To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recent research supports the importance of PUFA intake in children, particularly of EPA and DHA; however, few verified methods to assess whether PUFA intake is adequate are available.
We assessed the correlation between serum PUFA and lipid concentrations with seafood and PUFA intake measured using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children (BDHQ3y).
Single centre birth cohort in Japan.
A total of 152 36-month-old Japanese children.
Average dietary intake of daily seafood, EPA and DHA was 13·83 (sd 10·36) g, 49·4 (sd 43·5) mg and 98·3 (sd 64·6) mg, respectively. Significant weak-to-moderate correlations were observed between dietary intake and serum EPA (Spearman rho = 0·41, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·44, P < 0·001); DHA (Spearman rho = 0·40, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·42, P < 0·001) and AA (arachidonic acid) (Spearman rho = 0·33, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·32, P < 0·001), whereas no significant correlation was observed for dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) (Spearman rho = 0·06, P = 0·484; Pearson r = 0·07, P = 0·387). Correlations between seafood intake and serum EPA and DHA were also moderate (0·39–0·43). A negative correlation between serum TAGs and serum EPA, as well as positive correlations between serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) with serum EPA and DHA were observed, whereas no significant correlations between seafood intake and serum lipid profiles. Based on this model, we estimated 61–98 g/week of seafood intake is required to meet current EPA/DHA intake recommendations by the WHO (100–150 mg/d).
For children of 2–4 years of age, weekly intake of 61–98 g of seafood is required to meet WHO recommendations of EPA/DHA intake.
In the present study, a compressible low-Reynolds-number flow over a circular cylinder was investigated using a low-density wind tunnel with time-resolved schlieren visualizations and pressure and force measurements. The Reynolds number (
) based on freestream quantities and the diameter of a circular cylinder was set to be between 1000 and 5000, and the freestream Mach number (
) between 0.1 and 0.5. As a result, we have clarified the effect of
on the aerodynamic characteristics of flow over a circular cylinder at
. The results of the schlieren visualization showed that the trend of
effect on the flow field, that are the release location of the Kármán vortices, the Strouhal number of vortex shedding and the maximum width of the recirculation, is changed at approximately
. In addition, the spanwise phase difference of the surface pressure fluctuation was captured by the measurement using pressure-sensitive paint at approximately
cases. The observed spanwise phase difference is considered to relate to the spanwise phase difference of the vortex shedding due to the oblique instability wave on the separated shear layer caused by the compressibility effects. The Strouhal number of the vortex shedding is influenced by
, and those effects are nonlinear. However, the effects of
can approximately be characterized by the maximum width of the recirculation. In addition, the
effect on the drag coefficient can be characterized by the maximum width of the recirculation region and the Prandtl–Glauert transformation.
According to recent studies anxiety has a significant impact on cognitive functioning, especially on decision-making. Alcohol dependent patients (ADP) achieve worse performance on decision-making simulation tasks compared to healthy controls. Our aim was to investigate how trait anxiety is connected to decision-making mechanisms in ADP.
The data of 76 ADP have been analyzed. To examine decision-making mechanisms we used the “ABCD” version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT total score was calculated and we divided the task into 5 equal blocks to study the pattern of the decision-making process. We administered the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The patient group was arranged into two subgroups with median split method based on the STAI scores. One group (N=38) was characterized by low trait anxiety level, and the other (N=38) had high level of trait anxiety. For comparing the two groups’ decision-making mechanisms we used independent samples t-test.
The group with higher level of trait anxiety performed significantly poorer on the IGT (t=2.09, p=0.04). The detailed analysis of the two groups’ decision-making mechanisms showed that the difference between the groups became significant in the 5th block (t=2.57, p=0.01).
Decision-making deficit is not homogenous in the ADP group, as according to our results the trait anxiety level influences the adequacy of decision-making. Psycho-biological background of the inadequate decision-making needs further investigation and this knowledge could be used in the future to improve decision-making mechanisms of the ADP.
Temperament and character factors and specific impulse control-related personality traits are connected to the developmental and clinical aspects of alcohol use disorder (AUD).
To reveal the underlying personality structure of individual differences in the symptom severity of AUD. Therefore temperament and character, impulsivity and aggression were assessed in relation to alcohol addiction severity.
