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Discovered at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Abri Casserole (Dordogne, France) was the subject of salvage excavations in the early nineties. The fieldwork revealed a sequence of 13 archaeological levels that document human occupations from the Gravettian to the Magdalenian, including very rare and poorly known assemblages (e.g. Early Badegoulian, Protosolutrean) that afford a particular importance to this sequence. Results of a previous dating program that focused on the Badegoulian levels were obtained in 1994 but were neither extensively published nor discussed. Five AMS 14C ages obtained for the Gravettian and Solutrean assemblages in the early 2010s served to complement the site’s chronology. However, since the beta counting ages for the Badegoulian levels were in conflict with the accepted AMS chronology for the region’s late Pleniglacial archaeological record, a new AMS dating program was implemented to renew the radiometric framework of this specific portion of the sequence. Compared to the previous beta counting measurements, the seven newly obtained AMS ages are about 1000 years older (23.3–20.5 cal ka BP) and congruent with other AMS-dated Badegoulian sequences. These results thereby restore the inter-site chronological coherence of the Solutrean–Badegoulian and Badegoulian–Magdalenian transitions.
The timing of the Neanderthal-associated Middle Palaeolithic demise and a possible overlap with anatomically modern humans (AMH) in some regions of Eurasia continues to be debated. The Iberian Peninsula is considered a possible refuge zone for the last Neanderthals, but the chronology of the later Middle Palaeolithic record has undergone revision and has increased the debate on the timing of Neanderthal extinction. Here we report on a study of the 5-m-thick archaeological stratigraphy of the Cardina-Salto do Boi, an open-air site located in inland Iberia, from which optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages were obtained for Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupations preserved in overbank alluvial deposits. Geomorphology, archaeostratigraphy, stone-tool evolution, and OSL dating support the persistence of Neanderthals after 41 ka in central Iberia; the transition between the Middle Palaeolithic material culture and the AMH-associated Aurignacian blade and bladelet production is estimated to lie between 34.0 ± 2.0 ka and 38.4 ± 1.9 ka. Our results demonstrate that investigations focusing on different geomorphological situations are necessary to overcome the current limitations of the evidence and to establish more consistent models for Neanderthal disappearance and AMH expansion in the Iberian Peninsula.
Residual depressive symptoms are generally documented as a risk factor for recurrence. In the absence of a specific instrument for the assessment of residual symptoms, a new 25-item Depression Residual Symptom Scale (DRSS) was elaborated and tested for recurrence prediction over a 1-year follow-up.
Sampling and methods
Fifty-nine patients in remission after a major depressive episode (MDE) were recruited in two centres. They were assessed with the DRSS and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) at inclusion and followed for 1 year according to a seminaturalistic design. The DRSS included specific depressive symptoms and subjective symptoms of vulnerability, lack of return to usual self and premorbid level of functioning.
Severity of residual symptoms was not significantly associated with increased risk of recurrence. However, DRSS score was significantly higher among patients with three or more episodes than one to two episodes. Number of previous episodes and treatment interruption were not identified as significant predictors of recurrence.
The proposed instrument is not predictive of depressive recurrence, but is sensitive to increased perception of vulnerability associated with consecutive episodes. Limitations include small sample size, seminaturalistic design (no standardisation of treatment) and content of the instrument.
To evaluate the performance of the French version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in patients attending a general psychiatric outpatient service as well as whether MDQ scores are independent of patient mood state at time of completion.
183 patients completed the MDQ and were assessed with the MADRS and YMRS scales, before being interviewed with the SCID (time 1). MDQ, MADRS and YMRS assessment was repeated four to six weeks later (time 2).
According to the SCID, 44 patients were suffering from bipolar spectrum disorder and 102 from unipolar disorder (37 patients dropped out). The MDQ provided high specificity (83.3%). Sensitivity was 63.6%, with better identification of bipolar I (85.0%) than bipolar II patients (45.8%). In the whole sample, test-retest reliability was satisfactory (kappa = 0.64). Modest correlations were observed between the number of endorsed MDQ items and YMRS scores at time 1 (Spearman r = 0.19; p = 0.021) and time 2 (r = 0.26; p = 0.002).
Despite some fluctuations over time and a discrete influence of symptom severity, the screening algorithm can be used reliably, whether in the acute or remission phase of a depressive episode.
The present open study investigates the feasibility of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in groups solely composed of bipolar patients of various subtypes. MBCT has been mostly evaluated with remitted unipolar depressed patients and little is known about this treatment in bipolar disorder.
