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In this book, Arthur Keefer offers a new interpretation of the book of Proverbs from the standpoint of virtue ethics. Using an innovative method that bridges philosophy and biblical studies, he argues that much of the instruction within Proverbs meets the criteria for moral and theological virtue as set out in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and the works of St. Thomas Aquinas. Keefer presents the moral thought of Proverbs in its social, historical, and theological contexts. He shows how these contexts shed light on the conceptualization of virtue, the virtues that are promoted and omitted, and the characteristics that make Proverbs a distinctive moral tradition. In giving undivided attention to biblical virtue, this volume opens the way for new avenues of study in biblical ethics, including law, narrative, and other aspects of biblical instruction and wisdom.
Are we alone in the universe, or are there other life forms 'out there'? This is one of the most scientifically and philosophically important questions that humanity can ask. Now, in the early 2020s, we are tantalizingly close to an answer. As this book shows, the answer will almost certainly be that life forms are to be found across the Milky Way and beyond. They will be thinly spread, to be sure. Yet the number of inhabited planets probably runs into the trillions. Some are close enough for us to detect evidence of life by analysing their atmospheres. This evidence may be found within a couple of decades. Its arrival will be momentous. But even before it arrives we can anticipate what life elsewhere will be like by examining the ecology and evolution of life on Earth. This book considers the current state of play in relation to these titanic issues.
Commercialization of crops resistant to application of dicamba is a cause of major concern for sweetpotato producers regarding potential negative impacts due to herbicide drift or sprayer contamination events. A field study was initiated in 2014 and repeated in 2015 to assess impacts of reduced rates of BAPMA or DGA salt of dicamba, glyphosate, or a combination of these individually in separate trials with glyphosate on sweetpotato. Reduced rates of 1/10, 1/100, 1/250, 1/500, 1/750, and 1/1000 of the 1x use rate of each dicamba formulation at 0.56 kg ha-1, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha-1, and the combination of the two at aforementioned rates were applied to ‘Beauregard’ sweetpotato at storage root formation (10 d after transplanting) in one trial or storage root development (30 d after transplanting) in a separate trial. Injury with each salt of dicamba (BAPMA or DGA) applied alone or with glyphosate was generally equal or greater than glyphosate applied alone at equivalent rates, indicating that injury is most attributable to the dicamba in the combination. There was a quadratic increase in crop injury and quadratic decrease in crop yield (with respect to most yield grades) observed with increase herbicide rate of dicamba applied alone or in combination with glyphosate applied at storage root development. However, this relationship as well as the significance of herbicide rate was not observed on crop injury or sweetpotato yield when herbicide application occurred at storage root formation stage with a few exceptions. In general, crop injury and yield reduction was greatest at the highest rate (1/10x) of either salt of dicamba applied alone or in combination with glyphosate, although injury observed at lower rates would be cause for concern after initial observation by sweetpotato producers. However, in some cases yield reduction of no.1 and marketable grades was observed following 1/250, 1/100, or 1/10x application rate of dicamba alone or with glyphosate when applied at storage root development.
Even before starting your evening shift you know it's going to be busy. Ambulances are lined up in front of the hospital, and the charge nurse already seems stressed out. The senior Emergency Medicine (EM) resident is standing in the physician office, ready to start her shift as well. You have worked with her a few times during this rotation. She is competent, you trust in her management plans for all her individual patients. Together you both review the patient tracker: a variety of patient presentations ready to be seen, plus an additional 20 patients in the waiting room. Negotiating the learning objective for the shift, the resident indicates that she would like to work on more efficiently managing patient flow and the administration of the emergency department (ED). But…isn't that a skill you just learn from experience? You wonder what evidence-informed strategies might exist for training her for this next step.