Sixty-three patients with AUD were involved. Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised was used to quantify temperament and character dimensions. Impulsivity was assessed by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS) and aggression by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). To determine symptom severity of AUD the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (MAC-R) and the number of DSM-IV alcohol dependence symptoms were registered. To analyze the connections between symptom severity indicators and personality factors Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis were applied, p < 0.05 were considered significant.
SADQ (r = 0.290), AUDIT (r = 0.345), MAC-R (r = 0.504) and the DSM-IV alcohol dependence symptoms (Spearman rho = 0.271) correlated positively with novelty-seeking temperament factor. SADQ (r = 0.262) and AUDIT (r = 0.293) scores correlated positively with BIS. Furthermore SADQ (r = 0.382), AUDIT (r = 0.318), MAC-R (r = 0.416) correlated positively with BPAQ.
Novelty-seeking, impulsivity and aggression as indicators of impulse control have different theoretical backgrounds but a common root. This study has revealed that the adverse consequences of lower impulse control can lead to more severe symptoms of AUD. These connections between impulse control and the symptomatology could contribute to a better understanding of the clinical complexity of AUD.
Recent studies have revealed that neurocognitive and personality domains are important contributors of prolonged abstinence in alcohol dependence.
To reveal further factors related to the ability of maintaining prolonged abstinence in alcohol dependence. Therefore executive and personality functioning were compared of patients with short (STA) and long-term abstinence (LTA).
STA patients (N = 44) were involved from an inpatient center, LTA patients (N = 46; min. 3 years of abstinence) were involved from AA Groups. Decision-making, inhibition and planning as components of executive functioning, coping strategy, temperament and character factors as indicators of personality functioning were evaluated. MANCOVA and Mann-Whitney U statistical analyses were applied to compare the two groups.
No significant differences were found between the STA and LTA patients along decision-making (F = 0.008, p = 0.992), planning (Mann-Whitney U = 794.5, p = 0.065) and inhibition (Mann-Whitney U = 921.5, p = 0.442). Lower levels of novelty seeking and harm avoidance and higher levels of self-directedness and cooperativeness were found in the LTA group (F = 3.32, p = 0.001) along with lower level of emotion oriented coping (F = 3.32, p = 0.001).
Decision-making, inhibition and planning components of executive functioning are independent from the length of abstinence in alcohol dependence. The similar decision-making pattern of the two groups reflect the core feature of addictive behavior; preference toward immediate higher reward and lower punishment despite the long term negative consequences. It is hypothesized that the higher levels of adaptive personality factors in the LTA group decrease the risk of relapse, and contribute to the ability of maintaining prolonged abstinence.
Many studies investigated social, psychological, existential and environmental risk factors in the background of suicidal behavior, while recent researches put emphasis on the neurobiological basis by revealing impairments in decision-making related to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In this ongoing study we aimed to integrate these approaches with examining the correlating factors of personality character traits, impulsivity and the function of ventromedial cortex.
30 suicide attempters and 28 controls participated in our study. Data regarding the act of suicide, previous attempts, personal and family history, current medication and general health state were recorded. All participants received Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and they were asked to perform the computerized version of Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).
Suicide attempters scored significantly higher on BIS. They achieved significantly higher harm avoidance and transcendence scores and lower self-directedness, social deviance and cooperation scores on TCI (p< 0.05). Suicide attempters selected less advantageous desks on both reward and punishment sensitive tasks of IGT (p< 0.05). Significant correlation was found between novelty-seeking personality trait and punishment sensitivity (p< 0.05).
Our study supports the previous findings regarding the impairment of ventromedial cortex in the background of suicidal behavior. Furthermore, we demonstrated relation between this alteration and specific personality traits of suicide patients. This approach may shed light on the interaction of psychological and neurobiological risk factors.
Response inhibition (RI) is a basic component of human behaviour responsible for suppressing actions or thoughts which are inappropriate in a certain context. This cognitive function is well-studied in laboratory conditions, but there is limited data how it is influenced by emotional context and psychosocial stress.
The effect of emotional factors on RI can be investigated with an emotional go/nogo task, while psychosocial stress can be induced with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Electroencephalography (EEG) is an excellent method for studying the neural correlates of RI: the two major event-related potentials (ERPs) implicated in the process are the frontal N2 and P3 components.
