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There are two main approaches to the problem of improving the resolution attainable by three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs. One is to find improvements in specimen preparation and microscopy, the other is to reduce the background error in the images by averaging data from a number of carefully selected images. This paper is concerned with applying the latter approach to helical structures, whose individual images include many different views of identical subunits. The example chosen is the contractile tail of T4 bacteriophage (Fig. 1), the structure to which DeRosier and Klug first applied 3-D reconstruction techniques, and which they solvedto about 38Å resolution from single images. Our new map of the extended tail, calculated by combining data from images of several different specimens, is at a resolution of about 20Å and shows the substructure in more detail. We have also calculated a 3-D map of the contracted structure, although in this case the poorer quality of the data has limited the resolution to 32Å.
To identify factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban food environments in Africa and identify areas for future research.
We systematically reviewed published/grey literature (protocol CRD4201706893). Findings were compiled into a map using a socio-ecological model on four environmental levels: individual, social, physical and macro.
Urban food environments in Africa.
Studies involving adolescents and adults (11–70 years, male/female).
Thirty-nine studies were included (six adolescent, fifteen adolescent/adult combined and eighteen adult). Quantitative methods were most common (twenty-eight quantitative, nine qualitative and two mixed methods). Studies were from fifteen African countries. Seventy-seven factors influencing dietary behaviours were identified, with two-thirds at the individual level (45/77). Factors in the social (11/77), physical (12/77) and macro (9/77) environments were investigated less. Individual-level factors that specifically emerged for adolescents included self-esteem, body satisfaction, dieting, spoken language, school attendance, gender, body composition, pubertal development, BMI and fat mass. Studies involving adolescents investigated social environment-level factors more, for example, sharing food with friends. The physical food environment was more commonly explored in adults, for example, convenience/availability of food. Macro-level factors associated with dietary behaviours were food/drink advertising, religion and food prices. Factors associated with dietary behaviour were broadly similar for men and women.
The dominance of studies exploring individual-level factors suggests a need for research to explore how social, physical and macro-level environments drive dietary behaviours of adolescents and adults in urban Africa. More studies are needed for adolescents and men, and studies widening the geographical scope to encompass all African countries.
We describe a fronto-temporal paroxysmal rhythmic activity registered by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in two patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) without SSRIs treatment. The localization of the activity involves cingulate cortex and frontal areas. We think that these MEG findings are related to the disease itself, rather than representing pharmacological SSRIs effect.
Since Kraepelin times, it is considered that the delusional disorder (DD) does not imply a cognitive deficit, unlike the paranoid schizophrenia (PS). However, empirical evidence is very limited.
To compare the neurocognitive functioning differences among healthy controls (HC), DD and PS patients.
Neurocognitive functioning was evaluated in 51 healthy controls, 69 DD patients and 41 PS patients (according to the SCID-I) using an extensive neuropsychological battery which evaluate five domains (attention, working memory, verbal memory, executive function and social cognition). Was performed multivariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare differences in neuropsychological performance between the three groups. The potential confusion factors were controlled, like the socio-demographic characteristics, premorbid IQ (“National Adult Reading Test”), depressive symptoms (“Beck Depression Inventory”) and the positive and negative psychotic symptoms (“Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale”).
DD patients showed a considerably worse neurocognitive functioning than healthy controls regarding to attention, verbal memory, executive functions and social cognition; while DD patients compared to PS only present a better neurocognitive performance in attention.
DD patients shown that neurocognitive deficit is relevant, unlike what it is considered since Kraepelin up to date, as shown in the DSM-IV-TR and the CIE-10.
There exists evidence about the presence of Childhood Trauma (CT) being implicated in pathogenesis of Delusional Disorder (DD).
Investigate de influence of CT in the cognitive biases (attentional bias, jumping-to-conclusions, personalizing attributional bias, need-for-closure and “self” discrepancies) and in the social cognition alterations (theory-of-mind and facial emotion recognition deficits) which have been postulated to be implicated in formation and maintenance of DD.
Childhood Trauma was measured using the “Childhood Trauma Questionaire” in 64 patients (n=64) diagnosed with DD by the SCID-I (DSM-IV-TR). The cognitive biases were evaluated using specific scales (“Emotional Stroop”, “Experimental Beads Task”, “Need-for-Closure Scale”, “Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire” and “Personal Qualities Questionnaire”). Social Cognition was evaluated using a theory-of-mind task (“Faux-Pas”) and a facial recognizing task (“Eyes Test”). The relationship between CT and those anomalies were examined using lineal regression models controlled by sociodemographic characteristics, premorbid IQ (“National Adult Reading Test”), delusion intensity (“Maudsley Assessment of Delusion Schedule”), depression intensity (“Beck Depression Inventory”) and neuropsychological function (attention, verbal learning, working memory and executive function; measured by a extensive neuropsychological assesment).
High scores in CT were significantly associated with low scores in Faux-Pas task after being adjusted by the delusion and depression intensity, executive function and antipsycothic medication dose.
The severity of Childhood Trauma in patients with DD is related to theory-of-mind deficits, a social cognitive function which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the Delusional Disorder.
However, there is poor evidence about the implication of these anomalies in pathogenesis of delusional idea in delusional disorder (DD).
To exam the joint influence of these anomalies in delusional activity in DD.
