To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In solution-driven BID (sol-BID) a challenge is to identify suited applications that will benefit from the solutions principles found in nature. A well-known example of sol-BID is the self-cleaning lotus plant, that has inspired lotus paint and other coating methods. However, sol-BID is often performed by biologists with insight into the biological strategy and organism and typically only little knowledge of technical applications and design methodology. Searching for applications is therefore a challenge to many. Sol-BID has many things in common with technical application search where new applications are sought for a specific production technology or another competence characterizing a company. Experiences from technical application search could therefore form a valuable input for how to perform sol-BID. The paper presents two case studies of application search and proposes a procedure to be used in solution driven BID.
As catalysts for product innovation and product development, different approaches for biologically inspired design (BID) are exciting options. However, while general BID theory require a focus on single functions, real world products are characterized by performing multiple functions. The development of an anterior eye-chamber model is used to showcase the issue.
In a systematic literature review (SLR), state-of-the-art methodologies, methods and tools BID practice are discovered and the current state of multi-functionality in BID are assessed.
The SLR revealed 18 contributions with 8 BID methodologies and 12 stage-specific BID tools (of which 50% addressed the solution search phase) in addition to 5 papers addressing multi-functionality in BID. At present multi-functionality in BID is only treated in a limited set of papers. While designers interested in BID are advised to discover multi-functional analogies, the present approach to handling multi-functional problems in BID suggest functional decomposition and multiple BID efforts. Therefore, the development of design support for handling multi-functional problems, including tools for problem analysis are needed.
This book is the fifth volume in the European Environmental Law Forum (EELF) Book Series. The EELF is a non-profit initiative established by environmental law scholars and practitioners from across Europe aiming to support intellectual exchange on the development and implementation of international, European and national environmental law in Europe. One of the activities of the EELF is the organisation of an annual conference.The fifth EELF Conference dedicated to ‘Sustainable Management of Natural Resources – Legal Instruments and Approaches’ was held in Copenhagen from the 30th of August to the 1st of September 2017 at the Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, in collaboration with the Department of Law, Aarhus University.This book is a collection of peer reviewed contributions addressing various legal aspects of sustainable management of natural resources. Natural resources are in this book understood in broad terms encompassing biodiversity, water, air and soil, as well as raw materials. Based on the contributions, it can be asserted that despite many efforts there is still a long way to go in order to achieve sustainable management of natural resources. Making ecosystem integrity ultimately the bottom-line for sustainable development requires not only dedication in the design and coherence of (environmental) legislation at international, EU and national level, but also a strong commitment to the implementation and enforcement of the legislation. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider how different legal instruments and approaches may pave the way for the sustainable management of natural resources.Birgitte Egelund Olsen is Professor of Law at the Department of Law, School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University. She is also Chairman of the Danish Environment and Food Board of Appeal. Birgitte is specialised in energy, climate and environmental law, but has also written widely on issues of EU and WTO law and policy. During the past decade, she has in particular focused on issues of renewable energy and community acceptance and engagement.Helle Tegner Anker is Professor of Law at the Department of Food and Resource Economics, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen. She specialises in environmental and planning law covering a broad range of topics, including access to justice, environmental impact assessment, land use planning, nature protection, water quality and renewable energy with a particular focus on wind energy. Helle is a member of the Advisory Board of European Environmental Law Forum (EELF).
Sustainable management of natural resources is a key concern at all levels of society, on a global as well as a local scale. Natural resources are here understood in broad terms encompassing biodiversity, water, air and soil as well as raw materials. Usually, waste is not considered a natural resource; however, in a sustainable management of natural resources, the recycling of waste as secondary raw materials is pivotal and accordingly included in the present understanding of natural resources. The fifth European Environmental Law Forum Conference in Copenhagen in late summer 2017 aimed to highlight key issues regarding legal instruments and approaches and their role in promoting sustainable management of natural resources. This book offers a selection of peer reviewed contributions presented at the conference.
