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This paper deals with the actuation system design of a full-scale morphing aileron for regional aircraft. The aileron is allowed to smoothly change its geometrical configuration and perform the in-flight transition from a baseline shape to a set of optimal morphed ones pre-defined on the basis of aerodynamic requirements. The design of such innovative aileron is aimed not only at substituting the conventional aileron installed on a real aircraft but also to provide additional functionality. The aileron is free to rotate around its main hinge axis and it is also allowed to smoothly modify camber with two independent actuation systems. In such manner it can be used also during cruise with a symmetric deflection between the two half wings in order to reduce drag in off design condition. To accomplish variable aileron shape, a rigid-body mechanism was designed. The proposed aileron architecture is characterised by segmented adaptive ribs rigidly linked each other with spanwise reinforcements such as spars and stringers in a multi-box arrangement. Each rib is split into two movable plates connected by means of rotational hinges in a finger-like mechanism. The mechanism is driven by a load-bearing actuator by means of a kinematic chain opportunely tied based on the structural requirements in terms of shape to be matched and load to be withstood. The proposed device is an innovative arrangement of the quick-return mechanism composed of a beam leverage, commercial linear guides and a crank. The actuator shaft is directly inserted in the crank, which transmits the rotation to the linear guide that slide along a rail moving upward or downward the beam thus resulting in a camber variation. The entire aileron is moved by three leverages internally contained and distributed along the first two bays while the most external ribs are considered passive and their movement slaved. Two actuation layouts are analytically and numerically studied, the analytical theory is presented and validated by means of a multi-body simulation. Moreover, a linear static analysis was carried out under the hypothesis of glued contact between linear guides components simulating a jamming condition. This assumption has been formulated because it represents the most severe condition that envelop all the operative loads to which the actuation system is subjected. The analyses conducted are preliminarily aimed to verify that no failure occur under the imposed loads. In this first design loop, the vertical static force acting on the linear carriage exceeded allowable value and then a new configuration with double-sided linear guides was then investigated.
The signature of a parametric curve is a sequence of tensors whose entries are iterated integrals. This construction is central to the theory of rough paths in stochastic analysis. It is examined here through the lens of algebraic geometry. We introduce varieties of signature tensors for both deterministic paths and random paths. For the former, we focus on piecewise linear paths, on polynomial paths, and on varieties derived from free nilpotent Lie groups. For the latter, we focus on Brownian motion and its mixtures.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether clinical or laboratory factors can influence the development of single pronucleated zygotes (1PN) and two polar bodies (PB) after ICSI. In total, 341 ICSI cycles performed at FertiClinic-Villa Margherita from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled in the study. Group A included 240 cycles with no 1PN−2PB while group B included 101 cycles with one or more 1PN−2PB. Age, stimulation protocol, infertility factor, amount of gonadotropin administered, duration of therapy, peak estradiol levels, number of follicles at maturation triggering, oocytes retrieved and mature oocytes, time between retrieval and injection and sperm characteristics were compared between groups. In opposition to previous results showing no relationship between 1PN occurrence and clinical or laboratory variables, we observed that 1PN−2PB zygote formation seems to be associated with a lower female age, higher level of E2 and higher number of follicles on day of oocyte maturation triggering, higher number of astenozoospermic male patients, more oocytes retrieved at pick-up, more mature oocytes (MII) and longer time to injection.
In 2017, Italy experienced a large measles epidemic with 5408 cases and four deaths. As Subnational Reference Laboratory of the Measles and Rubella surveillance NETwork (MoRoNET), the EpiSoMI (Epidemiology and Molecular Surveillance of Infections) Laboratory (University of Milan) set up rapid and active surveillance for the complete characterisation of the Measles virus (Mv) responsible for the large measles outbreak in Milan and surrounding areas (Lombardy, Northern Italy). The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of circulating viruses and to track the pathway of measles transmission. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing the highly variable 450 nucleotides region of the N gene (N-450) of Mv genome. Two-hundred and ninety-nine strains of Mv were analysed. The phylogenetic analysis showed five different variants, two not previously described in the studied area, belonging to D8 and B3 genotypes. Three events of continuous transmission of autochthonous variants (D8-Osaka, D8-London and B3-Milan variants) and two events of continuous transmission of imported variants (B3-Dublin and D8-Hulu Langat) tracked five different transmission pathways. These pathways outlined two epidemic peaks: the first in April and the second in July 2017. The correlation between Mv variant and the epidemiological data may enable us to identify the sources of virus importation and recognise long-lasting virus transmission pathways.
