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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
The literature on suicidal behaviour among immigrants is scarce and little has been written from a comparative perspective.
The aim was to investigate whether suicide attempts are more common among immigrants than among their hosts, to map the differences between different immigrant groupings, and to analyse whether suicidal behaviours among immigrants and the populations of their countries of origin are related.
Data on suicide attempts (27,000 person-cases) originated from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour. Suicide attempt rates were calculated for each group. The immigrant groups were compared at each Center and across Centers. The completed-suicide rates of the home countries were compared to attempted-suicide rates in the immigrant groups using rank correlations.
Twenty-seven of the 56 immigrant groups showed significantly higher suicide attempt rates than their hosts. Also, they tended to have similar rates across different Centers. There was a significant correlation between the country-of-origin suicide rate and the immigrant-group suicide attempt rate among those born there. However, Chileans, Iranians, Moroccans and Turks displayed high suicide-attempt rates as immigrants despite low suicide rates in the home countries.
The similarity of the groups’ rates across Centers, and that of the suicidal behaviour in the countries of origin and among immigrants suggests strong continuity, which may be interpreted in cultural or genetic terms. The generally higher rates among immigrants in each Center and across Centers point to the influence of acculturative factors. Additional investigation into the specific characteristics of immigrant suicide attempters is needed.
Family environment has a clear role in suicidal behavior of adolescents. We assessed the relationship between parental bonding and suicidal behavior in suicidal (n = 53) and non-suicidal (n = 47) adolescent inpatients. Two dimensions of parental bonding: care and overprotection, were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results showed that adolescents with severe suicidal behavior tended to perceive their mothers as less caring and more overprotective compared to those with mild or no suicidal behavior. A discriminant analysis distinguished significantly between adolescents with high suicidality and those with low suicidality [χ2(5) = 15.54; p = 0.01] in 71% of the cases. The perception of the quality of maternal bonding may be an important correlate of suicidal behavior in adolescence and may guide therapeutic strategies and prevention.
A major hindrance to determining the underlying biology of suicide is the heterogeneity of the phenotype. Not only are there various forms of self-harm and suicidal behaviors but even the finite act of dying by suicide can occur in multiple psychosocial contexts. Of all the different forms of fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviors, the one that received the most attention is the aggressive impulsive type, which seems to occur in younger people and to cut across nosological entities, although its most classical expression occurs in borderline personality disorder. This focus should not obscure the fact that other forms of suicidal behavior such as those related to demoralization or wounded honor (narcissism) may well have different underlying genetic diatheses.
Both adolescent suicide and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are troubling phenomena with high comorbidity, including impulsivity, depression and personality disorders (PD). Studies on the association between these two phenomena are relatively rare. This pilot study's aim was to estimate the rate of ADHD in adolescents attempting suicide.
Subjects constituted consecutive admissions to the psychiatric emergency room (ER) who were admitted as a result of attempting suicide. Assessment included the use of the Kiddie-SADS, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Conners’ Rating Scale (CRS). Those diagnosed as suffering from ADHD were assessed by a standardized Continuous Performance Test (Test of Variables of Attention [TOVA]) that included methylphenidate (MPH) challenge. Twenty-three (23) adolescents completed the study. M:F ratio was 5:18, respectively.
Of the 23 participants who completed the study, 65% were diagnosed with ADHD, 43.5% with depression and 39% with cluster B PD. ADD/ADHD ratio was 66%:34%. Only five of the patients were formerly diagnosed as ADHD, only three had been medicated and 14 out of 15 adolescents responded well to MPH challenge.
These preliminary results suggest a significant association between ADHD and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Further study is needed to establish this association and assess the causality.
We assessed hemisphere function in right-handed male chronic schizophrenic patients using dichotic listening tests. We evaluated digit, tonic and transitional tests in patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n = 8), patients with disorganized schizophrenia (n = 8) and in control subjects (n = 8). The dichotic listening analysis discriminated between paranoid and disorganized schizophrenia. In disorganized schizophrenia, functional impairment of both hemispheres was demonstrated, while in paranoid schizophrenia dysfunction was more prominent in the right hemisphere. These results indicate the possible involvement of right hemisphere dysfunction in the pathophysiology of chronic paranoid schizophrenia, in contrast to dysfunction of both hemispheres in chronic disorganized schizophrenia.