Although the concept, first demonstration, and potential applications of X-ray transmission mirrors (XTMs) were initially described over 30 years ago, only a few implementations exist in the literature. This is attributed to the unsolved challenge of a thick frame supporting a thin, reflecting membrane which does not itself block the transmitted beam. Here, we introduce a novel approach to solve this problem by employing silicon microfabrication. A robust XTM frame has been fabricated by using a novel two-step etch process, which secures the thin-film membrane without blocking the transmitted beam. Specifically, we have fabricated delicate XTM optics with 90% yield, which consist of 280-nm-thick low-stress silicon nitride membrane windows that are 1.5 mm wide and 125 mm long on silicon substrates. The XTM optics have been demonstrated to be a more efficient high-pass X-ray filter; for example, when configured for 40% transmission of 11.3 keV photons, we measure the reduction of 8.4 keV photons by a factor of 56.
The job structure has become more polarized in recent decades in the United States. Automation and related computerized technologies replaced many jobs which are characterized by well-defined, routine activities that do not require complex analytical skills. Using recent data for the labor force, we find that job polarization increased through about 2011. This overall trend was the outcome of two contrary patterns including occupational downgrading among men and occupational upgrading among women. However, the perception of job polarization may be greater than its actuality because the distribution of household income has become more unequal than the occupational structure due to rising assortative mating. Job polarization seems to have tapered off since 2011 whereas household income inequality has continued to increase. The trend towards job polarization ironically occurred while the educational distribution of workers was becoming less polarized.
Discussions of the modern Church of England and politics all too easily focus exclusively on national leaders and central institutions. Yet it would be inconceivable to historians of earlier periods to neglect the (literally) parochial dimensions of Anglican politics, or its contribution to local electoral cultures – even after the extraction of governmental functions from the vestry, so often previously a cockpit of bitter conflict, removed a key site of political engagement. Investigation of religious outlets for political expression and vice-versa must take due account of the lived experience of rank-and-file Anglicans in the parish. Moreover, the Church's institutional structure ensured that local experience was not so removed from its national activity as it may seem; for example, a bishop in the House of Lords could hardly ignore a notably political parish priest in his diocese.
This essay explores one (lay)man's expression of his politics in a rural parish setting. There is no such thing as a typical parish. The diversity of theological and liturgical traditions within modern Anglicanism, and of the social and cultural situations of more than 12,000 parishes, ensures that none of the conventional stereotypes are reliably of general application. Indeed, this essay examines a rather remarkable combination of man and parish, not in order to advance claims of representativeness, but because this is such an unusual instance that it tests the limits of the parish as a setting for political activism. The case in question is also remarkable in that the engagement endured and matured through a long stretch of the twentieth century. Thus we consider the parochial politics of Joseph Needham (1900–1995) at Thaxted, Essex.
If the locality is absent from existing accounts of modern Anglican politics, so largely is the rural community, for researchers understandably prefer apparently more promising studies of inner cities such as Liverpool or Manchester, where sectarian or class divisions were especially pronounced and articulated through religious institutions. Yet one manifestation of Anglicanism in the twentieth-century English ‘imaginary’ was the country church, as a marker of a historically rooted national identity. It was easily presented as immune from the vicissitudes of quotidian political debate, even when this representation was deployed for Conservative political purposes.
There is strong evidence that foods containing dietary fibre protect against colorectal cancer, resulting at least in part from its anti-proliferative properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with two non-digestible carbohydrates, resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose (PD), on crypt cell proliferative state (CCPS) in the macroscopically normal rectal mucosa of healthy individuals. We also investigated relationships between expression of regulators of apoptosis and of the cell cycle on markers of CCPS. Seventy-five healthy participants were supplemented with RS and/or PD or placebo for 50 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the Dietary Intervention, Stem cells and Colorectal Cancer (DISC) Study). CCPS was assessed, and the expression of regulators of the cell cycle and of apoptosis was measured by quantitative PCR in rectal mucosal biopsies. SCFA concentrations were quantified in faecal samples collected pre- and post-intervention. Supplementation with RS increased the total number of mitotic cells within the crypt by 60 % (P = 0·001) compared with placebo. This effect was limited to older participants (aged ≥50 years). No other differences were observed for the treatments with PD or RS as compared with their respective controls. PD did not influence any of the measured variables. RS, however, increased cell proliferation in the crypts of the macroscopically-normal rectum of older adults. Our findings suggest that the effects of RS on CCPS are not only dose, type of RS and health status-specific but are also influenced by age.