A recurring theme in discussions on sustainability is to strike a balance between environmental, social and economic interests based on the 1987 Brundtland Report's definition of sustainable development as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. It was noted in the Brundtland Report that ‘sustainable development requires that the adverse impacts on the quality of air, water, and other natural elements are minimized so as to sustain the ecosystem's overall integrity.’ Thus, it has been argued that the biosphere sets an ultimate bottom-line for sustainable development expressed as strong sustainability or ecological sustainability implying that development must be based on ecological sustainability in order to meet the needs of present and future generations. Calls have been made for ecological sustainability to be the central reference point of environmental law, and that the sustainability of ecosystems should become one of the foundational principles of law everywhere. Further, humans and natural ecosystems are closely interlinked and it must be kept in mind that ecosystems are dynamic and unpredictable. Social-ecological resilience theory has argued that governance systems must be adaptive and based on participatory, collaborative decision-making.
The incorporation of such notions of ecological sustainability and socialecological resilience into (environmental) policy and law faces many challenges, not least considering a continued quest for (economic) development in the aftermaths of the financial crisis. Furthermore, legal instruments and approaches may in different ways promote sustainable management of natural resources.
Hillary Clinton's memoir of the 2016 election and her life in politics, What Happened, is an affective rollercoaster. Wrath, frustration, regret, and sorrow, among other intensified emotions, saturate the book's pages. This range of affect is surprising for a political autobiography. Books in this genre typically present their subject-selves as stalwart and emotionally controlled actors whose range of feeling is limited to the proper amount of righteous irritation or vague empathy necessary to justify a policy proposal. None has the rawness of Clinton's book, a rawness that is, I would argue, made possible by her gender. This is one of the few vectors of political expression that is expanded, not contracted, for Clinton in her role as the first woman to become a major-party presidential candidate.
Automated glacier mapping from thresholded band ratios of multispectral satellite data is a well-established technique to update glacier inventories over large and remote regions. The local glaciers and ice caps on Greenland are of particular interest for such efforts, as they have been only partly mapped, mainly during the 1940s–60s, and their potential contribution to global sea-level rise could be large. Here we use three Landsat ETM+ scenes from 2001 covering Disko Island (Qeqertarsuaq) and the Nuussuaq and Svartenhuk peninsulas, West Greenland, to map the glacier extent in 2001 of 1172 entities. We also manually digitize Little Ice Age (LIA) extents from clearly visible trimlines for a subsample of 500 entities. In this region with numerous surge-type glaciers, the related area-change calculation is challenging and we consider different samples with and without known surging glaciers. For the three regions the mean area changes are –28%, –20% and –23%, respectively, when known surge-type glaciers are excluded. The glaciers on smaller islands and peninsulas closer to the margin of the ice sheet show a lower mean area change of –15%. Moreover, lower (–16%) and upper (–21%) bounds are calculated for the overall area changes in the entire region between the LIA and 2001 using different upscaling assumptions. Cumulative length changes since the LIA are found to be slightly lower for surge-type glaciers.
The interaction between sea ice and glaciers has been studied for the floating tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier, northeast Greenland (79°30’N, 22° W). Information from glacial geological studies, expedition reports, aerial photographs and satellite imagery is used to document the glacier front position and fast-ice conditions on millennial to decadal time-scales. The studies indicate that the stability of the floating glacier margin is dependent on the presence of a protecting fast-ice cover in front of the glacier. In periods with a permanent fast-ice cover, no calving occurs, but after fast-ice break-up the glacier responds with a large calving activity, whereby several years of accumulated glacier-ice flux suddenly breaks away. Climate-induced changes of sea-ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean with seasonal break-up of the near-shore fast ice could lead to disintegration of the floating glaciers. The present dominant mass loss by bottom melting would then to a large extent be taken over by grounding-line calving of icebergs. The local influx of fresh water from the north Greenland glaciers to the sea would be reduced and the local iceberg production would increase.
Isvand is an ice-dammed lake situated on the western flank of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia, a large ice stream from the Inland Ice, producing calf ice into Kangersuneq fjord at the head of Godtha˚bsfjord (Nuup Kangerlua), West Greenland (Fig. 1). This outlet of the Inland Ice is the only significant calving outlet of the ice sheet met with between 628 and 698 N.