Bipolar outpatients (type I, II and NOS) were included and evaluated for depressive and hypomanic symptoms, as well as mindfulness skills before and after MBCT. Patients’ expectations before the program, perceived benefit after completion and frequency of mindfulness practice were also recorded.
Of 23 included patients, 15 attended at least four MBCT sessions. Most participants reported having durably, moderately to very much benefited from the program, although mindfulness practice decreased over time. Whereas no significant increase of mindfulness skills was detected during the trial, change of mindfulness skills was significantly associated with change of depressive symptoms between pre- and post-MBCT assessments.
MBCT is feasible and well perceived among bipolar patients. Larger and randomized controlled studies are required to further evaluate its efficacy, in particular regarding depressive and (hypo)manic relapse prevention. The mediating role of mindfulness on clinical outcome needs further examination and efforts should be provided to enhance the persistence of meditation practice with time.
Children of patients with substance use disorders (SUD) are at high risk for mental disorders. The effects of specific SUD in both parents on the risk of psychopathology in offspring have hardly been studied.
To gain a better understanding of the morbid risk of these children.
To assess, 1) the associations between alcohol dependence (AD) or heroin dependence (HD) in patients and psychopathology in their children; 2) the morbid risk conferred by having a second parent with SUD.
The sample included 276 children aged from 6 to 17.9 years (mean age = 11.5): 23 children of 15 patients with HD, 101 offspring of 50 patients with AD, 152 children of 81 orthopedic patients (controls) and 158 biological co-parents of the children. Subjects were interviewed by psychologists blind to patient diagnoses, using a semi-structured diagnostic interview.
1) Children of HD or AD patients had largely elevated rates of recurrent major depressive disorder and children of HD patients were also at an increased risk for ADHD and SUD; 2) There were interactions between drug disorders and alcohol disorders in both parents to increase the risk of early SUD in offspring.
The early manifestations of mental disorders in children of SUD patients emphasize the need for prompt identification and treatment of these disorders. The involvement of co-parental disorders in the development of offspring psychopathology highlights the need to pay clinical attention not only to the patient, but also to the co-parent in order to optimize prevention in offspring.
Early life adversity plays a critical role in the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and this could occur through epigenetic programming. In this perspective, we aimed to determine whether childhood maltreatment could durably modify epigenetic processes by the means of a whole-genome methylation scan of BPD subjects. Using the Illumina Infinium® Human Methylation450 BeadChip, global methylation status of DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes was correlated to the severity of childhood maltreatment in 96 BPD subjects suffering from a high level of child adversity and 93 subjects suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and reporting a low rate of child maltreatment. Several CpGs within or near the following genes (IL17RA, miR124-3, KCNQ2, EFNB1, OCA2, MFAP2, RPH3AL, WDR60, CST9L, EP400, A2ML1, NT5DC2, FAM163A and SPSB2) were found to be differently methylated, either in BPD compared with MDD or in relation to the severity of childhood maltreatment. A highly relevant biological result was observed for cg04927004 close to miR124-3 that was significantly associated with BPD and severity of childhood maltreatment. miR124-3 codes for a microRNA (miRNA) targeting several genes previously found to be associated with BPD such as NR3C1. Our results highlight the potentially important role played by miRNAs in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders such as BPD and the usefulness of using methylome-wide association studies to uncover such candidate genes. Moreover, they offer new understanding of the impact of maltreatments on biological processes leading to diseases and may ultimately result in the identification of relevant biomarkers.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in bipolar disorder (BD) have evidenced changes in functional connectivity (FC) in brain areas associated with emotion processing, but how these changes vary with mood state and specific clinical symptoms is not fully understood.
We investigated resting-state FC between a priori regions of interest (ROIs) from the default-mode network and key structures for emotion processing and regulation in 27 BD patients and 27 matched healthy controls. We further compared connectivity patterns in subgroups of 15 euthymic and 12 non-euthymic patients and tested for correlations of the connectivity strength with measures of mood, anxiety, and rumination tendency. No correction for multiple comparisons was applied given the small population sample and pre-defined target ROIs.
Overall, regardless of mood state, BD patients exhibited increased FC of the left amygdala with left sgACC and PCC, relative to controls. In addition, non-euthymic BD patients showed distinctive decrease in FC between right amygdala and sgACC, whereas euthymic patients showed lower FC between PCC and sgACC. Euthymic patients also displayed increased FC between sgACC and right VLPFC. The sgACC–PCC and sgACC–left amygdala connections were modulated by rumination tendency in non-euthymic patients, whereas the sgACC-VLPFC connection was modulated by both the current mood and tendency to ruminate.