In this respect, our aim was to investigate how psychosocial stress and emotional context modulate these ERPs.
Seven healthy adult volunteers performed emotional go/no go tasks while brain responses were recorded by EEG. The task was carried out on two different occasions: at baseline condition and after moderate psychosocial stress induced by the TSST.
We successfully replicated the robust go vs. nogo effect on the frontal N2 and P3 amplitudes. However, ERPs were not affected by positive or negative emotional context in the baseline condition. In contrast, after TSST a significantly enhanced valence effect was observed on the go-related N2 amplitude and a greater go vs. nogo N2 latency difference was detected.
These findings highlight the importance of the stress-regulating system on emotionally modulated RI and render this paradigm a promising tool for investigating RI in anxiety and mood disorders.
Depressive symptoms frequently co-occur in alcohol dependence. However, little is known about the relationship between depressive symptoms and personality functioning in alcohol dependence.
The aim of this study was to reveal the role of depressive symptoms in the adaptivity of personality functioning. Therefore, alcohol-dependent patients with and without depressive symptoms, depressed patients and normal controls were compared along the personality factors of the biosocial model.
Depressed patients (N = 57), alcohol-dependent individuals with (N = 41) and without (N = 41) depressive symptoms, and normal controls (N = 55) were involved. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to determine the severity of depressive symptoms. Subjects were tested using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, which measures 4 temperament: novelty-seeking (NS); harm avoidance (HA); reward dependence (RD); persistence (P) and 3 character dimensions: self-directedness (SD); cooperativeness (C); self-transcendence (ST).
Alcohol-dependent groups showed higher level of NS than depressed and control subjects (F = 6.33, p < 0.001). Alcohol addicted patients with depressive symptoms and depressed individuals scored lower level of HA than the other groups (F = 21.41, p < 0.001). In the case of P the lowest score was observed among alcohol-dependent individuals with depressive symptoms (F = 3.63, p = 0.014). On the SD (F = 25.25, p < 0.001) and C (F = 3.61, p = 0.014) all 3 patient groups showed significantly lower scores than normal controls.
Based on the severity of depressive symptoms, alcohol addicted persons show different personality profile. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms are related to maladaptive personality functioning in alcohol dependence; therefore it has to be considered during the treatment process. TÁMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KONV-2010-0005
Delay of discounting (DD) refers to the tendency to prefer immediate but smaller rewards to delayed larger ones. High co-morbidity and the remarkable role of impulsivity in both borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance abuse (SUD) justify a deficit in DD. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore the effect of BPD and SUD regarding delay discounting and to explore group differences concerning the different types of substances participants use.
We compared 4 groups, a total of N = 345 participants: 3 clinical and a healthy comparison group: BPD with (N = 74) and without (N = 36) SUD, substance users without BPD (N = 124) and a healthy comparison group (N = 111). Impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), symptom severity (Brief Symptom Inventory), the presence of BPD (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders) and delay discounting task were assessed.
Data suggests that the BPD + SUD group has the strongest preference for immediate rewards as opposed to a larger reward in the future compared to the CG and the SUD-only.
BPD + alcohol using group have significant deficit in DD compared to CG while the other substances with or without the presence of BPD do not seem to make a difference.
Results suggest that only the presence of both BPD and SUD play a role in the deficit of delaying gratification, either one does not. These results also propose that BPD and deficit in DD may well be a vulnerability marker for alcohol dependence.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
Mental health-related stigma is a major challenge associated with the huge mental health treatment gap. It has remained unclear what kind of educational content is effective in reducing the stigma. Whether biomedical messages (BMM) about mental illness are effective or harmful in decreasing stigma is controversial. To investigate whether BMM can improve practically useful knowledge of mental illness, comparably to recommended messages (RCM) advocated by experts, of types such as ‘recovery-oriented’, ‘social inclusion/human rights’ and ‘high prevalence of mental illnesses’ through a randomised controlled trial (RCT).
