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If I'm being honest I still feel as though I am a bit of an imposter in the world of art librarianship. I often feel as though I have a very conservative, corporate and conformist approach to librarianship within the art library environments in which I work. I also often feel naïve when it comes to discussing and affirming ‘what makes art librarianship different?’ Acknowledging such naivety, I will also openly admit that until last year I had not heard of ‘critical librarianship’ as a concept, let alone ‘critical (art) librarianship’, which is how I was introduced to it at a day-long conference held by colleagues from the University of the Arts London in 2018 at Chelsea College of Arts.
To assess trends of mortality attributable to child and maternal undernutrition (CMU), overweight/obesity and dietary risks of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2015.
For each risk factor, a systematic review of data was used to compute the exposure level and the effect size. A Bayesian hierarchical meta-regression analysis was used to estimate the exposure level of the risk factors by age, sex, geography and year. The burden of all-cause mortality attributable to CMU, fourteen dietary risk factors (eight diets, five nutrients and fibre intake) and overweight/obesity was estimated.
All age groups and both sexes.
In 2015, CMU, overweight/obesity and dietary risks of NCD accounted for 826204 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) 737346, 923789), 266768 (95 % UI 189051, 353096) and 558578 (95 % UI 453433, 680197) deaths, respectively, representing 10·3 % (95 % UI 9·1, 11·6 %), 3·3 % (95 % UI 2·4, 4·4 %) and 7·0 % (95 % UI 5·8, 8·3 %) of all-cause mortality. While the age-standardized proportion of all-cause mortality accounted for by CMU decreased by 55·2 % between 1990 and 2015 in SSA, it increased by 63·3 and 17·2 % for overweight/obesity and dietary risks of NCD, respectively.
The increasing burden of diet- and obesity-related diseases and the reduction of mortality attributable to CMU indicate that SSA is undergoing a rapid nutritional transition. To tackle the impact in SSA, interventions and international development agendas should also target dietary risks associated with NCD and overweight/obesity.
Multimorbidity is common but little is known about its relationship with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress Study participants underwent polysomnography. Chronic diseases (CDs) were determined by biomedical measurement (diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity), or self-report (depression, asthma, cardiovascular disease, arthritis). Associations between CD count, multimorbidity, apnea-hyponea index (AHI) and OSA severity and quality-of-life (QoL; mental & physical component scores), were determined using multinomial regression analyses, after adjustment for age.
Of the 743 men participating in the study, overall 58% had multimorbidity (2+ CDs), and 52% had OSA (11% severe). About 70% of those with multimorbidity had undiagnosed OSA. Multimorbidity was associated with AHI and undiagnosed OSA. Elevated CD count was associated with higher AHI value and increased OSA severity.
We demonstrate an independent association between the presence of OSA and multimorbidity in this representative sample of community-based men. This effect was strongest in men with moderate to severe OSA and three or more CDs, and appeared to produce a greater reduction in QoL when both conditions were present together.
Leo Appleton, Director of Library Services at Goldsmiths, University of London,
Karen Latimer, Chair of the Designing Libraries Advisory Board UK, a member of the LIBER Architecture Group and a former chair of the IFLA,
Pat Christie, Director of Libraries and Academic Support Services at University of the Arts London since 2012 and was chair of ARLIS/UK & Ireland from 2009 through 2011
Changing typologies in contemporary library design
The 21st century has been a challenging and exciting time in library building design. At the turn of the century there were doom-laden predictions that the physical library would cease to be important in the new electronic age as users would want everything delivered to their desktops at home or at work, and funders would be unwilling to invest in potentially redundant buildings. Instead, libraries embraced technology, shifting from largely collection-based spaces to more flexible ones that encouraged interactions and connections between library users and resources in all formats, between library users and each other, and between library users and library staff. Library design was ‘no longer largely governed by the storage and display of resources or by the need for spaceconsuming issue and service desks but rather by the needs of users. And the creation of exciting and attractive library space has been shown to bring people into the physical library to use virtual resources’ (Latimer, 2011, 126).