Our results suggest that sgACC-amygdala coupling is critically affected during mood episodes, and that FC of sgACC play a pivotal role in mood normalization through its interactions with the VLPFC and PCC. However, these preliminary findings require replication with larger samples of patients.
Early life adversity plays a critical role in the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and this could occur through epigenetic programming. In this perspective, we aimed to determine whether childhood maltreatment could durably modify epigenetic processes by the means of a whole-genome methylation scan of BPD subjects. Using the Illumina Infinium® Human Methylation 450 Bead Chip, global methylation status of DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes was correlated to the severity of childhood maltreatment in 96 BPD subjects suffering from a high level of child adversity and 93 subjects suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and reporting a low rate of child maltreatment. Several CpGs within or near the following genes (IL17RA, miR124-3, KCNQ2, EFNB1, OCA2, MFAP2, RPH3AL, WDR60, CST9L, EP400, A2ML1, NT5DC2, FAM163A and SPSB2) were found to be differently methylated, either in BPD compared with MDD or in relation to the severity of childhood maltreatment. A highly relevant biological result was observed for cg04927004 close to miR124-3 that was significantly associated with BPD and severity of childhood maltreatment. miR124-3 codes for a microRNA (miRNA) targeting several genes previously found to be associated with BPD such as NR3C1. Our results highlight the potentially important role played by miRNAs in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders such as BPD and the usefulness of using methylome-wide association studies to uncover such candidate genes. Moreover, they offer new understanding of the impact of maltreatments on biological processes leading to diseases and may ultimately result in the identification of relevant biomarkers.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
European pig production faces economic and environmental challenges. Modelling can help farmers simulate and understand how changes in their management practices affect the efficiency of their production system. We developed an individual-based model of a pig-fattening unit that considers individual variability in performance among pigs, farmers’ feeding practices and animal management and estimates environmental impacts (using life cycle assessment) and economic results of the unit. We previously demonstrated that this model provides reliable estimates of farm performance for different combinations of management practices, pig types and building characteristics. The objectives of this study were to quantify how interactions between feeding practices and animal management influence fattening unit results in healthy or impaired health conditions using the model. A virtual experiment was designed to evaluate effects of interactions between feeding practices, health status of the pig herd and infrastructure constraints on the technical performance, economic results and environmental impacts of the unit. The virtual experiment consisted of 96 scenarios, which combined chosen values of 6 input parameters of the model: batch interval (35 days and 7 days), use or non-use of a buffer room to manage the lightest pigs, feed rationing (ad libitum and restricted) and sequence plans (two-phase (2P), daily-phase (DP)), scale at which the feeding plan is applied (i.e. room, pen and individual) and health status of the pig herd (i.e. healthy v. impaired). Variance analysis was used to test effects of the factors in these 96 scenarios, and multivariate data analyses were used to classify the scenarios. Healthy populations obtained on average higher economic results (e.g. gross margin of 11.20 v. 1.50 €/pig) and lower environmental impacts (e.g. 2.24 v. 2.38 kg CO2-eq/kg pig live weight gain) than the population with impaired health. With 35 days batch interval and DP feeding, populations with impaired health reached gross margin similar to healthy populations with 2P ad libitum feeding and 7 days batch interval. Restricted, DP and individual feeding plans improved the economic and environmental performances of the unit for both health statuses. This study highlighted that health status of the pig herd is the main factor that affects technical, economic and environmental performances of a pig-fattening unit, and that adequate feeding strategies and animal management can compensate, to some extent, the effects of impaired health on environmental impacts but not on gross margin.
