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This paper presents a 60 GHz connected slots linear-phased array feeding a high-gain semi-symmetric lens antenna. This design provides high gain, broadband, and beam-steering capabilities for gigabit rate access and backhaul communications. The connected slots antenna array (CSAA) is excited at 16× equidistant points which not only yields spatial power combining but also allows the progressive phase changes to steer the beam in ±45° in azimuth plane. To characterize the CSAA-fed lens antenna, four different power splitters are fabricated which steer the main beam in 0, 15, 30, and 45°. The lens is designed in a way to overcome the scan loss and get comparatively higher gain when beam is steered away from the broadside. The measured results show 25.4 dBi maximum gain with 3 dB gain bandwidth covering the full band 57–66 GHz whereas 3 dB beam-steering range is ±45° for all frequencies. Besides, the half power beamwidth is 6 and 10° in elevation (E-plane) and azimuth plane (H-plane), respectively.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is very pervasive in Africa, with significant regional variations in the prevalence of this traditional practice. This study examined the linkages between FGM and multiple sexual partnership in Mali and Sierra Leone – two African countries with a high prevalence of FGM. Data were from the 2018 Mali and 2013 Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Surveys, and the study sample comprised 4750 women from Mali and 16,614 from Sierra Leone. Multilevel logistic regression was used for the data analysis, with reported adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and associated 95% confidence intervals. In Mali, women who had not undergone FGM were less likely to have multiple sexual partners (aOR=0.60, CI=0.38–0.96) compared with those who had undergone FGM. In Sierra Leone, women who had undergone FGM (aOR=1.15, CI=1.02–1.30) were more likely to have multiple sexual partners compared with those who had not undergone FGM. Age, level of education, wealth quintile, sex of household head, community socioeconomic status, mass media exposure, and community literacy level were found to be associated with the likelihood of multiple sexual partnership among women in Mali and Sierra Leone. Comprehensive, age-group-based risk-reduction strategies, such as abstinence education and decision-making skills (assertiveness) training, are needed to reduce girls’ and young women’s engagement in multiple sexual partnerships. Policy interventions, such as anti-FGM legislation and initiatives like the ‘Schooling for the Female Child’ initiative aimed at reducing social inequality among girls and women, might help decrease FGM and the likelihood of health-compromising behaviours like multiple sexual partnership.
Utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services, as part of reproductive health care, presents a lifesaving chance for health promotion and the early diagnosis and treatment of illnesses throughout pregnancy. This study examines the factors associated with the number and timing of ANC visits among married women in Cameroon using data from the 2018 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variables were number of ANC visits, categorized as <8 visits or ≥8 visits, and the timing of first ANC visit, categorized as ≤3 months (early) or >3 months (late) (as per the new 2016 WHO recommendations). Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Crude odds ratios (cOR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and p-values with significance at <0.05 were used to interpret the results. The proportions of women who had ≥8 ANC visits and first ANC visit at ≤3 months gestation were 6.3% and 35.6% respectively. Women aged 35–39 at childbirth (aOR=3.99, 95% CI=1.30–12.23), middle wealth quintile women (aOR=3.22, 95% CI=1.01–10.27), women whose husbands had secondary (aOR=7.00, 95% CI=2.26–21.71) or higher (aOR=16.93, 95% CI=4.91–58.34) education were more likely to have ≥8 ANC visits. Early timing of first ANC visit was low among women with birth order 3–4 (aOR=0.63, 95% CI=0.46–0.85). Conversely, the likelihood of having early ANC visits was high among women whose pregnancies were intended (aOR=1.32, 95% CI=1.01–1.74), the richest women (aOR=3.89, 95% CI=2.30–6.57) and women whose husbands had secondary (aOR=2.41, 95% CI=1.70–3.64) or higher (aOR=3.12, 95% CI=2.40–7.46) education. The study highlights that age at childbirth, wealth, husband’s educational attainment, birth order and pregnancy intention could influence the utilization of ANC services among married women in Cameroon. Hence, to improve attendance and early initiation of ANC, interventions should be targeted at empowering women financially and removing all financial barriers associated with accessing ANC, improving ANC education among women and encouraging male involvement in ANC education.
For any foreign investor, protection of their investment is a primary concern in host states. National legislations and BITs usually provide legal security to them so that they can exercise their desired economic freedom in host countries. Without legal safeguards for their investments, they will not be motivated to invest their capital further. Like other host states, generally, the national laws and BITs of Bangladesh provide significant investment protection guarantees. This paper will discuss how far the protection through judicial or arbitral settlement is established in the legal framework and BITs of Bangladesh. Dispute settlement mechanisms in Bangladesh, various ICSID cases involving Bangladesh, and conflicts between Bangladesh and foreign investors are discussed. The paper also covers the issues and challenges of judicial arrangements in Bangladesh, and findings show that dispute settlement arrangements in Bangladesh are not up to international standards and require significant development. Last, recommendations are provided for consideration.
Balancing risk and safety in long-term care settings can be challenging while providing and respecting patients’/residents’ needs and rights in terms of sexual expression. We look at factors affecting the expression of sexuality, including staff attitudes and reactions, and the lack of policies governing sexuality. We review the various statute and case law, other legislative and quasi-legal provisions governing sexuality and sexual expression. Finally, we consider the need for clear policies and training for both staff and family members.
An understanding of the current state of mental health services in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from a clinical perspective is an important step in advising government and stakeholders on addressing the mental health needs of the fast-growing population. We conducted a retrospective study of data on all patients admitted to a regional psychiatric in-patient unit between June 2012 and May 2015. More Emiratis (UAE nationals) were admitted compared with expatriates. Emiratis were diagnosed more frequently with substance use disorders and expatriates with stress-related conditions. Psychotic and bipolar disorders were the most common causes for admission and had the longest in-patient stays; advancing age was associated with longer duration of in-patient stay.