We propose a model in which money performs an essential role in the process of exchange, despite the presence of a multilateral clearing house that collects resources from and distributes them to anonymous agents. Money improves the functioning of the clearing house, simultaneously keeping the incentives to contribute and guaranteeing the fine-tuning of allocations.
Intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS) are a sustainable alternative to monoculture systems (MS). The presence of trees and legumes improves animal welfare due to the increased food quality and quantity and the presence of shade while providing a variety of environmental services. As cattle behaviour is greatly affected by environmental conditions, knowledge on the behavioural trade-offs that cattle make to meet their demands while foraging in different grazing systems is important, as this will help us understand the perceived advantages of ISS. This pilot study assessed the behaviour of heifers in an ISS (n=8 heifers) and MS (n=8 heifers) in the Mexican tropics during the dry and rainy seasons, and its relationship with forage availability, mean travelled distance and the temperature humidity index (THI). In both seasons, daily foraging times were longer in the MS than the ISS (P<0.01). The duration of rumination was higher for ISS (P<0.01) and the duration of lying was higher for the dry season (P<0.05). The decrease in foraging times in relation to THI was significantly higher in the ISS than in the MS (mean slope±SE: ISS=−4.64±0.34; MS=−2.34±0.22; t=−14.20, P<0.001). The results suggest that the forage availability and access to shade in the ISS allow cattle to rest longer and increase rumination, whereas cattle in MS spend more time searching for food and foraging at times of the day were the temperatures were higher as a compensatory strategy, which potentially decreases cattle’s welfare and production qualities when compared with the ISS. In conclusion, ISS are likely to generate positive behavioural trade-offs that result in better welfare conditions and higher productive potential.
A new wing-tip concept with morphing upper surface and interchangeable conventional and morphing ailerons was designed, manufactured, bench and wind-tunnel tested. The development of this wing-tip model was performed in the frame of an international CRIAQ project, and the purpose was to demonstrate the wing upper surface and aileron morphing capabilities in improving the wing-tip aerodynamic performances. During numerical optimisation with ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm software, and during wind-tunnel experimental tests, it was demonstrated that the air-flow laminarity over the wing skin was promoted, and the laminar flow was extended with up to 9% of the chord. Drag coefficient reduction of up to 9% was obtained when the morphing aileron was introduced.
Ontology-based query answering asks whether a Boolean conjunctive query is satisfied by all models of a logical theory consisting of a relational database paired with an ontology. The introduction of existential rules (i.e., Datalog rules extended with existential quantifiers in rule heads) as a means to specify the ontology gave birth to Datalog+/-, a framework that has received increasing attention in the last decade, with focus also on decidability and finite controllability to support effective reasoning. Five basic decidable fragments have been singled out: linear, weakly acyclic, guarded, sticky, and shy. Moreover, for all these fragments, except shy, the important property of finite controllability has been proved, ensuring that a query is satisfied by all models of the theory iff it is satisfied by all its finite models. In this paper, we complete the picture by demonstrating that finite controllability of ontology-based query answering holds also for shy ontologies, and it therefore applies to all basic decidable Datalog+/- classes. To make the demonstration, we devise a general technique to facilitate the process of (dis)proving finite controllability of an arbitrary ontological fragment.