Le trouble de personnalité borderline (TPB) se caractérise notamment par des troubles de régulation des émotions en lien avec des troubles de l’attachement. Ces troubles entravent en eux-mêmes l’établissement de relations nouvelles et entretiennent les difficultés de régulation et d’attachement perpétuant ainsi le développement psychopathologique. Lors de l’avènement de la parentalité, la relation contrainte et le bouleversement inhérent à la venue d’un enfant sont susceptibles d’entraîner des distorsions interactives initiées par les parents atteints de psychopathologie borderline, contraignant ainsi le développement émotionnel du tout-petit. La micro-analyse des interactions lors d’une épreuve dite du Still-Face montre que les mères atteintes de TPB et leur bébé de 3 mois sont engagés dans des comportements qui combinent paradoxalement, une pauvreté de variation dans les interactions ainsi qu’un excès de comportements stimulants et intrusifs. L’effort de régulation et la dysrégulation du bébé sont visibles au travers de comportements de dyscoordination des regards, à la modification négative et dysrythmique des vocalisations et de la prosodie et à l’absence de modulation des temps dits de « réparation » lorsque qu’il existe des moments de rupture de la communication. Les résultats d’une étude longitudinale (n = 60) montrent que les déterminants micro-analytiques à l’âge de trois mois des prémices de l’attachement désorganisé concernent avant tout la dynamique interactive plus que la quantité d’un comportement spécifique. Ce serait la mise en place d’un accordage à « sens unique » qui malgré la motivation maternelle d’interagir avec le bébé induirait des exigences au-delà des capacités développementales de celui-ci. L’attachement désorganisé constaté à l’âge de la marche traduirait la non-mise en place du développement des capacités de régulation du bébé. Reste à évaluer si les potentialités de réorganisation demeurent encore ouvertes à cette période précoce de la vie, invitant à découvrir des potentialités thérapeutiques encore balbutiantes à ce jour.
Calcium channel blockers increase the capacity of the urinary bladder. The antienuretic activity of verapamil was examined in young adult enuretics. Eleven drug-free, healthy, sleep-related enuretic males, were treated for two weeks with verapamil (240 mg, per os, at 9 pm). Verapamil failed to display an antienuretic effect.
To follow adolescent suicide attempters attending an emergency room in southern Israel through their induction examination for military service and then for the duration of this service.
117 attempters were evaluated after a suicide attempt, and then followed up for up to five years. Outcome was assessed by their achievements on pre-induction psychometric and psychological testing at the induction center and by the quality of their service. Repeated suicidal behavior was also assessed.
In general boys had a worse prognosis than girls and suicidal behavior associated with poor educational achievements was particularly associated with a poor psychosocial outcome.
Adolescent suicidal behavior in general has a good prognosis but boys with educational difficulties who attempt suicide are at great risk for adjustment problems.
The study of near fatal suicide attempters may provide insight into the minds of persons who die by suicide. Such attempts are characterized by high suicide intent, together with high medical lethality. The ability to fully understand the specific psychological profiles associated with severe of suicide intent can provide insights for suicide prevention.
Objectives & aims
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship of suicide intent to lethality among medically serious suicide attempters. Our aim was to examine specific psychological variables related to the subjective and objective components within suicide intent.
102 suicide attempters belonged to one of two groups: 35 subjects who made medically serious suicide attempts were compared with 67 non- medically serious suicide attempters. All were interviewed and completed questionnaires covering mental pain, communication difficulties, and seriousness of the suicide intent.
The objective component of the suicide intent scale (SIS) was highly correlated the lethality, as well as to communication difficulties, such as self disclosure while the subjective component of the SIS was related to mental pain variables such as depression and hopelessness. A significant interaction between mental pain and communication difficulties was found to predict severity of the objective suicide intent.
The suicidal person whom suffers from depression and hopelessness and cannot signal his pain to others because of communication difficulties can be a risk for a serious suicide attempt - which is more planned, with more precautions against discovery and without communication before or during the attempts.
Adolescent suicide is a worldwide troubling phenomenon that has high comorbidity, including impulsivity, depression, and personality disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) includes attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Comorbidity includes depression and substance abuse, and has a higher rate in adolescents and adults. Studies considering the association between these phenomena are surprisingly rare. This pilot study estimated the percentage of ADHD in a population of adolescents who attempted suicide. Population included all adolescents (12-18 yrs.) who were brought to local ER after attempting suicide. Assessment included an interview according to the DSM-IV criteria, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire parents (SDQ-P) the Conners' Rating Scale parents (CRS-P), and Kiddie-SADS. Test Of Variables of Attention (TOVA) with methylphenidate (MPH) challenge was done after the clinical evaluation to those diagnosed as ADHD.
