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A shared biblical past has long imbued the Holy Land with special authority as well as a mythic character that has made the region not only the spiritual home for Muslims, Christians, and Jews, but also a source of a living sacred history that informs contemporary realities and religious identities. This book explores the Holy Land as a critical site in which early modern Catholics sought spiritual and political legitimacy during a period of profound and disruptive change. The Ottoman conquest of the region, the division of the Western Church, Catholic reform, the integration of the Mediterranean into global trading networks, and the emergence of new imperial rivalries transformed the Custody of the Holy Land, the venerable Catholic institution that had overseen Western pilgrimage since 1342, into a site of intense intra-Christian conflict by 1517. This contestation underscored the Holy Land's importance as a frontier and center of an embattled Catholic tradition.
The usage of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring system (EHHMS) decreased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed dispenser usage, hand hygiene (HH) badge usage, and HH compliance to determine the effect of COVID-19 on EHHMS usage and HH compliance. HH product shortages and other pandemic-induced challenges impacted EHHMS usage.
Visualising the loads that a structure can tolerate provides a key insight into the structural design process, especially for materials and structures that are governed by complex failure criteria. This paper proposes a general method for efficient construction of performance envelopes in load space, and demonstrates the approach with two examples. The performance envelope identifies all possible failure modes, all the redundant and non-redundant structural constraints, and the limiting failure mode in a particular direction in load space. Once the envelope has been constructed, the structural reserve factors can be calculated extremely quickly. In design such envelopes are most useful for structural analysis processes which involve a very large number of load cases, and where the cost of constructing an envelope for a given feature is relatively modest.
Promoting a traditional Mexican diet (TMexD) could potentially reduce high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and support food sustainability in Mexico. This study aimed to develop an index to assess adherence to the TMexD.
A three-round Delphi study was conducted to examine the food groups, specific foods, and food-related habits that would constitute a TMexD index. Participants selected the TMexD items using Likert scales, lists of responses, and yes/no questions. Consensus was determined using percentages of agreement, mean values and/or coefficients of variation.
Online Delphi study.
Seventeen nutrition and food experts in Mexico completed all three rounds.
The resulting index (ranging from 0 to 21 points) consisted of 15 food groups, containing 102 individual foods. Food groups included in higher quantities were maize, other grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, herbs, nuts and seeds, and tubers. Animal foods, vegetable fats and oils, home-made beverages, maize-based dishes, and plain water were also included, but in lower quantities. The food-related habits included were consuming home-made meals, socialising at meals, and buying food in local markets. Consensus was reached for all index items apart from quantities of consumption of six food groups (herbs, nuts, grains, tubers, dairy, and eggs).
Although future research could improve the measures for which consensus was not reached, the TMexD index proposed in this study potentially displays a healthy and sustainable dietary pattern and could be used to examine links between the TMexD and health outcomes in Mexican populations.
The goal of this chapter is to establish an overview of the patterns of conflict in the border counties. The purpose here is, as far as possible, to make a quantitative analysis of conflict derived from court evidence. The first section below presents the records which underpin the analysis that follows. The archives of the court of king’s bench are useful for establishing a chronology of affairs at law. Private litigation among landowners features predominantly on the coram rege side this court, and on the rex side it heard most crown and private charges against gentry and nobility. It also heard quite a lot of crown charges of felony or trespass against perpetrators from the lower social orders, but even so such cases were frequently associated with disputes among landed antagonists. Thus, litigation in king’s bench should be an important indicator of tensions in political society. The itinerant gaol delivery court records focus, by contrast, much more on crown prosecutions of felonies perpetrated by culprits of yeoman status or lower; accordingly, they point towards more local social tensions and concerns of a much less politically significant flavour. There are no surviving records of the warden courts to examine by way of comparison. By tracing a chronology of conflict derived from legal records and matching this with major events, especially political upheavals, the second section below examines the extent to which the border counties were affected by the wider national context, including what local effects were caused by greater disputes among magnates. King’s bench records provide the main pool of evidence used in this section. Third, the chapter considers the effect of Anglo-Scottish war and truce on patterns of conflict and litigation in order to continue to address the question of whether the military aspect of the frontier had the effect of making the marches more prone to conflict, especially violent conflict, than elsewhere. This will be done with the king’s bench data and the gaol delivery data separately, and here the gaol delivery evidence will be more fully discussed. Fourth, the chapter will assess, where possible, the level and nature of violence. Finally, it will consider the role of the border liberties in local conflict. In these final two sections the evidence from both king’s bench and gaol delivery will be employed. Further supplementary evidence will be used throughout this chapter where relevant. Of course, where we are concerned with ‘violence’ it should be recalled that this is a broad heading under which can be grouped a number of aggressive actions involving the use of force, both against the person (including physical assault, rape, abduction, detention and killing) and against property (including plundering of goods and livestock and burning or destroying buildings, boundary-markers, crops or the like). Yet no objective measure of such behaviour exists; historians must rely upon the subjective accounts of those who bothered to record it; and it should be taken as read that legal records complicate analysis considerably. As will be noted below, cases begun with the general-purpose writs of trespass vi et armis are not treated on their own as encompassing genuine violence unless they feature more specific allegations. It should also be observed that, although they have not been excluded from the comprehensive figures enumerated in this chapter, those cases with specifically cross-border dimensions (which are more often to be found in gaol delivery than in king’s bench records) will be a focus of Chapter 8.