The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological profile of HPV oropharyngeal infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. A total of 135 subjects were enrolled at the L. Sacco University Hospital (Milan, Italy) to evaluate their HPV oropharyngeal infection status at baseline and at a follow-up visit at least 12 months later. HPV DNA was detected from oropharyngeal swabs using an in-house nested PCR that amplifies a segment of the L1 gene. The PCR products were then sequenced and genotyped. A greater percentage of high-risk genotypes was identified compared to low-risk genotypes (13·7% vs. 6·9%, P < 0·05), and two uncommon alpha-HPV genotypes were detected, i.e. HPV-102 and HPV-114. HPV infection prevalence was 24·4% and the cumulative incidence was 24·1%. During the follow-up period, one case of HPV infection (HPV-33) persisted, while the overall rate of infection clearance was 58·3%. HPV oropharyngeal infection was widespread in the cohort examined, and most of the infections were transient and cleared within 12 months. These results may help to clarify the role of HPV in the oropharynx and may also improve our understanding of the need to implement preventive strategies in at-risk populations.
The actuation mechanism is a crucial aspect in the design of morphing structures due to the very stringent requirements involving actuation torque, consumed power, and allowable size and weight.
In the framework of the CRIAQ MD0-505 project, novel design strategies are investigated to enable morphing of aeronautical structures. This paper deals with the design of a morphing aileron with the main focus on the actuation technology. The morphing aileron consists of segmented 'finger-like' ribs capable of changing the aerofoil camber in order to match target aerodynamic shapes. In this work, lightweight and compact actuation kinematics driven by electromechanical actuators are investigated to actuate the morphing device. An unshafted distributed servo-electromechanical actuation arrangement is employed to realise the transition from the baseline configuration to a set of target aerodynamic shapes by also withstanding the aerodynamics loads. Numerical investigations are detailed to identify the optimal actuation architecture matching as well as the system integratability and structural compactness.
Two consecutive, distinct episodes of phase transition occurring during inflation may nucleate two generations of bubbles, one inside the other. We design a model of inflation that realizes this sequence and yields bubble spectra that are bimodal and tunable functions of phenomelogical parameters in turn combinations of microphysical parameters. We argue in favor of a tuning of the parameters such that the outer and earlier generation of bubbles becomes hundreds of Mpc/h in diameter (like the local Hubble bubbles of the literature) whereas the inner and later generation becomes tens of Mpc/h in diameter (like the observed large scale voids).
Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann–Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau’s index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h’=0.964; rainy season: h’=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h’=0.571, rainy season: h’=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the silvopastoral system maintain more stable social hierarchies and express more sociopositive behaviours, suggesting that animal welfare was enhanced.
From the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space, we derive semi-analytical results on the generic degeneracy of galaxy clustering measurements. Defining the observables A = Gbσ8 and R = Gfσ8, (being G the growth function, b the bias, f the growth rate, and σ8 the amplitude of the power spectrum), we perform a Fisher matrix formalism to forecast the expected precision of these quantities for a Euclid-like survey. Among the results we found that galaxy surveys have generically a slightly negative correlation between A and R, and they can always measure R about 3.7 to 4.7 times better than A.
A range of Bayesian tools has become widely used in cosmological data treatment and parameter inference (see Kunz et al.2007, Trotta 2008, Amendola et al.2013). With increasingly big datasets and higher precision, tools that enable us to further enhance the accuracy of our measurements gain importance. Here we present an approach based on internal robustness, introduced in Amendola et al. (2013) and adopted in Heneka et al. (2014), to identify biased subsets of data and hidden correlation in a model independent way.
Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over ~15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting.
This paper presents results for the conductivity of BaCe0.85Y0.15O2-δ (BCY15) measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in wet hydrogen and in Air, as well as test results from the application of the material in a new dual membrane fuel cell configuration (“IDEAL Cell”), in which the water is produced and evacuated through a separate chamber. The conductivity of dense BCY15 in wet hydrogen atmosphere at 700 °C is 2.0 10-2 S/cm. The measured values in air are of the same order. Preliminary tests of the material in the new cell design, where the three types of conductivity (protonic, oxide ion and mixed) are used in different cell compartments, are successfully performed.
Curing of mesogenic epoxy monomer p-Bis(2, 3-epoxypropoxy)-cz-methylstilbene (DOMS) with aromatic amines is discussed. The crosslinking density is controlled using a mixture of biand tetra-functional hardener. The unidirectional alignment of the molecules was achieved during the curing process by external factors such as surface-liquid crystal interactions.