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Most textbooks on regression focus on theory and the simplest of examples. Real statistical problems, however, are complex and subtle. This is not a book about the theory of regression. It is about using regression to solve real problems of comparison, estimation, prediction, and causal inference. Unlike other books, it focuses on practical issues such as sample size and missing data and a wide range of goals and techniques. It jumps right in to methods and computer code you can use immediately. Real examples, real stories from the authors' experience demonstrate what regression can do and its limitations, with practical advice for understanding assumptions and implementing methods for experiments and observational studies. They make a smooth transition to logistic regression and GLM. The emphasis is on computation in R and Stan rather than derivations, with code available online. Graphics and presentation aid understanding of the models and model fitting.
This new edition of Andrew Radford's outstanding resource for students is a step-by-step, practical introduction to English syntax and syntactic principles, written by a globally-renowned expert in the field. Assuming little or no prior background in syntax, Radford outlines key concepts and how they can be used to describe various aspects of English sentence structure. Each chapter contains core modules focusing on a specific topic, a summary recapitulating the main points of the chapter, and a bibliographical section providing extensive references to original source material. This edition has been extensively updated, with new analyses, new exercise materials, new references and a brand-new chapter included on adjuncts. Students will benefit enormously from the extensive online Workbook, which contains a vast amount of exercise material for each module, and teachers will value the comprehensive Answerbook, and extensive PowerPoints outlining module contents and Workbook answers.
Following the landmark Paris agreement, policy makers are under pressure to adopt policies that rapidly deliver deep, society-wide decarbonisation. Deep decarbonisation requires more durable policies, but not enough is known about if and how they actually emerge. This book provides the first systematic analysis of the determinants of policy durability in three high-profile areas: biofuel production, car transport, and industrial emissions. It breaks new ground by exploring how key European Union climate policies have shaped their own durability and their ability to stimulate supportive political dynamics in society. It combines state-of-the-art policy theories with empirical accounts of landmark political events such as 'Dieselgate' and the campaign against 'dirty' biofuels, to offer a fresh understanding of how and why policy makers set about packaging together different elements of policy. By shining new light on an important area of contemporary policy making, it reveals a rich agenda for academic researchers and policy makers.
Close monitoring of patients during anesthesia is crucial for ensuring positive treatment outcomes and patient safety. The increasing availability of new technologies and the repurposing of older monitors means more patient data is at anesthesiologists' fingertips than ever before. However, this flood of options can be overwhelming. A practical resource for understanding this array of clinical monitoring options in anesthesia, this important text focuses on real-world applications in anesthesia and perioperative care. Reviewing the evidence for improved patient outcomes for monitoring technology, neurological monitoring, echocardiography systems and ultrasound are amongst the techniques covered in a head-to-toe approach. Statistics used by manufacturers to gain approval for their technology are discussed, as well as the under-appreciated risks associated with monitoring such as digital distraction. Future monitoring technologies including wearable systems are explored in depth. Focusing on applied practice, this book is an essential text for front-line healthcare professionals in anesthesia.
Early Shakespeare, 1588–1594 draws together leading scholars of text, performance, and theatre history to offer a rigorous re-appraisal of Shakespeare's early career. The contributors offer rich new critical insights into the theatrical and poetic context in which Shakespeare first wrote and his emergence as an author of note, while challenging traditional readings of his beginnings in the burgeoning theatre industry. Shakespeare's earliest works are treated on their own merit and in their own time without looking forward to Shakespeare's later achievements; contributors situate Shakespeare, in his twenties, in a very specific time, place, and cultural moment. The volume features essays about Shakespeare's early style, characterisation, and dramaturgy, together with analysis of his early co-authors, rivals, and influences (including Lyly, Spenser and Marlowe). This collection provides essential entry points to, and original readings of, the poet-dramatist's earliest extant writings and shines new light on his first activities as a professional author.
For the last twenty years, The Destruction of the Bison has been an essential work in environmental history. Andrew C. Isenberg offers a concise analysis of the near-extinction of the North American bison population from an estimated 30 million in 1800 to fewer than 1000 a century later. His wide-ranging, interdisciplinary study carefully considers the multiple causes, cultural and ecological, of the destruction of the species. The twentieth-anniversary edition includes a new foreword connecting this seminal work to developments in the field – notably new perspectives in Native American history and the rise of transnational history – and placing the story of the bison in global context. A new afterword extends the study to the twenty-first century, underlining the continued importance of this ground-breaking text for current, and future, students and scholars.
Spectral analysis is widely used to interpret time series collected in diverse areas. This book covers the statistical theory behind spectral analysis and provides data analysts with the tools needed to transition theory into practice. Actual time series from oceanography, metrology, atmospheric science and other areas are used in running examples throughout, to allow clear comparison of how the various methods address questions of interest. All major nonparametric and parametric spectral analysis techniques are discussed, with emphasis on the multitaper method, both in its original formulation involving Slepian tapers and in a popular alternative using sinusoidal tapers. The authors take a unified approach to quantifying the bandwidth of different nonparametric spectral estimates. An extensive set of exercises allows readers to test their understanding of theory and practical analysis. The time series used as examples and R language code for recreating the analyses of the series are available from the book's website.