The concern of this chapter is some fundamental elements of the structure of local society in the marches. At the outset we highlighted the theoretical importance of kinship and lordship in conflict management, and now we return to these themes with the goal to address directly the vague generalisations that have been made concerning ‘the clannish loyalties of border society’, and which build on certain (and enduring) assumptions about the strength of kinship in the region and its correlation with weak governmental structures. By evaluating the importance of social relationships of lordship and kinship, the aim is to build the ground upon which to assess local conflict in the marches. More broadly, it is to explore how kinship was conceived and expressed at different social levels, beginning with landed society and then extending the analysis to encompass common inhabitants of the border shires. This discussion relies heavily for its source materials on court records, which will be introduced in the course of discussion below and more fully in a subsequent chapter.
Before proceeding any further with our analysis, this short chapter offers an overview of the landowners of the northern marches. By 1399, the greatest border lords were relative newcomers. Fourteenth-century warfare had eliminated the cross-border landownership which been prevalent in the thirteenth century and had led to an increasing level of seigneurial absenteeism. The Percy earls of Northumberland (created 1377, and who suffered forfeitures in 1405–16 and 1461–70) were the only magnates frequently resident in the far north-east. However, as great magnates, their other responsibilities meant they were seldom in the marches for long. The family had gained extensive lands in Northumberland during the fourteenth century (including the baronies of Alnwick, Warkworth, Beanley, Langley and Prudhoe, and the manors of Rothbury, Corbridge, Newburn, Thirston, Newham, Ellingham and Newstead). Their territories included the ‘Talbot Lands’ within northern Tynedale, which alone extended to nearly 6,000 acres. In Cumberland, they had also acquired Egremont and Cockermouth. The sons of the second earl of Northumberland maintained a family presence in the marches: Thomas (Lord Egremont from 1449) was active on the family’s Cumberland estates in the 1450s; Henry (Lord Poynings from 1446 and third earl from 1455) was warden of the east march and keeper of Berwick from 1440; Sir Ralph (d. 1464), was active in the 1450s and early 1460s as deputy and later constable of Dunstanburgh Castle.
This book has two main aims. Its subject is the far north in the fifteenth century, in a time period significant for the region in being much less well understood than either the preceding century (dominated by Anglo-Scottish warfare) or the following one (in which the so-called border reivers were so well documented by Tudor administrators and their Scottish counterparts). The first aim is to investigate the far north in light of its prevailing reputation as different from the rest of England: an alien, turbulent and exceptional ‘periphery’ distant from the realm’s heartland. The question to be pursued is how local society governed itself, in particular, how it sought to manage conflict, in the northern marches. The second aim is the more ambitious. While drawing local, national and international comparisons where relevant and helpful, it is to raise questions from this example about the geography of power and the nature of conflict in the English kingdom as a whole.