This study is an individual-level RCT with a parallel-group design over 1 year, conducted in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 179 participants (males n = 80, mean age = 21.9 years and s.d. = 7.8) were recruited in high schools and universities, and through a commercial internet advertisement in June and July 2017, without any indication that the study appertained to mental health. Participants were allocated to the BMM and RCM groups. They underwent a 10-min intervention, and completed self-report questionnaires during baseline, post-test, 1-month follow-up and 1-year follow-up surveys. The primary outcome measures were practically useful knowledge of mental illness at the post-test survey using the Mental Illness and Disorder Understanding Scale (MIDUS). Analysis was conducted in October 2018.
Both groups demonstrated improved MIDUS score in the post-test survey, and showed similar intervention effects (F(1, 177) = 160.5, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.48). The effect of the interventions continued until the 1-year follow-up survey (B [95% CI] = −2.56 [−4.27, −0.85], p < 0.01), and showed no difference between groups. The reported adverse effect that BMM increase stigma was not confirmed.
BMM may have a positive impact on stigma, comparable to RCM. These findings may encourage reconsideration of the content of messages about mental health, as it is indicated that combining BMM and RCM might contribute to an effective anti-stigma programme.
To examine associations between protein intake per day and at different meals and skeletal muscle mass declines.
Two-year prospective cohort study among older community dwellers.
National Institute for Longevity Sciences–Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA) in Japan.
Older men (n 292) and women (n 363) aged 60–87 years who participated in the baseline (2006–2008) and follow-up studies (2008–2010) of NILS-LSA and did not exhibit low skeletal muscle mass at baseline. Muscle mass was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up. Low muscle mass was defined as skeletal muscle mass index <7·0 kg/m2 for men and <5·4 kg/m2 for women at follow-up. Daily protein intake and protein intake at each meal were calculated from 3 d dietary records at baseline and sex-stratified tertiles were determined.
Mean (sd) protein intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner was 22·7 (7·8), 26·7 (9·3) and 37·4 (10·5) g for men and 19·3 (6·3), 23·2 (7·3) and 28·5 (7·0) g for women, respectively. After adjusting for age, baseline skeletal muscle mass and other confounders in logistic modelling, greater total protein intake was associated with lower prevalence of skeletal muscle mass decline among men at follow-up (P = 0·024). Particularly, the OR (95 % CI) for high lunchtime protein intake was low (0·11 (0·02, 0·61); P = 0·01). No significant association between total protein intake and prevalence of skeletal muscle mass decline was found among women.
High total protein intake, particularly at lunchtime, is associated with retention of skeletal muscle mass in men.
To examine the association between green tea and coffee intake and cognitive decline in older adults.
A prospective cohort study. The average intake of green tea and coffee in the previous year was assessed through a dietitian interview using a dietary questionnaire. A Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was conducted up to six times biennially. Cognitive decline was screened using the MMSE; its incidence was defined as the first time a score of <27 points was obtained in a biennial test from the baseline. Hazard ratios for incidence of cognitive decline were estimated according to the intake of the two beverages using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, controlling for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
The National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA) in Japan.
Men (n 620) and women (n 685), aged 60–85 years, from the NILS-LSA.
During a mean of 5·3 (sd 2·9) years of follow-up, 432 incident cases of cognitive decline were observed. Compared with participants who consumed green tea <once/d, the multivariable hazard ratio (95 % CI) was 0·70 (0·45, 1·06), 0·71 (0·52, 0·97) and 0·72 (0·54, 0·98) among those who consumed green tea once/d, 2–3 times/d and ≥4 times/d, respectively (Ptrend < 0·05). No significant association was found between coffee intake and cognitive decline.
The intake of green tea, but not coffee, was shown to reduce the risk of cognitive decline in older adults.
A multidisciplinary mineralogical, geochemical and biomarker study of Indus Fan sediments cored during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 to the Laxmi Basin was carried out to define the different compositional signatures of sand, silt and clay. Upper Pliocene – lower Pleistocene turbidites from sites U1456 and U1457 were selected as the best candidates for this study. The integrated dataset presented here was obtained by coupling traditional and innovative bulk-sediment and single-mineral techniques on the same samples. Turbiditic deposits mostly consist of medium to fine silt, including rich and diverse heavy-mineral assemblages. Such a fine grain size forced us to push the limits of high-resolution quantitative heavy-mineral analysis down to as low as 5 μm. Heavy-mineral analysis allowed us to establish a Himalayan origin of the detritus in the studied turbidites. Heavy-mineral concentrations are higher in channel-fill than in overbank deposits. Mineralogical and geochemical data concur in revealing that fast-settling ultradense minerals such as zircon are preferentially concentrated in channel-fill deposits, whereas the top of overbank deposits are notably enriched with slow-settling platy phyllosilicates. Biomarker analysis represents a most suitable complementary technique that is able to investigate the provenance signature of the finer sediment fraction, largely consisting of clay. This technique allowed us to identify a largely terrigenous origin of organic matter at Site U1456 and an open marine origin at Site U1457. The latter site lies closer to the Laxmi Ridge, where thermal maturity increases with depth to reach the early oil window (127°C at c. 320 m below the seafloor).