Using as a starting point the work of internationally-renowned Australian scholar Sam Ricketson, whose contributions to intellectual property (IP) law and practice have been extensive and richly diverse, this volume examines topical and fundamental issues from across IP law. With authors from the US, UK, Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, the book is structured in four parts, which move across IP regimes, jurisdictions, disciplines and professions, addressing issues that include what exactly is protected by IP regimes; regime differences, overlaps and transplants; copyright authorship and artificial intelligence; internationalization of IP through public and private international law; IP intersections with historical and empirical research, human rights, privacy, personality and cultural identity; IP scholars and universities, and the influence of treatises and textbooks. This work should be read by anyone interested in understanding the central issues in the evolving field of IP law.
Drawing extensively on unpublished manuscript sources, this study uncovers the culture of experimentation that surrounded biblical exegesis in fourteenth-century England. In an area ripe for revision, Andrew Kraebel challenges the accepted theory (inherited from Reformation writers) that medieval English Bible translations represent a proto-Protestant rejection of scholastic modes of interpretation. Instead, he argues that early translators were themselves part of a larger scholastic interpretive tradition, and that they tried to make that tradition available to a broader audience. Translation was thus one among many ways that English exegetes experimented with the possibilities of commentary. With a wide scope, the book focuses on works by writers from the heretic John Wyclif to the hermit Richard Rolle, alongside a host of lesser-known authors, including Henry Cossey and Nicholas Trevet, and many anonymous texts. The study provides new insight into the ingenuity of medieval interpreters willing to develop new literary-critical methods and embrace intellectual risks.
My time at the Macaulay Institute for Soil Research began in 1979 following an application to join the Soil Survey of Scotland as a soil surveyor. I was advised by the then Secretary not to get married, as this wouldn’t be at all compatible with survey life! Previously, I had spent the summer of 1977 camping on the Island of Rum, carrying out geological mapping and plant ecology studies as an undergraduate, so had some insights into a fieldwork career. This was in the days prior to the new pier (opened in 2004; before then passengers and goods used to be transferred from the ferry to a flit boat, the Rhouma, before landing at an older jetty in Loch Scresort).
For much of its history, geography has been very largely a field science, and while today there is an increasing weight placed upon such modern technologies as computer modelling and remote sensing, fieldwork continues to be a major approach to the subject and a fundamental source of many types of inspiration and of data. It is not an exaggeration to say that many of the most significant and influential themes in physical geography and across the geophysical sciences more broadly resulted from the labours of scientists who undertook sustained programmes of work in the field. Among the themes to which one can point with pride are the ideas of Alexander von Humboldt on the indivisibility of nature, Louis Agassiz’s discovery of the Ice Age, Charles Darwin’s work on both the evolution of species and the development of coral reefs, the work of American geologists in the opening up of the American West and the development of ideas on erosion and slope evolution, Baron von Richthofen’s discovery of the true origin of loess, William Morris Davis’s elaboration of the concept of the cycle of erosion, Ellsworth Huntington’s discovery of evidence of climate change in central Asia and its role in driving human history (which led on to environmental determinism), Roy Chapman Andrews’s discovery of dinosaur eggs in Mongolia and Ralph Bagnold’s work on the fundamentals of wind movement of sand and the formation of sand dunes in deserts.
Fieldwork is evolving; no longer is it something which has to be done in the field, or even outdoors. While traditional field techniques such as observations, planning and excavation still have their place today, the development of new technologies means that archaeologists can learn so much about a site before putting a trowel in the earth.
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of Huntington's disease (HD), however, the onset and rate of cognitive decline is highly variable. Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom of HD, and is associated with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate apathy as a predictor of subsequent cognitive decline over 2 years in premanifest and early HD, using a prospective, longitudinal design.
A total of 118 premanifest HD gene carriers, 111 early HD and 118 healthy control participants from the multi-centre TRACK-HD study were included. Apathy symptoms were assessed at baseline using the apathy severity rating from the Short Problem Behaviours Assessment. A composite of 12 outcome measures from nine cognitive tasks was used to assess cognitive function at baseline and after 24 months.
In the premanifest group, after controlling for age, depression and motor signs, more apathy symptoms predicted faster cognitive decline over 2 years. In contrast, in the early HD group, more motor signs, but not apathy, predicted faster subsequent cognitive decline. In the control group, only older age predicted cognitive decline.
Our findings indicate that in premanifest HD, apathy is a harbinger for cognitive decline. In contrast, after motor onset, in early diagnosed HD, motor symptom severity more strongly predicts the rate of cognitive decline.
The goals of this study were to (1) specify the factor structure of the Uniform Dataset 3.0 neuropsychological battery (UDS3NB) in cognitively unimpaired older adults, (2) establish measurement invariance for this model, and (3) create a normative calculator for factor scores.
Data from 2520 cognitively intact older adults were submitted to confirmatory factor analyses and invariance testing across sex, age, and education. Additionally, a subsample of this dataset was used to examine invariance over time using 1-year follow-up data (n = 1061). With the establishment of metric invariance of the UDS3NB measures, factor scores could be extracted uniformly for the entire normative sample. Finally, a calculator was created for deriving demographically adjusted factor scores.
A higher order model of cognition yielded the best fit to the data χ2(47) = 385.18, p < .001, comparative fit index = .962, Tucker-Lewis Index = .947, root mean square error of approximation = .054, and standardized root mean residual = .036. This model included a higher order general cognitive abilities factor, as well as lower order processing speed/executive, visual, attention, language, and memory factors. Age, sex, and education were significantly associated with factor score performance, evidencing a need for demographic correction when interpreting factor scores. A user-friendly Excel calculator was created to accomplish this goal and is available in the online supplementary materials.
The UDS3NB is best characterized by a higher order factor structure. Factor scores demonstrate at least metric invariance across time and demographic groups. Methods for calculating these factors scores are provided.