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Interaction between high-intensity lasers with solid targets is the key process in a wide range of novel laser-based particle accelerator schemes, as well as electromagnetic radiation sources. Common to all the processes is the generation of femtosecond pulses of relativistic electrons emitted from the targets as forerunners of the later-time principal products of the interaction scheme. In this paper, some diagnostics employed in laser–solid matter interaction experiments related to electrons, protons, ions, electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) and X-rays are reviewed. Then, we present our experimental study regarding fast electrons and EMPs utilizing a femtosecond-resolution detector previously adopted only in accelerator facilities.
Doubt over the trustworthiness of published empirical results is not unwarranted and is often a result of statistical mis-specification: invalid probabilistic assumptions imposed on data. Now in its second edition, this bestselling textbook offers a comprehensive course in empirical research methods, teaching the probabilistic and statistical foundations that enable the specification and validation of statistical models, providing the basis for an informed implementation of statistical procedure to secure the trustworthiness of evidence. Each chapter has been thoroughly updated, accounting for developments in the field and the author's own research. The comprehensive scope of the textbook has been expanded by the addition of a new chapter on the Linear Regression and related statistical models. This new edition is now more accessible to students of disciplines beyond economics and includes more pedagogical features, with an increased number of examples as well as review questions and exercises at the end of each chapter.
This article presents a theory of social protection expansion in late-developing open economies based on actors’ perceptions of complementarity. Drawing on recent theories of institutional change and political economic theories of welfare regimes, the article explains why in late-developing open economies, processes of liberalization often result in social welfare expansion. The explanation is based on the existence of institutional complementarity between the production regime and the social welfare regime. The article offers an agent-based theory of change according to which actors – state or market actors – are likely to promote welfare expansion amid their expectations of higher payoffs and/or improved performance of the liberalized economy. This theory challenges the more conventional Power Resource Theory, according to which welfare regimes are shaped primarily by the balance of power between workers and employers. To test the theory, the article analyzes the enactment of the unemployment insurance law in Israel (1972).
Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) in infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study examined associations between SSB intakes at ages 18 months and 5 years with adiposity measures at age 6 years. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at ages 18 months (n=555) and 5 years (n=767). The median (interquartile range) for SSB intakes is 28(5.5-98) ml at age 18 months and 111 (57-198) ml at age 5 years. Associations between SSB intakes (100 ml/day increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (s.d. unit), sum of skinfolds (SSFs)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intakes at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intakes when modelled as 100ml/day increments were associated with higher BMI by 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.16) s.d. unit, higher SSF thickness by 0.68 (0.06, 1.44) mm, and increased risk for overweight/obesity by 1.2 times (1.07, 1.23) at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intakes modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and risk for overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programs targeted at young children.
A simple and facile stereolithography 3D printing technique was utilized to fabricate piezoelectric photopolymer-based polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blends. Different process variables, such as solvent (N,N-dimethylformamide, DMF) to PVDF ratio and PVDF solution to photopolymer resin (PR) ratio, were engineered to enhance the dispersion of the PVDF into the PR so as to achieve the maximum piezoelectric coupling coefficient. Our results demonstrate that a ratio of 1:10 (PVDF:DMF) and 2 wt%-PVDF/PR was optimal for the best dissolution of the PVDF, 3D printability, and piezoelectric properties. Under these conditions, the blend generated ±0.121 nA under 80 N dynamic loading excitation. We believe that the findings of this work would promote many further studies on the mass production of flexible piezoelectric polymer blends with higher quality finished surface and design flexibility.
Lawyers are essential players in the multilateral trading system.2 In this chapter, we focus on one particular type of lawyer whose presence in the system has become increasingly prominent over the last sixty years – lawyers working in and for the Secretariats of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
To investigate the association between dietary patterns (DP) and overweight risk in the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Surveys (MANS) of 2003 and 2014.
DP were derived from the MANS FFQ using principal component analysis. The cross-sectional association of the derived DP with prevalence of overweight was analysed.
