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Helicobacter pylori is a cause of stomach cancer and peptic ulcer. For prevention, improving the eradication rate of H. pylori is crucial. However, the association between eradication and lifestyle of infected patients, including alcohol consumption, remains unclear. We explored associations between failed primary eradication therapy and drinking status by sex. This study involved 356 patients who visited a pharmacy with prescriptions for primary H. pylori eradication therapy. We assessed drinking habits using a questionnaire. Data on patients with failed primary eradication were provided by the nearby local clinic. We performed logistic regression analysis to examine the effect of drinking habit and frequency of drinking on failed primary eradication by sex. The odds ratio of primary eradication failure in female patients with a drinking habit was 3.75 (P = 0.001), but that in male patients was not significant. The odds ratio tended to increase in relation to drinking frequency in women. Frequent consumption of alcohol is not only likely to affect eradication, but also has a large impact on the bodies of women, who are more susceptible than men to the effects of alcohol. Thus, women should take greater care in alcohol consumption.
This work demonstrates the in situ growth of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) on diamond semiconductors by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The resulting CNW/diamond junctions behave as photomemristors having both photocontrollable multiple resistance states and nonvolatile memory functions. The resistance state (high or low resistance) can be selected by irradiation with blue or violet light in conjunction with the application of a bias voltage, giving a large resistance switching ratio of ∼106. The photoinduced resistance switching behaviors are rarely observed and has only been observed in a few materials and/or heterostructures. These junctions also exhibit a photoresponsivity of ∼12 A/W, which is much larger than that obtained from photodiodes composed of other materials. These results suggest that CNW/diamond (i.e., carbon sp2/sp3) junctions could have applications in novel photocontrollable devices, which have photosensing, memory, and switching functions.
We examined the impact of demographic confounding factors on responses to the Impact of Event Scale–Revised.
Participants were rescue workers aged 20 to 65 years who had responded during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. A multiple indicators, multiple causes model was used to examine associations between covariates and latent factors or items in the Impact of Event Scale–Revised.
Participants were recruited from April to August 2015. The model fit indices in the confirmatory factor analysis and the multiple indicators, multiple causes model suggested an acceptable model fit. Higher education and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale score were significantly associated with a decrease in intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Counseling was significantly associated with increased avoidance. In the direct path model using modification indices, counseling and early arrival were identified as significant covariates.
This study found that higher education and resilience reduced all 3 factors in the Impact of Event Scale–Revised and improved the symptoms of intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Counseling and early arrival were also associated with improvement in certain items. However, counseling was also linked to increased avoidance and worsening psychophysiological reactions. Further research is recommended to clarify these relationships. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:309–318)
Research has shown that a candidate’s appearance affects the support he or she receives in elections. We extend this research in this article in three ways. First, we examine this relationship further in a non-Western context using 2015 local elections in Japan. Next, we show that this positive relationship is more complicated depending on the characteristics of the election under consideration. Specifically, we distinguished election contests by levels of turnout and found that despite a positive relationship between turnout and the extent to which smiling increases a candidate’s support levels, the marginal increase in support declined as turnout increased and, in fact, became negative when some high-turnout threshold was crossed. Finally, we show that the number of candidates competing in an election is negatively related to the impact of a candidate smiling, confirming research conducted by the Dartmouth Group.
The present study investigated the dry matter yield (DMY) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization (internal hyphae, arbuscules, and vesicles) of two genotypes of zoysia grass (Zoysia japonica strain Aso and cv. Asagake) at three rates (10, 20 and 40 g N/m2/year) of application of digested slurry (DS) or mineral fertilizer. Soil chemical properties (available phosphorus concentration, pH and electrical conductivity (EC)) were also measured as factors associated with AM colonization. The fertilizer type (DS v. mineral fertilizer) had an effect on DMY depending on the plant genotypes but had little or no effect on AM colonization, and soil chemical properties, indicating that DS can be used as a substitute for mineral fertilizer; however, it is necessary to apply it taking into account the ratio of inorganic nitrogen (N). However, heavy DS application decreased colonization by internal hyphae. Furthermore, even at the lowest rate, the continuous application of DS decreased colonization by arbuscules and vesicles in both genotypes, which were associated with decreasing soil pH and increasing EC. The results suggest that zoysia grass should be fertilized with DS at a rate of <10 g N/m2/year in order to achieve a continuous association with AM fungi, although this range of N application is sub-optimal for zoysia grass production.
