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A crucial target in the printed electronics technologies is to realize all-printed thin-film transistors (TFTs), as being applicable to the industry. Here, the authors report printed polymer TFTs through the integration of the SuPR-NaP technique, a promising way for manufacturing ultrafine printed silver electrodes, with printed polymer semiconductor layers. The authors used a class of donor–acceptor-type copolymer, PDVT-10, and found that the devices exhibit excellent TFT characteristics. The devices allow the transfer length method measurements with high accuracy, where the estimated contact resistance is considerably small (4.7 kΩ cm) among the bottom-contact TFTs using printed silver electrodes, with also showing short-channel effects.
This chapter critically examines the development of the Japanese adult guardianship system. It identifies the inadequacies of the previous system and points out the distinctive features of the new system, principally the addition of advisorship and the incorporation of the continuing power of attorney system. It is argued that the Japanese system does not comply with the demands of the greying society: the appointment of guardians accounts for an overwhelming share of cases, the use of continuing power of attorney is virtually stagnant and the system centres on asset management, with inadequate functions for support in daily life and ability to help oneself. In light of international developments in this field, it encourages the adaptation of a human rights perspective rather than the traditional healthcare policy perspective and further proposes that a combination of trust and adult guardianship system would be beneficial to society; the assets of the person concerned could be managed by the trust system and the livelihoods of the persons could be managed by the continuing power of attorney system, which better respects self-determination.
This article will explore the travaux préparatoires of the key legal instruments on the laws of war and international humanitarian law (IHL) with a view to obtaining crucial insight into the ‘original’ understandings of their drafters as to the provisional nature and the temporal length of occupation. The findings of the travaux show the general premise of the framers of the ‘classic’ instruments on the laws of war that the legal regime of occupation should be provisional. In the concurrent doctrinal discourses this premise was endorsed by most scholars. Examination of the records of the negotiations on the drafting of the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 reveals that even the proponents of ‘transformative occupation’ did not seem to envisage occupation that would endure for decades. Nevertheless, by the time the 1977 Additional Protocol I was drafted, several instances of protracted occupation already existed, which seems to have led to a decisive shift in the argumentative structure. There is no disputing the applicability of IHL to any occupied territory, irrespective of the length of the occupation. Yet the suggestion that nothing under IHL would forestall an occupying power from engaging in protracted occupation departs from the traditional premise that occupation ought to be provisional. This also seems to be paradoxical in historical perspectives.
The Disaster Psychiatric Assistant Team (DPAT) is Japan’s original mental health care dispatched team during disasters. Established in 2013, this team has been involved in the response to many disaster-related mental issues.
We Aimed to evaluate the DPAT activity in response to the past 4 disasters (Ontake volcano, Hiroshima flood, Joso flood, and Kumamoto earthquake), using the disaster mental health information support system (DMHISS).
DMHISS data from the four disasters was extracted. Descriptive statistics were performed from the obtained dataset and the characteristics of the disaster victims from each disaster were compared and examined.
About 2,400 cases were obtained and tabulated to from the database. Based on descriptive statistics, the DPAT support objectives, activities and activity periods Aim to establish (1) the characteristics of the affected areas (population composition, psychiatric medical condition), (2) the scale and content of the disaster (the injured, building damage, number of evacuees), and (3) the activity ability. The number of counseling cases peaked several days after the disaster onset, and the importance of the DPAT activity during the acute phase was confirmed. The time course of the consultation number, which is a measure of the termination, could be predicted from the disaster scale and content. These results suggest that DPAT activity may be a guideline for local disasters for one month and for wide-reaching disasters for two months or longer.
It is suggested that the timing of activity and the termination period could be estimated from factors including the type of disaster, the size of the disaster, and the number of evacuees using the disaster mental health medical activities from four disasters. It should be considered necessary to accumulate data and examine indicators related to the DPAT activity.
Spectrographic analysis of light elements by soft and ultrasoft fluorescent x-rays has become a useful technique for many applications of elemental analysis, using single crystals, soap multilayers and a combination of total reflection and filtering.
Instead of the wavelength dispersive method based on Bragg reflection which provides high resolution combined with low reflecting intensity, monochromatization combining total reflection by a selected mirror and an appropriate filter offered an alternative approach in order to increase measurable intensity with reasonable spectral resolution.
Recently, the use of synthetic multilayers, which are prepared by sputter/evaporation techniques, has been introduced for the detection of soft and ultrasoft x-rays. Studies on the use of these new wavelength dispersing devices have been conducted and it has been found that the reflectivity of these devices is very high compared with single crystals and soap multilayers and that their resolving power is fairly good.
Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) has been applied to the detection and quantification of metal contamination on the surface and near-surface regions of silicon wafers in the semiconductor industry The need for improving the sensitivity and detection limit of the TXRF technique is driven by the progress in producing thinner films and finer features in the development of larger Mbit DRAMS.
The fundamental parameter method for quantitative analysis of composite elements has been a powerful technique for x-ray spectrochemical analysis in which the x-ray intensity and spectral distribution from x-ray spectrographic tubes are the moste ssential factors in the calculating process based on x- ray physics.
The developments in the analysis of low atomic number elements or the measurements of soft and ultrasoft X-rays have been carried out. Using this technology, a measuring method for thinner layered materials has been developed recently. This type of analysis requires a high excitation and wavelength dispersive devices with high reflectivity.
On the other side, the film technologies related to electronic and optical devices in the field of semiconductor industry have made a remarkable progress. A variety of layered material thickness in the multilayered structure of LSI is in the range of 100Å and 2μm. It is too thick to be measured by electron methods and too thin to be measured by a regular X-ray method using the X-ray wavelength of 0.2-3Å. Accordingly, it is generally said that the soft and ultrasoft X-ray method should be applied to measure the thickness and composition of layered materials on silicon wafers.
