Among 1554 women with severe first onset PPMD, 64 had a first-ever hospital record of self-harm. Women with PPMD had a hazard ratio (HR) for self-harm of 6.2 (95% CI 4.9–8.0), compared to mothers without mental disorders; but self-harm risk was lower in PPMD women compared to mothers with non-PPMD [HR: 10.1, (95% CI 9.6–10.5)] and childless women with mental disorders [HR: 9.3 (95% CI 8.9–9.7)]. Women with PPMD and records of self-harm had a significantly greater risk for later suicide compared with all other groups of women in the cohort.
Women with PPMD had a high risk of self-harm, although lower than risks observed in other psychiatric patients. However, PPMD women who had self-harmed constituted a vulnerable group at significantly increased risk of later suicide.
Background: The metacognitive approach by Wells and colleagues has gained empirical support with a broad range of symptoms. The Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) scale was developed to provide a metacognitive measure on anger (Moeller, 2016). In the preliminary validation, three components were identified (positive beliefs, negative beliefs and rumination) to be positively correlated with the anger. Aims: To validate the MAP in a sample of mixed clinical patients (n = 88) and a sample of male forensic patients (n = 54). Method: The MAP was administered together with measures of metacognition, anger, rumination, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results: The MAP showed acceptable scalability and excellent reliability. Convergent validity was evidenced using the general metacognitive measure (MCQ-30), and concurrent validity was supported using two different anger measures (STAXI-2 and NAS). Conclusions: The MAP has promising potential to assess anger regulation problems by providing a framework on angry rumination as well as the belief structures that proposedly drive the selection of this maladaptive processing strategy as suggested in the metacognitive model. These findings may have implications for clinical interventions. For example, conducting functional analyses on anger rumination could increase the understanding of dysregulated anger processing and lead to new interventions focused on shifting thinking style.
A restricted Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-6) with the six schizophrenia specific items from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) has been investigated. These six items from the PANSS have recently been found to have both clinical validity and ‘unidimensionality’ in measuring the severity of schizophrenic states. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the BPRS-6. The secondary objective was to evaluate the ‘unidimensionality’ of the BPRS-6 by an ‘item response theory’ model.
The BPRS-6 was scored independently by two psychiatrists and two psychologists while viewing six open-ended videotaped interviews in patients with a DSM-III diagnosis of schizophrenia. The interviews were conducted by Heinz E. Lehmann, an experienced psychiatrist. They were focused on the psychopathology that contributed most to the ‘severity’ of the patient’s clinical state.
The BPRS-6 with three positive symptoms (delusions, conceptual disorganisation, hallucinations) and three negative symptoms (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, poverty of speech) was found to be clinically valid and captured the variables that contribute most to the severity of schizophrenia. The BPRS-6 was also found to have acceptable ‘unidimensionality’ (coefficient of homogeneity 0.45) and inter-rater reliability (inter-class-coefficient 0.81).
The BPRS-6 was found to capture the information that translates into the severity of schizophrenia. It has also acceptable psychometric validity.
The use of the pharmacopsychometric triangle to enhance patient-reported well-being as the ultimate goal of treatment has most intensively been studied in patients with a major depressive episode.
The review is structured on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in which the desired clinical effect of an antidepressive medication is balanced against the undesired side effects induced by this medication in terms of restored well-being. As a biological treatment, the antidepressive medication is compared clinically with both electroconvulsive therapy and psychological treatment.
In the process of this review, evidence from a dose–response study in patients suffering from a major depressive episode with an adequate duration and symptom severity has demonstrated that the dose–response relationship emerged when using the patient-reported well-being outcome rather than the symptomatic reduction as outcome.
The pharmacopsychometric triangle is in patients with major depressive episodes providing important information within positive psychiatry.
This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties as well as an antidiabetogenic effect. Detailed investigations on foaming, gelation and solubility as well as technological consequences of processing should be investigated further for the improvement of camel milk utilisation in the near future.