We studied the delusional activity measured by the “Maudsley Assessment of Delusion Schedule” in 68 patients with DD (n=68) diagnosed by SCID-I (DSM-IV-TR). Cognitive biases were evaluated by “Emotional Stroop”, “Experimental Beads Task”, “Need-for-Closure Scale”, “Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire”. Social cognition alterations were measured by Faux-pas Task and Eyes-Test; perceptive alterations by “Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale”; and emotional anomalies by “Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale”, “Beck Depression Inventory”, “Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale” and “Personal Qualities Questionnaire”. The relationship between delusional activity and these cognitive anomalies were examined using lineal regression models controlled by socio-demographic characteristics, premorbid IQ (“NART”), negative symptomatology (“PANSS”) and neuropsychological function (attention, verbal learning, working memory and executive function).
High scores in delusion activity were significantly associated with high scores in jumping-to-conclusion and depression and low scores in faux-pas and self-esteem, after being adjusted by number of studied years and negative symptomatology.
Cognitive biases (jumping-to-conclusions), social cognition deficit (faux-pas) and emotional alterations are the most implicated anomalies in formation and maintenance of delusional idea in DD.
Electoral boundaries are an integral part of election administration. District boundaries delineate which legislative election voters are eligible to participate in, and precinct boundaries identify, in many localities, where voters cast in-person ballots on Election Day. Election officials are tasked with resolving a tremendously large number of intersections of registered voters with overlapping electoral boundaries. Any large-scale data project is susceptible to errors, and this task is no exception. In two recent close elections, these errors were consequential to the outcome. To address this problem, we describe a method to audit the assignment of registered voters to districts. We apply the methodology to Florida’s voter registration file to identify thousands of registered voters assigned to the wrong state House district, many of which local election officials have verified and rectified. We discuss how election officials can best use this technique to detect registered voters assigned to the wrong electoral boundary.
This paper examines ex-ante impacts of two policy interventions that improve productivity of local-breed cows through artificial insemination (AI) and producers’ access to distant markets through a dairy market hub. The majority of cattle in Kilosa district in Tanzania are local low productivity breeds kept by smallholders and agro-pastoralists. Milk production is seasonal, which constrains producers’ access to distant urban markets, constrains producers’ incomes and restricts profitability in dairy processing. We developed and evaluated an integrated system dynamics (SD) simulation model that captures many relevant feedbacks between the biological dynamics of dairy cattle production, the economics of milk market access, and the impacts of rainfall as an environmental factor. Our analysis indicated that in the short (1 year) and medium (5-year) term, policy interventions have a negative effect on producers’ income due to high AI costs. However, in the long term (5+ years), producers’ income from dairy cattle activities markedly increases (by, on average, 7% per year). The results show the potential for upgrading the smallholder dairy value chain in Kilosa, but achievement of this result may require financial support to producers in the initial stages (first 5 years) of the interventions, particularly to offset AI costs, as well as additional consideration of post-farm value chain costs. Furthermore, institutional aspects of dairy market hub have substantial effects on trade-offs amongst performance measures (e.g. higher profit vs. milk consumption at producer's household) with gain in cumulative profit coming at the expense of a proportional and substantial reduction in home milk consumption.
A low-cost synthesis approach was developed for the fabrication of four symmetric meso-substituted water-soluble thiolated polyethylene glycol gold-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles–porphyrin (p-hydroxyphenyl [THPP], 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl [TdMPP], 3-pyridyl[T-3-PyP], and 1-methylpyridinium-3-yl[T3-Py+P4I−]) conjugates to achieve materials with enhanced absorption and therapeutic properties. After evaluation of their antibacterial inhibition characteristics against four nocosomial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis), THPP and TdMPP conjugates showed some remarkable minimum inhibitory concentration values of 0.104 and 0.625 mg/mL against E. coli and E. faecalis, respectively, making these materials to be alternative agents for the inhibition of these pathogens in the environmental and clinical fields.
People make comprehension easier by predicting upcoming language. We might therefore expect prediction to occur during the extremely difficult task of simultaneous interpreting. This paper examines the theoretical and empirical foundations of this premise. It reviews accounts of prediction during comprehension in both monolinguals and bilinguals, and discusses these theories in light of experimental data (e.g., using the visual-world paradigm). It considers how these accounts may be applied to the unique and ecologically valid context of simultaneous interpreting, when two languages are used concurrently, one overtly engaging the comprehension system, and the other overtly engaging the production system. It then posits a role for the production system in prediction during comprehension and develops a theoretical framework for prediction-by-production in simultaneous interpreting that has implications for our understanding of prediction during language comprehension.
Collagen microstructure is closely related to the mechanical properties of tissues and affects cell migration through the extracellular matrix. To study these structures, three-dimensional (3D) in vitro collagen-based gels are often used, attempting to mimic the natural environment of cells. Some key parameters of the microstructure of these gels are fiber orientation, fiber length, or pore size, which define the mechanical properties of the network and therefore condition cell behavior. In the present study, an automated tool to reconstruct 3D collagen networks is used to extract the aforementioned parameters of gels of different collagen concentration and determine how their microstructure is affected by the presence of cells. Two different experiments are presented to test the functionality of the method: first, collagen gels are embedded within a microfluidic device and collagen fibers are imaged by using confocal fluorescence microscopy; second, collagen gels are directly polymerized in a cell culture dish and collagen fibers are imaged by confocal reflection microscopy. Finally, we investigate and compare the collagen microstructure far from and in the vicinities of MDA-MB 23 cells, finding that cell activity during migration was able to strongly modify the orientation of the collagen fibers and the porosity-related values.