The seasonal snowpack and meteorological factors associated with the accumulation and ablation of the snowpack were monitored for 11 years in a mountainous area in the warm-temperate zone of Japan. No notable rise was observed in mean wintertime air temperature, but an increase was seen in the difference between the maximum and minimum air temperatures. Precipitation exhibited annual variability but no notable reduction over the measurement period. The length of the continuous snow-cover period increased slightly over the 11 years, but no trend in variability was observed. The maximum snow depth and maximum water equivalent of snow varied greatly from year to year, depending on the amount of snowfall. In a heavy-snow year, about 1600 mm of water, which is almost the mean annual precipitation for the whole of Japan, was found to be temporarily stored in the snowpack.
In a static supercooled cloud dendrites hardly grow at about -15°C except at the pointed tip of a needle-like ice crystal or an isolated thin plate-like ice crystal. When ice crystals are moved slowly in a static supercooled cloud, dendrites grow at about -15° C and the α-axis growth rate increases as the velocity of the dendrites increases; at velocities higher than 20 cm/s, however, the a-axis growth rate decreases as the velocity increases due to the influence of heavy riming. The maximum a-axis growth rate in a supercooled cloud is observed at about -15°C in experiments growing ice crystals in free fall.
To understand mass loss history and mass loss and dust formation history of massive AGB stars, we carried out observations of three bipolar planetary nebulae (BPNe) in 30 micron bands from a ground-based telescope. All of our targets have a compact strong emission source in the mid-infrared (MIR) around the position of the central star of planetary nebula (CSPN). These detected emissions can be originated from cool dust. Our results show that the cool dust component is compactly distributed and much more massive than previous studies indicated. These findings suggest that they experienced a strong mass loss into the equatorial direction in past.
As one of the follow-up studies of Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS; Ueta et al. 2014), we focus on a bipolar planetary nebula (PN) NGC6781 to characterize the dusty nebula and the central star based on our own Herschel data and the rich archival spectroscopic/photometric image data in the wavelengths from UV to far-IR. With CLOUDY, we constructed a comprehensive photoionization model of NGC6781 ever made including data from UV to radio. We succeeded to reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) and the atomic gas, H2, CO, and OH molecular line fluxes. We found that about 40% of the total dust mass would be from warm-cold dust components.
We aimed to clarify the effect of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) on renal function in overweight and obese individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Literature searches were performed using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library until December 2015. We selected articles that reported human studies from their inception until December 2015 in English using the following searching terms: ‘Low carbohydrate diet’ AND (‘Clinical trial’ OR ‘Clinical study’ OR ‘Clinical investigation’ OR ‘Observational study’ OR ‘Cohort study’). We compared the effects of LCD on renal function, defined as change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), assessed in randomised-controlled trials. We calculated the mean change in eGFR and the mean change in standard deviations by eGFR or creatinine clearance, and compared the mean change in eGFR and standard deviations in LCD with those in the control diet using fixed-effects models. We selected nine randomised controlled trials including 1687 participants (861 were fed LCD and 826 were fed the control diet). The mean change in eGFR in the LCD group was −4·7 to 24·0 ml/min per 1·73 m2 and that in the control diet group was −4·1 to 10·8 ml/min per 1·73 m2. The mean change in eGFR in the LCD group was greater than that in the control diet (0·13 ml/min per 1·73 m2; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·26). In the present meta-analysis, we identified that the increase in eGFR was greater in LCD compared with the control diet in overweight and obese individuals without CKD.
Surgical repair for cardiac lesions has rarely been offered to patients with trisomy 18 because of their very short lifespans. We investigated the effectiveness of cardiac surgery in patients with trisomy 18.
Patients and methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of 20 consecutive patients with trisomy 18 and congenital cardiac anomalies who were evaluated between August, 2003 and July, 2013. All patients developed respiratory or cardiac failure due to excessive pulmonary blood flow. Patients were divided into two subgroups: one treated surgically (surgical group, n=10) and one treated without surgery (conservative group, n=10), primarily to compare the duration of survival between the groups.
All the patients in the surgical group underwent cardiac surgery with pulmonary artery banding, including patent ductus arteriosus ligation in nine patients and coarctation repair in one. The duration of survival was significantly longer in the surgical group than in the conservative group (495.4±512.6 versus 93.1±76.2 days, respectively; p=0.03). A Cox proportional hazard model found cardiac surgery to be a significant predictor of survival time (risk ratio of 0.12, 95% confidence interval 0.016–0.63; p=0.01).