Videolaryngoscopes have been in existence for several decades but in the last decade have taken a central role in both difficult and routine airway management. During that time videolaryngoscopy has not only become embedded in most difficult airway algorithms but the technique has become part of core airway management skills and the use of awake videolaryngoscopy has increased. This chapter describes the various types of videolaryngoscopes, their roles, strengths and limitations. Strategies to optimise use of Macintosh and hyperangulated devices are described as well as which adjuncts are best suited to their use. The issue of ‘can see, cannot intubate’ is discussed along with techniques to overcome it. The role of videolaryngoscopy outside the operating theatre, in critical care, in the emergency department and in pre-hospital care is discussed in this and other chapters.
The syrinx is the main source for phonation in birds, its function is analogous to the mammalian larynx. Birds have both a larynx and a syrinx, but they use only the latter to vocalize. The objective of this work to give a detailed description of the anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural of syrinx in male budgerigars as a model of a passerine bird. The syrinx in the current study was to be found as a tracheobronchial type, it consists of cranial (tympanum) part and caudal (bronchosyringeal) part and, additionally, there are lateral vibrating membranes. The tympanum is formed of the last six tracheal rings, histologically its lamina epithelialis is a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells and interrupted by intraepithelial glands. The secretory acini appear oval and lined by pyramidal secretory cells. The lamina propria–submucosa contain numerous blood capillaries, immune cells, and telocytes (TCs). The electron microscopic examination revealed numerous blood capillaries surrounded by fibroblasts and numerous immune cells, including mast cells and wandering leukocytes, within the tympanum mucosa. Hence, this study provides a detailed knowledge about the syrinx in male budgerigars.
The aim of this chapter is to highlight the impact of trauma and intervention with Palestinian children. A reanalysis of secondary data of previous work in the field using the words trauma, Palestinians, intervention, PTSD, anxiety, depression, Gaza Strip, and West Bank was entered in web-based research databases including Medline, PsycINFO, and Scholar Portal. The severity of traumatic events is changing and the types of traumatic experiences now include seeing mutilated bodies on TV, hearing and seeing shelling, exposure to sonic bombs, and witnessing home bombardment and demolition. PTSD prevalence ranged in children from 10 percent to 71 percent while the rate of PTSD in the West Bank ranged from 35 percent to 36 percent. The rate of anxiety ranged from 28.5 percent to 33.9 percent, and depression ranged from 40 percent in children of Gaza and the West Bank to 50.6 percent. The general mental health of children rated by parents and teachers was 20.9 percent and 31.8 percent. Studies showed risk factors that interfered with well-being such as being a boy, living in a large family, low socioeconomic status of the family, exposure to domestic and political violence, and being an orphaned child. Other risk factors included children in the labor force, with physical problems, and living near the border areas. Intervention studies had equivocal results when using psychodrama, school mediation, writing for recovery, and teaching children recovery techniques. This review showed that Palestinian children’s exposure to war and conflict leads to negative outcomes including mental health problems that triggered the start of community intervention programs. These programs did not change the negative impact of trauma, which highlights the need to find other ways to protect children in Palestine and help them cope with their daily life adversities and war.
Unlawful discrimination continues to ail American workplaces. For Americans who belong to racial, ethnic, or religious groups stigmatized as the “other,” opportunities to access quality education, political office, and equal opportunity in the workplace are stunted.
A household-level constant visual deterrent advocacy campaign to reduce tobacco intake was conducted in rural Bangladesh.
To evaluate smoking tobacco expenditure by campaign components.
We conducted a single-blind clustered randomized controlled trial on 630 adult male household heads from 16 chars (riverine islands) in rural northern Bangladesh, between November 2018 and January 2019. Intervention allotment was randomized at the char level to minimize spillovers, with 8 chars in treatment and control groups each. The intervention provided households in treatment chars (n = 323) with two visual warning posters, detailing the health effects of tobacco on oneself and external actors, to be hung inside the household for 4 weeks. Households in control chars (n = 307) received nothing. Reported daily smoking (log) tobacco expenditure values were the primary outcome of interest.
Final analysis was conducted using 251 and 210 smokers in treatment and control chars respectively. The intervention reduced relative smoking tobacco expenditure by 12.8% (95% CI −31.45 to 5.81) but was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.163). Weak to moderate emotional reactions to the posters was identified as a reason for the statistical insignificance.
For a visual anti-tobacco intervention to have a substantial impact, it must induce strong emotional responses.
On March 1, 2020, the Kurdistan Region Government (KRG) announced 4 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to explore the response of the public toward the prevention principles against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
The investigators invited individuals from different geographic areas of Duhok Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan in March 2020.
The mean age of the participants was 25.74 (16‐95 years). The mean score and prevalence of fear toward SARS-CoV-2 infection was 4.40 of 10 and 81.9%, respectively. A small percentage of participants did not minimize their exposures by reducing close contacts and transmission of respiratory droplets (14.5%) and visited public areas during the epidemic (28.7%). The study revealed that 30.8% of the participants do not use face masks or tissues when they sneeze in public areas. Most of the participants wash their hands when they suspect a possible transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen (94.6%) and clean or disinfect pathogen contamination-suspected areas at home (84.6%). The study also revealed that some participants (11.2%), due to a lower education, did not visit a medical clinic when they experienced possible symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants agreed with the health policies of KRG against the COVID-19 outbreak (90.8%).
Some individuals do not adhere to preventive measures against SARS-CoV-2 infection.