The challenge is to create attractive, functional library spaces that support new ways of learning and digital literacy and take advantage of technological advances. The classic library building that housed predominantly print collections so successfully for many centuries does not necessarily provide a model for today's library learning spaces. Many of the basic tenets still hold true, however. The quintessential purpose of the library as a gateway to knowledge and as a centre for resources and ideas remains the same, and the trend towards expanding that principle to include creating knowledge and making physical prototypes is, in fact, something that art libraries have long embraced. In his overview of library evolution Brian Edwards points out that ‘there was not much difference in the architectural arrangement between the Renaissance art gallery and that of the library’ (2009, 4). Although that difference is more marked today, exhibition space remains important in the modern library, especially if linked to the curriculum, and has been made more feasible through the freeing up of space as a result of compact and collaborative storage and through collection management through the digitization of resources.
The term ‘metaliteracy’ is still a relatively new concept since being introduced into the library and information science literature as a ‘framework that integrates emerging technologies and unifies multiple literacy types’ (Jacobsen and Mackey, 2011, 62). It is therefore still a fairly recent addition to the parlance surrounding library instruction and teaching and learning practice, which this chapter will attempt to expand on. In the first edition of this handbook, there was no corresponding chapter; instead, there was a comprehensive ‘teaching and learning’ section with chapters covering themes such as visual literacy (Gluibizzi, 2010), embedding information literacy (Mayer, 2010), and using image databases (Roberto and Robinson, 2010). The inclusion of such chapters suggests that as a profession we were still in the habit of regarding individual literacies and talking about them as a group of literacies. However, a later chapter discussed how multiple literacies are best served in the art and design library and how librarians need to accommodate how visual and kinaesthetic learners access, organize and use information (Wilson and McCarthy, 2010).
At the heart of metaliteracy in an art and design context is the acknowledgement that art and design students learn ‘differently’ and that subsequently, this difference needs to be considered when developing information literacy instruction. Writing in 2008, Halverson suggested that there ‘were few, if any, existing formulas in place to create information literacy programmes that adequately address the particular and idiosyncratic needs of arts students’ (2008, 34). While there has been much discussion and development within the area of information literacy for art and design students since 2008, there remains a need to acknowledge the ‘difference’ and to establish learning frameworks accordingly. Greer (2015) considers the notion of art itself within an information literacy context and in doing so reflects on the artistic practices of ‘creating meaning from personal experience; forging connections with larger concepts and cultural references; and encouraging the practice of self-reflection’ (84).
Within this information literacy context, metaliteracy models lend themselves to arts education and learning, but before expanding on this, it is first useful to identify which component parts go into such a model.
Colliding ring galaxies provide a remarkable testbed for the study of star formation in perturbed galaxies. In the process of passing through a disk system, a small perturbing galaxy generates a density wave of stars and gas which expands into the host disk. This triggers a wave of star formation. As the star forming wave passes through the host galaxy, progressively older burst populations may be found interior to the ring. As part of a multiwavelength study of ring galaxies, we have performed optical and infrared imaging using the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope. These images are used to explore the relation between stellar density wave amplitude and star formation rate. Color gradients are searched for which would indicate the presence of an aging burst population interior to the ring.
The existence of a massive dark component to the matter distribution of galaxies (the ‘missing mass’) is inferred from the now overwhelming evidence for flat rotation curves in galaxies. However observational data on the linear extent of such a dark component and its total mass contribution is usually restricted by the limited radial distance to which rotation curves of individual galaxies can be measured (typically < 100 kpc). The magnitude of the mass contained within a larger radius around a galaxy can in principal be inferred by studying the kinematics of small groups of galaxies and making assumptions about their dynamical stability (see Faber and Gallagher, 1979, for review). However, one of the major difficulties in such studies is the question of group membership. The inclusion of disrelated foreground or background galaxies into a dynamical calculation of mass obtained for example via the Virial Theorem, can lead to spurious results. The effects of varying membership criteria on the dynamical properties of groups is well illustrated by the work of Huchra and Geller (1982).
We present early results from the analysis of HST imaging observations for several pairs of interacting galaxies. We include two cases that were specifically chosen to represent a strong early (young) encounter and a weak late (old) encounter. The goals of the project include a determination of the timing, frequency, strength, and characteristics of the young star clusters formed in these two limiting cases of tidal encounters.