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In this book, Ari Mermelstein examines the mutually-reinforcing relationship between power and emotion in ancient Judaism. Ancient Jewish writers in both Palestine and the diaspora contended that Jewish identity entails not simply allegiance to God and performance of the commandments but also the acquisition of specific emotional norms. These rules regarding feeling were both shaped by and responses to networks of power - God, the foreign empire, and other groups of Jews - which threatened Jews' sense of agency. According to these writers, emotional communities that felt Jewish would succeed in neutralizing the power wielded over them by others and, depending on the circumstances, restore their power to acculturate, maintain their Jewish identity, and achieve redemption. An important contribution to the history of emotions, this book argues that power relations are the basis for historical changes in emotion discourse.
Israel attracts enormous attention among scholars, journalists, politicians, and the general public. Some regard the country as an apartheid regime that can only be challenged through boycotts and sanctions. Others believe it is a stable liberal democracy, created under extreme conditions. This book seeks to unravel these conflicting interpretations by focusing on three questions: How can the Israeli regime be classified? What are the borders of the Israeli regime? And what are the key factors that shape the regime and support its relative stability? Gal Ariely calls for an approach which disaggregates democracy into specific dimensions, examining the diverse aspects of the Israeli regime to determine the level of 'democraticness' exhibited rather than classifying the regime as a whole. In doing so he provides a comprehensive account of the Israeli regime, untangling conflicting interpretations and illustrates the advantages of using this approach for analysing disputed regimes more widely.
We investigate, both analytically and numerically, dispersive fractalisation and quantisation of solutions to periodic linear and nonlinear Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou systems. When subject to periodic boundary conditions and discontinuous initial conditions, e.g., a step function, both the linearised and nonlinear continuum models for FPUT exhibit fractal solution profiles at irrational times (as determined by the coefficients and the length of the interval) and quantised profiles (piecewise constant or perturbations thereof) at rational times. We observe a similar effect in the linearised FPUT chain at times t where these models have validity, namely t = O(h−2), where h is proportional to the intermass spacing or, equivalently, the reciprocal of the number of masses. For nonlinear periodic FPUT systems, our numerical results suggest a somewhat similar behaviour in the presence of small nonlinearities, which disappears as the nonlinear force increases in magnitude. However, these phenomena are manifested on very long time intervals, posing a severe challenge for numerical integration as the number of masses increases. Even with the high-order splitting methods used here, our numerical investigations are limited to nonlinear FPUT chains with a smaller number of masses than would be needed to resolve this question unambiguously.
The debate over algorithmic decision-making has focused primarily on two things: legal accountability and bias. Legal accountability seeks to leverage the institutions of law and compliance to put guard rails around the use of artificial intelligence (AI). This literature insists that if a state is going to use an algorithm to evaluate teachers or if a bank is going to use AI to make loan application decisions, both should do so transparently, in accordance with fair procedure, and be subject to interrogation. Algorithmic fairness seeks to highlight the ways in which AI discriminates on the basis of race, gender, and ethnicity, among other protected characteristics. This literature calls for making technologies that use AI, whether search engines or digital cameras, more inclusive by better training AI on diverse inputs and improving automated systems that have been shown to have a “disparate impact” on marginalized populations.
Operation based exercises represent simulation activities, which are of great importance for emergency preparedness, as they simulate real experiences in a guided manner. Whereas their primary purpose is to address the organizational emergency preparedness, little is known about the personal benefits of involved participants and whether these positive changes endure over time.
Immediate and medium term assessment of the effectiveness on individual preparedness and benefits of participants, based on self-perception, after participating in a set of 4 interdisciplinary field exercises organized as part of the MSc in Global Health-Disaster Medicine of the Medical School of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The field exercises were carried out yearly, from 2016 to 2019. Data were collected via questionnaires pre- and post-exercise (1 week and 10 months after participation). The sample size was 228 trainees, with a response rate of 88%.