There is evidence indicating that using the current UK energy feeding system to ration the present sheep flocks may underestimate their nutrient requirements. The objective of the present study was to address this issue by developing updated maintenance energy requirements for the current sheep flocks and evaluating if these requirements were influenced by a range of dietary and animal factors. Data (n = 131) used were collated from five experiments with sheep (5 to 18 months old and 29.0 to 69.8 kg BW) undertaken at the Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute of the UK from 2013 to 2017. The trials were designed to evaluate the effects of dietary type, genotype, physiological stage and sex on nutrient utilization and energetic efficiencies. Energy intake and output data were measured in individual calorimeter chambers. Energy balance (Eg) was calculated as the difference between gross energy intake and a sum of fecal energy, urine energy, methane energy and heat production. Data were analysed using the restricted maximum likelihood analysis to develop the linear relationship between Eg or heat production and metabolizable energy (ME) intake, with the effects of a range of dietary and animal factors removed. The net energy (NEm) and ME (MEm) requirements for maintenance derived from the linear relationship between Eg and ME intake were 0.358 and 0.486 MJ/kg BW0.75, respectively, which are 40% to 53% higher than those recommended in energy feeding systems currently used to ration sheep in the USA and the UK. Further analysis of the current dataset revealed that concentrate supplement, sire type or physiological stage had no significant effect on the derived NEm values. However, female lambs had a significantly higher NEm (0.352 v. 0.306 or 0.288 MJ/kg BW0.75) or MEm (0.507 v. 0.441 or 0.415 MJ/kg BW0.75) than those for male or castrated lambs. The present results indicate that using present energy feeding systems in the UK developed over 40 years ago to ration the current sheep flocks could underestimate maintenance energy requirements. There is an urgent need to update these systems to reflect the higher metabolic rates of the current sheep flocks.
The three-dimensional flow characteristics of the compressible vortex ring generated by under-expanded circular jets with two typical pressure ratios, i.e.
(moderate) and 4.0 (high), are investigated numerically with the use of large-eddy simulations. Our results illustrate that these two pressure ratios correspond to different shock structures (shock cell and Mach disc, respectively) within the jet. These two typical types of flow structures and characteristics are discussed and validated with experiments, and the different generation mechanisms of the secondary vortex rings are compared. Moreover, detailed information about the evolution of the secondary vortex ring, primary vortex ring and turbulence transition features, including the radial and azimuthal modes, is investigated. The geometric features and mixing effects of the jets are also explored.
Recent studies have shown that modes of evolution, namely directional trend, random walk, and stasis, vary across morphologic traits and over the geographic range of a taxon. If so, is it possible that our interpretation of evolutionary modes is actually driven by our selection of traits in a study? In an attempt to answer this question, we have restudied the middle Miocene planktonic foraminifera Fohsella lineage, an iconic example of gradual morphologic evolution. In contrast to previous studies that have focused on the gross morphology as embodied by the edge view of tests, we analyze here multiple phenotypic traits chosen because their biologic and ecologic significance is well understood in living populations. We find that traits in the lineage did not evolve in concert. The timing and geographic pattern of changes in shape, coiling direction, size, and ecology were different. The evolution of this lineage is a mosaic combination of different evolutionary modes for different traits. We suggest that overemphasis on the evolution of some single trait, such as the edge-view outline, from narrow geographic ranges has significantly underestimated the dynamic evolutionary history of this group.
The Multiemployer Pension Reform Act (MPRA) allows multiemployer plans facing insolvency to apply for approval from the Treasury to cut accrued benefits of plan members to prolong plan solvency—a departure from the benefit protections of Employee Retirement Income Security Act. To assess the law's impact, this paper models Central States Teamsters – by far the largest – plan to have applied under the new law to reduce benefits. Using a stochastic model of future investment returns, the probability of insolvency within 10 years drops from 50% (without cuts) to 6% (with cuts). While benefit cuts increase the overall welfare of participants by extending the plan's life, the welfare of younger retirees (under age 75) worsens and welfare of workers improves.
Tropical glaciers constitute an important source of water for downstream populations. However, our understanding of glacial melt processes is still limited. One observed process that has not yet been quantified for tropical glaciers is the enhanced melt caused by the longwave emission transfer. Here, we use high-resolution surface temperatures obtained from the thermal infrared imagery of the Cuchillacocha Glacier, in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru in June 2014 to calculate a margin longwave flux. This longwave flux, reaching the glacier margin from the adjacent exposed rock, varies between 81 and 120 W m−2 daily. This flux is incorporated into a physically-based melt model to assess the net radiation budget at the modeled glacier margin. The simulation results show an increase in the energy available for melt by an average of 106 W m−2 during the day when compared with the simulation where the LWmargin flux is not accounted for. This value represents an increase in ablation of ~1.7 m at the glacier margin for the duration of the dry season. This study suggests that including the quantification of the glacier margin longwave flux in physically-based melt models results in an improved assessment of tropical glacier energy budget and meltwater generation.