A broad marine management goal is to maintain healthy marine social–ecological systems that sustain desirable marine ecosystem services (MES) and have the capacity to adapt to change. Models, as representations of how systems work, are promising tools for understanding marine ecosystem and socio-economic processes (Addison et al. 2017; Zedler, 2017). Marine models can translate alternative scenarios exploring the projected consequences on marine ecosystem function of possible futures for drivers of change such as greenhouse gas (GhG) emissions, coastal development, and market, political and socio-cultural forces on seafood consumption (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA), 2005; Inniss et al. 2016; Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), 2016; Katona et al. 2017). They can also help decision-makers to evaluate national or local scenarios examining the effectiveness of alternative past or future policy interventions influencing society’s demand for specific ES and their delivery to society (Guerry et al., 2012; IPBES, 2016; Arkema et al., 2017).
This chapter deals with the bishops and archbishops of the Church in Wales within the framework of the thirteen archiepiscopates across the century. It seeks to blend biographical sketches with landmark developments in episcopal and archiepiscopal ministry. Following the enthronement of Edwards as Archbishop of Wales in 1920, the archiepiscopates of Green, Prosser and Morgan saw the readjustment of the Church in Wales to its new status after disestablishment. Those of Morris, Simon and Williams represent what some see as the golden age of episcopal leadership. Those of Childs, Noakes and Rice Jones followed, facing the first serious signs of the decline in church membership and debate on the ordination of women. Those of Williams, Morgan and Davies bring us to the present, over a period of enormous change. The chapter also deals with episcopal polity, the styles of episcopal leadership, the theological positions of the bishops, and changes in their election and ministry over the century.
The current study investigates how second language auditory word recognition, in early and highly proficient Spanish–Basque (L1-L2) bilinguals, is influenced by crosslinguistic phonological-lexical interactions and semantic priming. Phonological overlap between a word and its translation equivalent (phonological cognate status), and semantic relatedness of a preceding prime were manipulated. Experiment 1 examined word recognition performance in noisy listening conditions that introduce a high degree of uncertainty, whereas Experiment 2 employed clear listening conditions, with low uncertainty. Under noisy listening conditions, semantic priming effects interacted with phonological cognate status: for word recognition accuracy, a related prime overcame inhibitory effects of phonological overlap between target words and their translations. These findings are consistent with models of bilingual word recognition that incorporate crosslinguistic phonological-lexical-semantic interactions. Moreover, they suggest an interplay between L2-L1 interactions and the integration of information across acoustic and semantic levels of processing in flexibly mapping the speech signal onto the spoken words, under adverse listening conditions.
We consider evidence for the assertion that backbench members of parliament (MPs) in the UK have become less distinctive from one another in terms of their speech. Noting that this claim has considerable normative and substantive implications, we review theory and findings in the area, which are ultimately ambiguous on this question. We then provide a new statistical model of distinctiveness that extends traditional efforts to statistically characterize the “style” of authors and apply it to a corpus of Hansard speeches from 1935 to 2018. In the aggregate, we find no evidence for the claim of more homogeneity. But this hides intriguing covariate effects: at the MP-level, panel regression results demonstrate that on average, more senior backbenchers tend to be less “different” in speech terms. We also show, however, that this pattern is changing: in recent times, it is more experienced MPs who speak most distinctively.
We review the role the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has played over the past several decades in managing financial crises and suggest possible areas for reform. We examine the background to the 2008–2009 global financial crisis and analyze many of its implications, particularly the sharp increase in the burden of public debt that was a consequence of the crisis, and identify this as a source of systemic risk. We argue that our current financial system has a number of vulnerabilities that pose a major threat to financial stability and economic prosperity and could, in a crisis, interact in highly destabilizing ways with other aspects of our governance system. The UN Charter clearly introduced the concept of economic and social development as a key responsibility of the international community, and two of the leading UN agencies, the IMF and the World Bank, are very much at the center of implementing the UN’s mandate in this area. We focus on the IMF because of the central role the organization plays in the management of the global monetary system, a system whose weaknesses were dramatically revealed during the 2008–2009 financial crisis. We present several proposals for reforms aimed at improving the global financial architecture.