The phenotypic and aetiological architecture of depression symptomatology has been mostly studied in Western samples. In this study, we conducted a genetically informed factor analysis to elucidate both the phenotypic and aetiological architectures of self-reported depression among a Japanese adult twin sample.
Depressive symptoms assessed by Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale were self-rated by 425 twin pairs (301 monozygotic and 124 dizygotic twin pairs) in a community sample in Japan.
An exploratory factor analysis extracted three symptom domains representing cognitive, affective and somatic symptomatology. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a bi-factor solution fitted better than the alternative solutions, implying that depression may be defined as a combination of a single general construct and three factors specific to each of the three symptom domains. A multivariate genetic analysis with the bi-factor solution showed that the general factor was substantially heritable (47%), and that only the affective symptom domain was significantly heritable (29%) among the three specific factors, their remaining variance being explained by non-shared environmental influences.
Depression symptomatology appears to be adequately captured by a substantially heritable general factor. The heritability of this factor (47%) in a Japanese adult sample is in line with commonly reported heritability estimates for depression. The three specific factors – cognitive, affective and somatic – are mostly explained by non-shared environmental factors, which include measurement error. The extent to which these specific factors are uniquely associated with correlates of depression when the general factor is accounted for should be investigated in future studies.
Autonomy is a key factor in the reduction of inequitable physical healthcare among people with severe mental illness compared with the general population.
To clarify the critical mechanism underlying autonomy in physical health promotion based on the perspectives of people with severe mental illness.
We employed a conventional content analysis of narrative data from the Healthy Active Lives in Japan (HeAL Japan) workshop meetings.
‘Inhibited autonomy’ was extracted as a central component and shaped by the users’ experiences, both in a healthcare setting and in real life. This component emerged based on the lack of an empowerment mechanism in psychiatric services.
A barrier to the encouragement of autonomy in physical health promotion was found in current psychiatric services. An effective strategy should be explored to foster an empowerment mechanism in psychiatric and mental health services.
The Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume is a rare, globally ‘Vulnerable’ seabird, endemic to Japan and South Korea. However, little is known of its at-sea distribution, habitat or threats. We conducted several years of at-sea surveys around Japan to model Japanese Murrelet density in relation to habitat parameters, and make spatial predictions to assess the adequacy of the current Japanese marine Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) network for the species. During a five-year period, 3,485 km of at-sea surveys recorded 3,161 Japanese Murrelets around four breeding locations. Maximum murrelet group size was 90 individuals with a mean group size of 2.9 ± 4.2 individuals. Models of Japanese Murrelet at-sea density around the two largest breeding locations predicted that almost all murrelets occur within 30 km of the breeding colony and most within 10 km. Murrelets were predicted closer to the colony in May than in April and closer to the colony at a neritic colony than at an offshore island colony. Additionally, murrelets breeding on an offshore island colony also commuted to mainland neritic habitat for foraging. The marine habitat used by Japanese Murrelets differed between each of the four surveyed colonies, however oceanographic variables offered little explanatory power in models. Models with colony, month and year generated four foraging radii (9–39 km wide) containing murrelet densities of > 0.5 birds/km2. Using these radii the Japanese marine IBA network was found to capture between 95% and 25% of Japanese Murrelet at-sea habitat while breeding and appears appropriately configured to protect near-colony murrelet distributions. Given the range of marine habitats that breeding murrelets inhabit, our simple models offer an applicable method for predicting to unsampled colonies and generating ecologically-informed seaward extension radii. However, data on colony populations and further at-sea surveys are necessary to refine models and improve predictions.