European pig production continues to encounter economic and environmental challenges. To address these issues, methods have been developed to assess performances of pig production systems. Recent studies indicate that considering variability in performances among pigs improves the accuracy and reliability of results compared with modelling an average animal. Our objective was to develop a pig fattening unit model able to (i) simulate individual pig performances, including their variability in interaction with farmers’ practices and management, and (ii) assess their effects on technical, economic and environmental performances. Farmer practices included in the model were chosen from a typology generated from on-farm surveys focused on batch management, pig allocation to pens, pig feeding practices, practices of shipping to the slaughterhouse, and management of the remaining pigs. Pigs are represented using an individual-based model adapted from the InraPorc® model. To illustrate the model’s abilities, four scenarios were simulated that combine two feed rationing plans (ad libitum, restricted to 2.5 kg/day) and two feed sequence plans (two-phase, 10-phase). Analysis of variance was performed on the simulated technical, economic and environmental indicators (calculated via Life Cycle Assessment). The feed rationing plan and feed sequence plan significantly affected all indicators except for the premium per pig, for which the feed sequence plan did not have a significant effect. The ‘restricted 10-phase’ scenario maximised gross margin of the fattening unit (14.2 €/pig) and minimised environmental impacts per kg of pig produced. In contrast, the ‘ad libitum two-phase’ scenario generated the lowest margin (8.20 €/pig) and the highest environmental impacts. The model appears to be a promising tool to assess effects of farmers’ practices, pig characteristics and farm infrastructure on technical, economic and environmental performances of the fattening unit, and to investigate the potential of improvement. However, further work is needed, based on virtual experiments, in order to evaluate the effects of a larger diversity of practices.
The appropriate monitoring of patients on lithium therapy has been the subject of extensive research in the form of clinical audits and surveys culminating in the development of specific guidelines to help clinicians provide optimal care for patients on lithium. The concept of ‘shared care’ has also gained attention in the literature with various types of shared care interventions being introduced as potential ways of improving communication between primary and secondary care.
This article aims to (1) review the literature evaluating lithium monitoring practices in the United Kingdom and Ireland in the last 25 years and (2) determine whether locally agreed shared care agreements have the potential to improve monitoring quality.
A literature search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL and PsychInfo. A total of 12 studies were selected for review including 11 audits/prospective chart reviews and one qualitative study using semi-structured interviews.
Overall, the quality of lithium monitoring seems to be improving throughout the years. However, none of the studies reviewed revealed complete adherence to monitoring guidelines. This may be due to a lack of effective communication between primary and secondary care. Several shared care interventions have been described in the literature but there is a paucity of studies concerned with the effects of local shared care arrangements designed for the specific purpose of lithium monitoring. Nonetheless, the extant data suggests that such agreements may help improve monitoring standards by allowing the responsibilities for managing the prescribing and monitoring of lithium to be more clearly defined and shared between primary and secondary care.
Kant distinguishes between two philosophical schools: one in which knowledge is the fruit of rational labor and the other in which it is rather a kind of ecstasy, the mysterious “apotheosis” of intuition. It is in Plato that he finds the origin of the latter – referring to him as a “Mytagogue,” the founder of a sect, addressing himself only to initiates. The truth is that the “Greek light” is not the same as Kant's “Enlightenment”: It is not a brightness gradually winning the battle against darkness, but rather a flash, a sudden and powerful illumination. This model certainly governs the Platonic tradition. It is for this reason that the question is not whether one can speak of mysticism and esotericism in relation to Platonism, but rather of how to do so.
It is well known that “mysticism” comes from the Greek term mysteria, which refers to the mystery cults, mystes meaning “initiate.” But this linguistic fact leaves room for different inflections, depending on which aspect of the mysteric experience (i.e., the experience linked to mystery cults) is emphasized: the initiation, the revelation, the union with the divine, or the secret. These various inflections are precisely what we try to highlight. Thus, when Plato uses the “mysteric model,” it is mainly as a model of the initiation, that is, of the break with ordinary ways of life and thought that philosophy both provokes and requires. We may, then, wonder whether Plato's philosophy is actually influenced by the mystery cults, and by the figures and trends of thought related to them (especially Orphism and Pythagoreanism). And we also have to ask whether Platonic philosophy is itself homologous to this tradition, insofar as it might be based on an esoteric teaching.
From Plato to Plotinus, the inflection changes: What prevails in the model of Neoplatonism is not so much the initiatic scheme, as the union with the divine. Indeed, Plotinus's philosophy proceeds from a founding experience – the union with the One-Good – and develops as an inquiry into the conditions of its occurrence and recurrence. It is in this manner that the philosophy of Plotinus inherits the mysteric tradition and also has a decisive influence on what is commonly called the “mystical tradition,” particularly the Christian one.