The majority (95%) stated that Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) exercises are appropriate for disaster management training in terms of comprehending theory, and for team-building training. In the case of a real MCI, 22% of the participants declared themselves to be ready to respond prior to MCI exercises. Upon completion, the overall perception of readiness among the participants increased to 77%. Trainee feedback indicated enhancement of both technical and non-technical skills (87%), which were persistent over time, and revealed a high level of satisfaction with the training.
This study shows a positive immediate and medium-term impact of operation-based exercises on technical, non-technical skills, and self-perception of participants.
To determine the association between food insecurity and HIV infection with depression and anxiety among new tuberculosis (TB) patients.
Our cross-sectional study assessed depression, anxiety and food insecurity with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Zung Anxiety Self-Assessment Scale (ZUNG) and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, respectively. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine correlates of depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and anxiety (ZUNG ≥ 36).
Patients who were newly diagnosed with TB.
Between January and December 2019, we enrolled 180 TB patients from primary health clinics in Botswana. Overall, 99 (55·0 %) were HIV positive, 47 (26·1 %), 85 (47·2 %) and 69 (38·5 %) indicated depression, anxiety and moderate to severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, food insecurity was associated with a higher prevalence of depression (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2·30; 95 % CI 1·40, 3·78) and anxiety (aPR = 1·41; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·91). Prevalence of depression and anxiety was similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants. Estimates remained comparable when restricted to HIV-infected participants.
Mental disorders may be affected by food insecurity among new TB patients, regardless of HIV status.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction appears to have been geographically heterogeneous for some organismal groups. Southern Hemisphere K/Pg palynological records have shown lower extinction and faster recovery than in the Northern Hemisphere, but no comparable, well-constrained Southern Hemisphere macrofloras spanning this interval had been available. Here, macrofloral turnover patterns are addressed for the first time in the Southern Hemisphere, using more than 3500 dicot leaves from the latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) and the earliest Paleocene (Danian) of Argentine Patagonia. A maximum ca. 90% macrofloral extinction and ca. 45% drop in rarefied species richness is estimated across the K/Pg, consistent with substantial species-level extinction and previously observed extirpation of host-specialized leaf mines. However, prior palynological and taxonomic studies indicate low turnover of higher taxa and persistence of general floral composition in the same sections. High species extinction, decreased species richness, and homogeneous Danian macrofloras across time and facies resemble patterns often observed in North America, but there are several notable differences. When compared with boundary-spanning macrofloras at similar absolute paleolatitudes (ca. 50°S or 50°N) from the Williston Basin (WB) in the Dakotas, both Maastrichtian and Danian Patagonian species richnesses are higher, extending a history of elevated South American diversity into the Maastrichtian. Despite high species turnover, our analyses also reveal continuity and expansion of leaf morphospace, including an increase in lobed and toothed species unlike the Danian WB. Thus, both Patagonian and WB K/Pg macrofloras support a significant extinction event, but they may also reflect geographically heterogeneous diversity, extinction, and recovery patterns warranting future study.
In this article we consider the ergodic risk-sensitive control problem for a large class of multidimensional controlled diffusions on the whole space. We study the minimization and maximization problems under either a blanket stability hypothesis, or a near-monotone assumption on the running cost. We establish the convergence of the policy improvement algorithm for these models. We also present a more general result concerning the region of attraction of the equilibrium of the algorithm.
Within the political-economy of the social sciences, Area Studies (AS) is supposed to supply contextually-informed knowledge on (non-Western) areas to the other social sciences, in exchange for theory to guide further empirical investigations. Based on this assumption, there are regular calls for greater engagement with AS to counteract the shortcomings of International Relations’ (IR) knowledge-base on many areas, perspectives, and practices of the international. However, there has been little work empirically detailing knowledge-exchange practices between IR and AS, so it remains an open question if the relationship functions as an exchange of ‘international’ theory-for-‘area’ empirics. This paper provides a macro-sociological analysis of the practices of IR–AS knowledge-exchange. By focusing on citation practice, it moves beyond accounts that treat the two disciplines as ‘black boxes’, to trace which parts of the ‘dividing discipline’ of IR are active in exchanging knowledge with which ‘area’ scholarships. Hence, it asks: Are there ‘area’ blindspots in IR's knowledge-production? And, what type of IR theory is exported to AS? This analysis informs an assessment of whether AS represents a significant resource for IR in its efforts to, one, better inform its knowledge-production about ‘other’ areas of the international, and two, assert its disciplinary-relevance within the academy.
Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and severe tetralogy of Fallot require a palliative procedure for pulmonary artery rehabilitation. For first-stage palliation, two main surgical options are still debated: right ventricle to pulmonary artery connection and modified Blalock–Taussig shunt. We compared the clinical outcomes of the two procedures.
From 1995 to 2018, 88 patients needed palliation (pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect n = 47; tetralogy of Fallot n = 41). Among these patients, 70 modified Blalock–Taussig shunt and 18 transannular path augmentation were performed before 6 months of age. Using a 1:1 propensity score match analysis, 20 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and pulmonary artery growth.
After matching, the pre-operative Nakata was smaller in transannular path augmentation 54 ± 24 mm2/m2 than modified Blalock–Taussig shunt 109 ± 31 mm2/m2 (p < 0.001). The age and weight were similar (p = 0.31 and p = 0.9, respectively). There was no difference in in-hospital mortality (p = 0.3). The Nakata index before biventricular repair and delta Nakata were smaller in modified Blalock–Taussig shunt group (206 ± 80 mm2/m2, 75 ± 103 mm2/m2) than transannular path augmentation (365 ± 170 mm2/m2, 214 ± 165 mm2/m2; p = 0.03; p < 0.001). Median time to biventricular repair was similar (p = 0.46). The rate of interstage reintervention was similar (p = 0.63).
The transannular path augmentation is better for the rehabilitation of the native pulmonary artery. Despite a smaller pulmonary artery, right ventricle to pulmonary artery connection is equivalent to modified Blalock–Taussig shunt for rate of biventricular repair and time to biventricular repair.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Resistance to antipsychotic treatment affects up to 30% of patients with schizophrenia. Although the time course of development of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) varies from patient to patient, the reasons for these variations remain unknown. Growing evidence suggests brain dysconnectivity as a significant feature of schizophrenia. In this study, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) of brain white matter between TRS and non–treatment-resistant schizophrenia (non-TRS) patients. Our central hypothesis was that TRS is associated with reduced FA values.
TRS was defined as the persistence of moderate to severe symptoms after adequate treatment with at least two antipsychotics from different classes. Diffusion-tensor brain MRI obtained images from 34 TRS participants and 51 non-TRS. Whole-brain analysis of FA and axial, radial, and mean diffusivity were performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and FMRIB’s Software Library (FSL), yielding a contrast between TRS and non-TRS patients, corrected for multiple comparisons using family-wise error (FWE) < 0.05.
We found a significant reduction in FA in the splenium of corpus callosum (CC) in TRS when compared to non-TRS. The antipsychotic dose did not relate to the splenium CC.
Our results suggest that the focal abnormality of CC may be a potential biomarker of TRS.
The 2016 presidential contest is widely considered as the first “social media election” in the Philippines. At the same time, it remains unclear if or how social media helped Rodrigo Duterte mobilize voters to gain victory. There are three main social media campaigning models: broadcast, grassroots, and self-actualizing. Analysis of twenty million activities and 39,942 randomly sampled comments across the official Facebook pages of key presidential candidates supports the grassroots model as Duterte's profile was the most engaged, even if Duterte himself was not actively engaged. Such inconsistencies raise the prospect that Duterte's online prominance was fabricated by paid trolls and fake accounts. Instead, our analysis suggests that Duterte's digital fanbase was, at least in part, a reflection of offline, grassroots political support. In particular, data from an original survey of 621 respondents suggests that Duterte supporters were not only aggressive in their support for Duterte online, they were also more committed to him offline as well. These findings add to a growing literature on social media and politics that seeks to understand the broader ecosystem of online political discourse, rather than focusing on the actions and strategies of political campaigns. They also underscore the fine line between fabricated support and genuine political fervor.