In Bech (2001a, 2001b), I took issue with the oft-repeated claim that Old English conjunct main clauses are commonly verb-final, and disproved it. However, the myth persists. In the meantime, the York–Toronto–Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose (YCOE, Taylor et al.2003) has been created, so the time has come to revisit this topic and consider it in light of new, extensive and generally accessible data. Using the YCOE corpus, I confirm and expand on Bech's (2001a, 2001b) empirical findings, showing that (i) OE conjunct clauses are neither typically verb-final nor verb-late, but they are more frequently verb-final and verb-late than non-conjunct clauses are; and (ii) verb-final and verb-late clauses are typically conjunct clauses. These two perspectives must be kept apart: in the first, the starting point is the entire body of conjunct clauses, and in the second it is the entire body of verb-final/verb-late clauses. I propose that the failure to distinguish between the two perspectives, i.e. whether it is conjunct clauses or word order that constitutes the point of departure, is the origin of the misconception concerning conjunct clauses and word order. In order to establish whether this distinction has been fuzzy all along, or whether it must be ascribed to distorted referencing in the course of a century of research, I trace the research on this topic back to the end of the nineteenth century. I show that the alleged verb-finality of conjunct clauses may be ascribed to a whisper-down-the-lane effect – the retelling of the story has changed the story.
In their recent book, English: The Language of the Vikings, Joseph Embley Emonds and Jan Terje Faarlund attempt to make the case that from its Middle period onwards, English is a North Germanic language, descended from the Norse varieties spoken in Medieval England, rather than a West Germanic language, as traditionally assumed. In this review article we critique Emonds & Faarlund's proposal, focusing particularly on the syntactic evidence that forms the basis of their argumentation. A closer look at a number of constructions for which the authors suggest a Norse origin reveals that the situation is not as they present it: in many cases, the syntactic properties of Old and Middle English are not given careful enough consideration, and/or the chronology of the developments is not compatible with a Norse origin. Moreover, the authors do not engage with the large body of sound changes that constitute the strongest evidence for a West Germanic origin. We conclude that Emonds & Faarlund fail to make a convincing case either for a North Germanic origin or against a West Germanic origin.
We have made a 2-year follow-up study to evaluate the effect of repeated transcranial pulsating electromagnetic fields (T-PEMF) augmentation in patients who had achieved remission but later on relapsed, as well as to identify factors contributing to treatment-resistant depression in patients who did not respond to T-PEMF.
Using the Longitudinal Expert Assessment of All Data approach the patients were classified in four groups: A: patients who achieved remission; B: patients with doubtful effect; C: patients with no effect; and D: patients who were hard-to-assess.
In group A, comprising 27 patients, 13 had relapsed; they obtained a clear remission after a repeated course of T-PEMF augmentation. In group D, comprising 16 patients, we identified misdiagnostic factors both concerning the event of remission after the previous T-PEMF augmentation and concerning the aetiology (psychosocial stressors and co-morbid conditions). Compared with the other groups, the group D patients had a smaller number of previous episodes (p=0.09) and a longer duration of the current episode (p=0.01).
T-PEMF has an effect among patients who relapsed after remission with the first series of T-PEMF. Treatment-resistant depression is a condition that has a high degree of multivariate problems. Misuse of alcohol or drugs, severe somatic disorders and other psychosocial problems may need other kinds of treatment before T-PEMF augmentation.
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche (1796–1855) served as president of the Geological Society from 1847 to 1849, having contributed greatly to the development of geological science and surveying in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was also instrumental in the establishment of the Museum of Practical Geology in London. Reissued here in its 1831 first edition (which Darwin had with him aboard the Beagle), this work sought to help students to grasp the fundamentals of a rapidly advancing science. The first section considers the Earth's shape, density, temperature and other characteristics. The next part includes discussion of beaches, volcanos, and coastal processes. De la Beche then presents descriptions of various rock types, reflecting the state of contemporary geological knowledge. Highly successful, the book went through two further English editions; the expanded third edition is also reissued in this series.