This article describes the instrumentation for a total reflection fluorescent x-ray spectrometer. The reflecting intensity and the angular divergence were studied with respect to various kinds of monochromators. Using silicon wafers, the angular divergence effect of the incident beam, surface roughness influences and the smoothing of background x-ray intensity for the improvement of the lower limit of detection were investigated.
In the speetrographie analysis of composite elements by fluorescent x-rays, significant developments have been made in low atomic number element measurement and improvement of analytical performance in trace element measurements.
For the analysis of trace elements, background intensity governs analytical accuracies and the lowest detection limit in a sample.
The development of X-ray spectrographic analysis of light elements, which are O, C and B, has bee n performed for many applications using an end-window type X-ray tube with Rh-target and thin Be-window, wavelength dispersing devices, which are synthetic multilayers or total reflection mirror (with a specific filter) and a gas flow proportional counter with a thin film window. In Fig. 1 factors related to the intensity measurements in X-ray fluorescence analysis are shown. The excitation efficiency in the soft and ultrasoft X-ray region is very low because of the lower intensity of primary X-rays and low fluorescence yield of light elements. Instead of the wavelength dispersive method of Bragg reflection, having high resolution and low reflectivity, monochromatization combining total reflection by a selected mirror and an appropriate filter offered an alternate approach in order to increase measured intensity with reasonable optical resolution. Synthetic multilayers which have higher resolution and lower intensity compared with the performance of the mirror method have become popular for the detection of soft and ultrasoft X-ray region.
Advancements in trace clement analysis require improvements in both the signal-to-noise ratio and accurate background correction. With a sequential spectrometer, one can obtain detection limits of around 0.1 ppm for medium to heavy Z elements. Conditions can be individually optimized for each element, for example, selection of filters, collimators, crystals and background subtraction. The disadvantage is that the analysis time may become “long” if many elements are to be analyzed. This long exposure time can lead to the deterioration of some samples.
Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis of “low Z” elements, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and “high Z” elements, Zr, W, Au, Pb, are required for micro scale semiconductor device production processes. In the past, the W–Lβ X-rays have been used for the analysis of S to Zn.
This paper describes a new three crystal monochromator coupled with a gold direct-drive rotating anode target. This development has produced significant improvements in the sensitivities and LLD's for all measured elements. The monochromator makes the Au Lα (9.71 keV), Au Lβ (11.44 keV) and Au Lγ (13.33 keV) available for routine use in TXRF analyses. The Au Lα X-ray is best used for the lower Z elements, Na to Cu. The best result for W, Cu and Zn are obtained with the Au Lβ X-ray. This is the result of both increased peak intensity and lower background. For the heavier elements, such as Au and Pb, the Au L X-ray yields intensities 100 times higher than what has been achieved in the past.
Coating weight measurements by X-ray fluorescence analysis have been well established technology in industrial applications. The coating film measurements such as tin-plated steel and galvanized steel are carried out with an on-line gauge which is based on laboratory experiments. The approximate sample speed is 200m/min for a tin plate gauge, 150m/min for galvanized steel and 100m/min for electrolytic zinc coating steel.
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been used in a broad spectrum of applications. These include elemental analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, based on wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) or energy dispersive (EDXRF) methods. In these methods the detection limit of analyte elements is mainly in the one to ten ppm range in solid samples. Therefore, improvement of these limits is desirable for many useful applications. In this context it is essential to remember that the excitation efficiency for fluorescent X-rays is very low when compared with electron or proton excitation. In the case of WDXRF, the dominant factor is the low reflectivity from the analyzing crystal.
Over the past few years there has been substantial progress in the TXRF analysis of heavy element surface contamination on silicon wafers. Further advances and improvements are desired in the analytical performance and hardware. Extension of the analytical range to include the light elements is particularly desirable.
In the case of light element analysis, sodium and aluminum impurities have been monitored in the IC production process. The increase of the sodium impurity in a silicon wafer gives rise to a decrease in the insulation in IC devices and the growth of the SiO2 film is disturbed by the prsence of aluminum impurity on the silicon wafer surface.
Many light and ultra-light element analysis problems have been addressed by X-ray fluorescence. Recent innovative features of X-ray spectrometers have extended the applicability of X-ray fluorescence to ultra-light element analysis. Sensitivities have improved through the use of a newly developed end window X-ray tube. Selection of analyzing optics conditions optimize to some degree the sensitivity/resolution/intensity problems. Instrument stability is greatly improved by simply monitoring and controlling the vacuum within the analyzing chamber. Data are presented to illustrate the effects of these novel instrument components as well as describing several new application techniques for ultra-light element analysis.
The principles and techniques for performing coating thickness measurements in the laboratory and on-line using nuclear radiation have been established for tin or zinc coated steels. Recently, additional engineering efforts have been made toward the development of new coating substances consisting of complex layered materials. For example, zinc-iron alloy metal has higher corrosion resistance than pure zinc-coated steel sheets and evaluations have been made of beneficial characteristics in automobile production processes, such as easy welding, good paintability, high efficiency for press plastics forming, etc.
The fundamental parameter method for x-ray spectrometry has been used most commonly for bulk samples, because it permits an analysis utilizing a minimum number of standards, even for samples with complicated matrices. The need for the analysis of thin film materials, which includes multi-layer films, has been increasing in recent years along with the rapid progress of high technologies. However, there have been few reports that deal with the application of fundamental parameter methods to multi-layer thin films. There may be two situations in the analysis of thin films. In routine analysis of quality control applications, they usually require precise analysis. Fortunately, it is possible to prepare well characterized standards similar to the unknowns.