Nationally representative sample of Malaysian adults from MANS (2003, n 6928; 2014, n 3000).
Three major DP were identified for both years. These were ‘Traditional’ (fish, eggs, local cakes), ‘Western’ (fast foods, meat, carbonated beverages) and ‘Mixed’ (ready-to-eat cereals, bread, vegetables). A fourth DP was generated in 2003, ‘Flatbread & Beverages’ (flatbread, creamer, malted beverages), and 2014, ‘Noodles & Meat’ (noodles, meat, eggs). These DP accounted for 25·6 and 26·6 % of DP variations in 2003 and 2014, respectively. For both years, Traditional DP was significantly associated with rural households, lower income, men and Malay ethnicity, while Western DP was associated with younger age and higher income. Mixed DP was positively associated with women and higher income. None of the DP showed positive association with overweight risk, except for reduced adjusted odds of overweight with adherence to Traditional DP in 2003.
Overweight could not be attributed to adherence to a single dietary pattern among Malaysian adults. This may be due to the constantly morphing dietary landscape in Malaysia, especially in urban areas, given the ease of availability and relative affordability of multi-ethnic and international foods. Timely surveys are recommended to monitor implications of these changes.
Ubisoft's Assassin's Creed series is one the entertainment industry's most popular titles set in the past. With a new game released on an annual basis—each full of distinct historical places, events, and people—the series has unfolded across post-classical history, from the Levant during the Third Crusade to Victorian-era London. The 2017 release of Assassin's Creed: Origins, which entailed a massive reconstruction of Hellenistic Egypt, pushed the series even further back in time. With it, Ubisoft also launched its Discovery Tour, allowing players to explore the game's setting at their leisure and without combat. These trends continued in 2018's Assassin's Creed: Odyssey, set in Greece during the Peloponnesian War. This review discusses the narrative, world, and gameplay of the latest Assassin's Creed within the series more broadly. We provide a critical appraisal of the experience that Odyssey offers and link it to this question: in the Assassin's Creed series, do we engage in meaningful play with the past, or are we simply assassinating our way through history?
To examine the impact of a community culinary coaching programme (CCCP) on cafeteria food alignment with a freshly prepared Mediterranean-style diet, and diners’ consumption habits and satisfaction.
A non-randomized, controlled, community-based participatory research programme. CCCP included eight 90 min coaching sessions with a community steering committee, 22 h of kitchen staff training, 12 h of pre-school staff training and 30 h of education for diners; control communities received no intervention. Outcomes, measured before and 12 months after programme initiation, included cafeteria food alignment with a freshly prepared Mediterranean-style diet through a food items list derived from the cafeteria food purchasing software, and adult diners’ consumption habits and satisfaction through questionnaires.
Communal cafeterias of rural kibbutzim.
Intervention: kibbutz with 493 adults and 214 children. Control: Two kibbutzim with a total of 487 adults and 206 children.
Intervention cafeteria food improved significantly in all Mediterranean index categories except nuts (legumes, wholegrain products, fish, MUFA/SFA P < 0·0001; fruits, vegetables P < 0·001; processed meats P = 0·004), and in the proportion of ultra-processed and unprocessed or minimally processed foods categories of the NOVA classification (−22 %, P < 0·001 and +7 %, P < 0·001, respectively), compared with the control community. The intervention group’s satisfaction was significantly improved in twenty-five (83 %) out of the thirty satisfaction items, compared with twelve (40 %) in the control group. No changes were identified in diners’ consumption habits in either intervention or control communities.
CCCP might be useful in improving alignment of cafeteria food with a freshly prepared Mediterranean-style diet.
We present a unique case where a young man developed subtle cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) due to underlying hypercoagulable state. He also had coexisting frontal lobe brain dural arteriovenous fistula (bdAVF). After CST developed, venous drainage from the optic nerve was redirected into the frontal lobe which was already under high venous pressure because of preexisting bdAVF. This caused backflow of venous blood into the optic nerve causing massive persistent optic nerve head swelling. Presumed acute venous hypertension event within bdAVF caused frontal mass effect presenting as seizure leading to thrombosis of bdAVF.