If the preceding chapter set out a conceptual apparatus with which to understand the northern marches, then this chapter examines two topics which have been salient in historical interpretations of the region. The first relates to the view of the far north as an ‘embattled frontier society’, defended by strings of garrisoned fortresses. It is this particular emblem of the supposed exceptional militarisation of the region, its towers and castles, which shall be investigated. The second topic concerns the landscape of the ‘northe parties’ and its corresponding patterns of human activity and settlement. In both popular and academic accounts, the far north is often a wild country, remote, mountainous, dominated by difficult hill farming and rugged hill tribes. Such interpretations are shaped in part by modern assumptions about human geography; they are also partly informed by the rhetorical efforts of medieval borderers themselves. Marchers crafted petitions and turns of phrase in their dealings with the hierarchy of the king’s government and with that of the church which (as should be no occasion for surprise) emphasised aspects of border life which played to their advantage and benefit. If what follows tends to offer an appraisal of existing work in a range of specialisms (including especially architectural and landscape history) more than a digestion of raw historical evidence, it does so seeking to engage the current historiography of the Anglo-Scottish marches with a view to provoking some critical debate and to opening up to scrutiny some of the prevailing assumptions about the exceptional character of this area. The argument to be advanced here is that the towers and castles of the marches should not be understood solely, or even primarily, as a symptom of war and a pressing need for security. The point will also be pursued that the landscapes of the medieval far north cannot be reduced in any satisfactory way to a single category of ‘upland’ terrain, and so the diversity of farming practices and corresponding patterns of human habitation in the region require more nuanced appreciation if they are to be understood meaningfully.
The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to address the concept of England’s far north as a frontier and to examine corresponding ideas about the spatial environment of the region. On the one hand, the problem is to address what this means for our historical understandings today; on the other, it demands also that we explore what this meant for the later middle ages. If militarisation is often understood to be a feature of medieval frontier societies generally, then it is a matter which we shall touch on only briefly here; the topic will be picked up again in subsequent chapters. To the forefront of the agenda now comes a scrutiny of the ideas we bring to the subject and an examination of the ways in which the medieval frontier could be ambivalent: both clear and ambiguous, and at once static and dynamic.
In Part III we direct our attention to the topic of conflict from a number of interrelated angles. In doing so, this part of the book proceeds as follows, beginning with examination of the administration of justice (this chapter), patterns of local conflict especially as documented in various court records (Chapter 7) and aspects of conflict specifically identifiable in a cross-border context (Chapter 8). Then, we shall explore more qualitative features of discord (Chapter 9) and concord (Chapter 10) in local disputes in the marches.
This chapter and the one that follows focus on accustomed practices of conflict management in the far north. We have already seen the simultaneous function and vibrancy of the systems of royal justice and border justice in the marches, and in the latter case observed how it emphasised immediacy of action as much as redress and reparation. Here the intention is to look specifically at the extent to which practice and usage in the course of conflict reflected a wider normative system of disputing other than that provided by the king’s law, a system that drew on a similar logic as did march law. In this way specific concern for the type of dispute known as ‘feud’ comes to the foreground of attention. As we have observed, feud, like raiding and kin-based social organisation, has been assumed to be an essential characteristic of a turbulent march society. The conceptual framework provided at the outset of this book comes into sharp focus here, and it will be helpful to summarise it briefly again: conflict is understood as an overarching category of social tension into which, among other phenomena, falls disputing. Conflict can also be viewed as a fundamental frame in which social relationships are created, tested and shattered, thus defining the very groups which participate in it. A specific dispute between parties can be pursued (or ‘processed’) using a variety of methods, and the episodes occurring in the course of a dispute draw deeper relationships of conflict to the surface. Once in the open, these relationships can be used, changed or put away again. Feud is a type of dispute which relies heavily on customary practices of conflict management. We have noted that attempts to construct and wield a general model of feud have proved difficult, and some historians have adopted a fruitful approach to the topic that starts with a working definition, and then looks for related ‘feud-like’ elements, such as words or processes. Taking that lead, the following assumptions about feud, derived from a wide scholarship on the subject, are offered for the purposes of this study. To put it one way, feud is a relationship of hostility between two groups, stemming from a desire to seek redress by vengeance for some perceived wrong and involving (at least) the threat of reciprocal violence. This hostility, however, also holds the potential to be transformed into a lasting, peaceful relationship.