45 suicidal adolescents were registered in the ER and were assessed. 23 adolescents completed the assessment. Male: female ratio was 5:18 accordingly. The prominent diagnoses included ADHD (65%), depression (43%), cluster B personality disorders (35%), and Conduct Disorder (13%). ADD/ADHD ratio was 43/22 (66%:34%). Some suffered from more than 2 diagnoses and 1 had no diagnosis at all. 47.6% were diagnosed as hyperactive by SDQ-P, and 70% as ADHD by CRS-P. 14/15 (93%) were evaluated as ADHD by TOVA and most responded well to MPH. Five patients were diagnosed before the study as ADHD, but only three were medicated. These results, though primary, suggest a significant relationship between the two disorders and indicate a need to further study this correlation
The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) plays a major role in the synaptic accumulation and release of monoamines.
We assessed high affinity [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to platelet VMAT2, in a group of untreated male Tourette's syndrome (TS) patients (age: 8-17.5 years, n=9) and in a comparison group of age-and sex-matched healthy controls (age: 9-16 years, n=16).
Significantly decreased platelet VMAT2 density (Bmax) (-23%, P=0.016) was observed in the TS patients. The affinity (Kd) of the ligand to platelet VMAT2 was similar in both groups.
If the lower platelet VMAT2 density also occured in the brain, it may serve as an adaptive mechanism geared to decrease dopamine storage in the presynaptic neurons and thereby to diminish the dopaminergic overactivity and ameliorate the movement disorder.
Marked gender differences have been identified in cigarette smoking. In this study, we aimed to identify the gender-specific emotional and behavioral disorders among adolescent smokers and their consequent utilization of mental health services. We performed a nationwide survey study of an Israeli representative sample of 906 adolescents and their mothers. Mental disorders were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) Inventory. Levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties were evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Mental health services use and smoking habits were also assessed. Among non-smoker adolescents there were significant gender differences in almost all SDQ scales: emotional problems, pro-social, hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems, whereas in the smoker group there was a difference only in the SDQ emotional problems scale (both self- and maternal-rated, P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Only marginal difference was noted between males and females in help-seeking for emotional or behavioral problems. Over 50% of both male and female smokers in the study had untreated mental disorders (non-significant gender difference). The well-established gender differences in psychiatric symptomatology narrowed markedly in adolescent smokers; the typical gender difference in disruptive behaviors was lost in the adolescent smoking population. The implications of these findings are particularly relevant to developing more effective gender-specific programs to prevent youth smoking, to facilitate quitting and prepare primary care practitioners to identify mental disorders and behavioral problems in adolescents with a smoking history.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the utilization of mental health services by adolescent smokers, the presence of untreated mental disorders in this young population and the associated emotional and behavioral difficulties. We performed a nationwide survey study of an Israeli representative sample of 906 adolescents and their mothers. Mental disorders were assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) Inventory. Emotional and behavioral difficulties were evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Mental health services use and smoking habits were evaluated by relevant questionnaires. Adolescent smokers were using significantly more mental health services than non-smokers (79% vs. 63%, respectively, P < 0.001), independently of their mental health status or ethnic group. Adolescent smokers also reported more emotional and behavioral difficulties in most areas (P < 0.001), which are consistent with their mothers’ reports, except in the area of peer relationships. The treatment gap for the smoking adolescents was 53% compared to 69% in the non-smokers (P < 0.001). This is the first study characterizing the use of mental health services and the related emotional and behavioral difficulties in a nationally-representative sample of adolescents. The findings of a wide treatment gap and the rates of the associated emotional and behavioral difficulties are highly relevant to the psychiatric assessment and national treatment plans of adolescent smokers.
To characterize the perceptions of self, mother and family of prepubertal children and to determine if the perceptions of children with depression and their behavior towards their mothers are different from children with anxiety disorders and nonpsychiatric controls.
Children (aged 7–13 years) with major depressive disorder (n = 30), anxiety disorders (n = 37) and nonpsychiatric controls (n = 32) underwent structured psychiatric evaluations and completed questionnaires on their perceptions of themselves and their relations with their mothers and families. The child–mother dyad was observed during structured interactions.
Self-perceptions of depressed children were significantly more negative than those of children with anxiety and controls. Depression severity negatively correlated with the child's self-perception and positively correlated with perceptions of the mother as being more rejecting, controlling, less accepting and less allowing autonomy, and of the family as being less cohesive. Depression severity was also positively associated with the child's hostile attitude towards the mother during the interactions.
Our findings of greater negative perceptions of self, mother and family in depressed children compared to children with anxiety disorders and nonpsychiatric children suggest that approaches specifically addressing negative perceptions and targeting familial relationships could be especially effective for treating young children with depression.