The electricity sector is in the midst of a structural change driven by new technologies. In Brazil, the electricity sector regulation has mechanisms to foster innovation, including investments in R&D. Recently, the regulatory agency and the industry have been calling for approaches to increase the rate at which R&D departments generate solutions that end up being adopted. As a result, novel approaches to R&D project management have entered the agenda. In this context, the objective of this paper is to characterise Agile Product Development and its application in a highly regulated sector. The paper presents a systematic literature review with the debates about Agile and new product development. Then, a case study exploring an early adoption of the Agile approach in R&D project management in the Brazilian electricity sector is presented. Results include the identification of the Agile features most frequently mentioned in the literature. Moreover, the case study explores the Agile features that were more easily absorbed in early adoption, such as iterative patterns, and discusses implementation challenges in team structure, feedback loops, and communication.
We report on the structural evolution of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films by the nanosecond pulsed laser annealing process. DLC film is coated on cemented carbide (WC-Co) by cathodic arc ion plating, which is then annealed by ArF laser (193 nm, 20 ns) at different laser fluences (0.9–1.7 J/cm2). Upon laser annealing, Raman spectra divulge higher sp3 fractions accompanied by a blue shift in the G-peak position, which indicates the changes of sp2 sites from rings to chains. At higher fluence (>1.2 J/cm2), the film converts into reduced graphene oxide confirmed by its Raman-active vibrational modes: D, G, and 2D.
Male factor infertility is a contributory factor for approximately 50% of couples that present seeking investigation and treatment for infertility, either in isolation (25%) or in combination with a female factor (25%) . Therefore an accurate and complete investigation of the male partner is essential in assessing all couples with infertility. A significant number of male factors are either reversible or amenable to treatment provided that an accurate assessment and diagnosis is made.
The pervasive influence of human agency on biodiversity in the Anthropocene gives rise to several new challenges for national and international wildlife law, including questions regarding what is natural and what is alien. Ultimately, a new vision and new rules are called for but in the meantime wildlife lawyers and other conservation professionals must work with conventional legal frameworks. Striking instances where vexing issues arise are the recent range expansions of certain canids. Coyotes Canis latrans and crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous in the Americas and golden jackals Canis aureus in Europe are progressively colonizing areas and countries where they did not previously occur. A key question is whether to consider this as acceptable extensions of natural range or whether the pioneering carnivores should be viewed as alien species, potentially triggering legal obligations of prevention, control and eradication. In addressing this question we draw on guidance provided under the Convention on Biological Diversity and other international legal frameworks, in which governments are forced to grapple with the application of long-standing concepts to new phenomena in an era of profound global change. Our analysis suggests that coyotes in Costa Rica, crab-eating foxes in Panama, and golden jackals in the Netherlands are not to be considered alien species, whether invasive or not. Thus, even if action to address adverse impacts by these canids on native biodiversity may sometimes be desirable, these species are not subject to legal requirements to combat invasive alien species.
Nonconsensual pornography, commonly known as “revenge porn,” is the dissemination of another’s sexually explicit images or videos without their consent. This article explores this phenomenon in gay and bisexual male online communities. The first part reviews the current sociological and legal literature on online dating, gay culture on the Internet, and revenge porn. Then, based on a survey of gay and bisexual male dating app users, ethnographic interviews, and an analysis of platform content moderation policies, the next part makes three related points. First, it shows that gay and bisexual men who use geosocial dating apps are more frequently victims of revenge porn than both the general population and the broader lesbian, gay, and bisexual community. Second, it shows that geosocial dating apps create powerful norms of disclosure that make sharing personal information all but required. And third, it describes how gay and bisexual male users engage in privacy navigation techniques with the goal of building trust and enhancing safety. The final substantive section then shows how inadequate protections for online privacy and inadequate legal incentives for safe platform design contribute to the problem of revenge porn. The article concludes with a summary and avenues for future research.