Cardiac surgery was effective in prolonging survival by managing high pulmonary blood flow; however, the indication for surgery should be carefully considered on a case-by-case basis, because the risk of sudden death remains even after surgery. Patients’ families should be provided with sufficient information to make decisions that will optimise the quality of life for both patients and their families.
We intended to build consensus on appropriate disaster mental health services among professionals working in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake.
We focused on the first 3 months after the disaster, divided into 3 phases: immediate aftermath, acute phase, and midphase. We adopted the Delphi process and asked our survey participants (n=115) to rate the appropriateness of specific mental health services in each phase and comment on them. We repeated this process 3 times, giving participants feedback on the results of the previous round. Through this process, we determined the criterion for positive consensus for each item as having the agreement of more than 80% of the participants.
We found that the importance of acute psychiatric care and prescribing regular medication for psychiatric patients gained positive consensus in the immediate aftermath and acute phase. Counseling and psychoeducation after traumatic events or provision of information gained consensus in the acute phase and midphase, and screening of mental distress gained consensus in the midphase.
Higher priority was given to continuous psychiatric services in the immediate aftermath and mental health activities in later phases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:359–366)
Amorphous Ta–O nanotubes (NTs) prepared by anodization in a sulfuric-acid-based solution have been found to contain considerable amounts of extra oxygen and sulfur. Their structural and thermal stability has been studied by combining x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. The amorphous Ta–O, whose composition was estimated to be Ta2O6.6S0.7, crystallizes into orthorhombic β-Ta2O5 at temperatures around 1073 K by an endothermic reaction, at which excess oxygen and impurity sulfur are released. The amorphous NTs were found to be thermally more stable than stoichiometric amorphous Ta2O5, whose crystallization temperature is around 973 K. Excess oxygen and impurity sulfur, which form chemical bonds with Ta atoms in the amorphous solid, must be the origin of the stability. The crystallization follows the out-diffusion of oxygen and sulfur from the solid at temperatures where the mobility of atoms is high enough, indicating that the crystallization is kinetically arrested.
The forward voltage degradation in 4H-SiC PiN diodes with a simplified process and that in 4H-SiC pin diodes with additional processes are investigated. Photoluminescence images were also observed to identify the cause of forward voltage degradation. The forward voltage degradations of 4H-SiC PiN diodes with additional processes were larger than those with a simplified process. Observing photoluminescence images of diodes after a current stress test showed that less than 25% of Shockley-type stacking faults in 4H-SiC PiN diodes with a simplified process are caused by half-loop dislocations, which are generated not only in the additional processes but also in the whole device fabrication process. With additional processes, those rates are over 65%, which may be reduced by eliminating half-loop dislocations due to the optimization of the process condition and sequence.
In this paper, we develop a simple two-period model of natural capital investment under Knightian uncertainty and analyze the effects of changes in the degree of ambiguity on the optimal natural capital investment. We find that the degree of Knightian uncertainty affects a government's natural capital investment. Moreover, we find that the direction of the effect of the Knightian uncertainty depends on the nature of uncertainty, that is, on whether the uncertainty is about the future level of natural capital or about the return from saving.
The Fermi observatory has detected GeV photons from several GRBs. Some of them show an
extra spectral component, which is a hint for emission mechanism of GRBs. Here we discuss
the GeV emission mechanism according to several promising models. The difference between
models will appear in temporal evolution of the photon spectrum. To verify this,
instruments that can obtain high photon statistics like CTA are desired. We also discuss
the photosphere model, which is recently supported by wide-band observations with
During the installation of the buffer in a deposition hole of an HLW repository, it is necessary to control water flow from the fractured rock into the deposition hole. Water flow with inflow rate greater than 0.001 l/min may cause piping and erosion of the buffer, and may trigger mass redistribution of the buffer, sedimentation and material separation of bentonite materials. This paper describes the condition of parameters which cause piping and erosion; revised conditions which keep advection, inflow rate, buffer component, gap between buffer materials, gap between outside wall and buffer block, and type of water. The results from the experiment show the condition of the self-sealing function of bentonite materials, formation of piping, allowable limit of inflow rate in the case of an Na type bentonite block of 70 wt.% Kunigel V1 and 30 wt.% silica sand, or a pellet of 100 wt.% Kunigel V1. Piping and erosion continue until the engineered barrier (EB) is filled with water, and then the hydraulic gradient becomes small. Piping may lead to erosion and redistribution of material which needs to be taken into account in the long-term performance assessment.