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The recently discovered massive and stockwork sulphide mineralization of Semblana-Rosa Magra and Monte Branco, situated ESE of the Neves–Corvo volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposit in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is presented. Geological setting and tectonic model is discussed based on proxies such as palynostratigraphy and U–Pb zircon geochronology. The mineralization is found within the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex (VSC) Lower sequence, which includes felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolites) with U–Pb ages in zircons of 359.6 ± 1.6 Ma, and black shales of the Neves Formation of late Strunian age. Massive sulphides are enveloped by these shales, implying that felsic volcanism, mineralization and shale sedimentation are essentially coeval. This circumstance is considered highly prospective, as it represents an important exploration vector to target VMS mineralization across the IPB, in areas where the Lower VSC sequence is present. The Upper VSC sequence, with siliciclastic and volcanogenic sedimentary rocks of middle–late Visean age, shows no massive mineralization but a late Tournaisian (350.9 ± 2.3 Ma) volcanism with disseminated sulphides was also identified. Nevertheless, stratigraphic palynological gaps were found within the Strunian and in the Tournaisian sediments, between the Lower and Upper VSC sequences, reflecting probable erosion and uplift mechanisms linked with extensional tectonics. The Semblana and Monte Branco deposits and the Rosa Magra stockwork are enclosed by tectonic sheets that dismembered the VSC sequence in a fold-and-thrust tectonic complex, characteristic of the NE Neves–Corvo region. The methodologies used allow a geological comparison between Neves–Corvo and other IPB mine regions such as Lousal–Caveira, Herrerias, Tharsis and Aznalcollar.
Collagen extraction depends on the state of bone preservation, and the acidity of Brazilian soils often prevents the use of this material for radiocarbon dating. When available, however, bone samples constitute very important chronological records for both archaeological sites and natural depositional sites of specific animals. The extraction of collagen was performed using two filters, the first aiming to remove insoluble contaminants, and the second, a vivaspin ultrafilter 30KD to retain large molecular weight materials. The collagen was liofilized and converted to CO2 by combustion in sealed quartz tubes with CuO and Ag. The graphite was produced by zinc reduction in independently sealed Pyrex™ tubes. In order to verify the accuracy of this protocol, we analyzed a modern bone and four previously dated fragments, including those from the Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI), and a fragment of human bone from the Amourins site, a Brazilian shellmound. The results for the known age material are in agreement with the expected and the studied sector of Amourins shellmound was dated 4100–3900 years cal BP from a chronological model performed with charcoal dating found in different stratigraphic layers. Samples were dated at the radiocarbon laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil.
This paper presents the design and development of broadband modified Koch curve microstrip patch antenna with multiband characteristics for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio applications. The proposed spectrum sensing antenna is designed specifically for its efficient operation in the spectrum (1.683–3.05, 4.246–9.714, and 11.25–18 GHz) specified for L, S, C, X, Ku with broadband characteristics and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The validity of the proposed shape is proved by having a comparison with other fractal shapes available in the literature.
To analyse the arguments used by the food industry during the early development of the new nutrition front-of-pack labelling (FOPL) in Brazil.
A thematic qualitative analysis was performed using an inductive approach. All data were collected and analysed between December 2018 and April 2019. Data included documents published by the Brazilian government, including industry’s contributions to a technical public consultation, as well as industry material and newspaper articles.
Seven trade associations and one industry group.
During the early stages of the FOPL policy development, food industry actors presented themselves as legitimate actors, by highlighting their economic contribution to the country, their role in safeguarding consumers’ right to choose and their range of solutions in addressing the non-communicable disease epidemic. They also questioned the policy process by criticising the role of the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency and the science that informed the policy. Finally, food industry actors highlighted the supposedly lack of coherence between national, regional and international policies, as well as other socio-economic risks. A small set of evidence published in non-academic, non-peer-reviewed reports was used by industry actors to support these arguments.
Collectively, these arguments reinforced the position of the food industry as a necessary part of the discussion on FOPL and shifted the blame away from unhealthy products to individual behaviours. It is crucial that public health initiatives, such as the introduction of a new FOPL, are no co-opted and negatively influenced by economic actors who may try to delay the policy process.
In Australia, glyphosate is widely used in glyphosate-tolerant crops and fallows to control weeds such as common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). It has been hypothesized that glyphosate at sublethal doses, as a consequence of herbicide drift, may have a stimulatory effect on S. oleraceus growth. In 2017, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of low doses of glyphosate on growth and seed production of this weed at the Weed Science Screenhouse Facility at the University of Queensland, Australia. At the 4- to 5-leaf stage (3-wk-old rosette), plants were treated with low doses of glyphosate (0 [control], 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 800 g ae ha−1), and their responses were recorded until plant maturity. The study was repeated after completion of the first experimental run. An additional glyphosate dose (2.5 g ha−1) was added in the second run. The low doses of glyphosate (<40 g ha−1) caused a significant increase in S. oleraceus plant height and number of leaves compared with the no-glyphosate treatment. The highest stimulatory effect was observed at 5 g ha−1. At 5 g ha−1 glyphosate, S. oleraceus seed production increased by 154% and 101% in the first and second experimental runs, respectively, compared with the no-glyphosate treatment. The results of this study suggest that the sublethal doses of glyphosate produced hormetic effects on growth and seed production of S. oleraceus that changed the dynamics of weed–crop competition.
Background: In 5 hospitals located in Belo Horizonte city (>3,000,000 inhabitants) a focused survey on surgical site infection (SSI) was performed in patients undergoing CABG surgery. We statistically evaluated such incidences to enable study of the prediction power of SSI through pattern recognition algorithms, in this case the multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural networks. Methods: Data were collected between July 2016 and June 2018 on SSI by the hospital infection control committees (CCIHs) of the hospitals involved in the research. We collected all data used in the analysis during their routine SSI surveillance procedures. The information was forwarded to the NOIS (Nosocomial Infection Study) Project, which uses the SACIH (Automated Hospital Infection Control System) software to collect data from a sample of hospitals participating voluntarily in the project. After data collection, 3 procedures were performed: (1) a treatment of the collected database for use of intact samples; (2) a statistical analysis on the profile of the hospitals collected; and (3) an assessment of the predictive power of 5 types of MLP (ie, backpropagation standard, momentum, resilient propagation, weight decay, and quick propagation) for SSI prediction. MLPs were tested with 3, 5, 7, and 10 hidden layer neurons and a database split for the resampling process (65% or 75% for testing and 35% or 25% for validation). They were compared by measuring the AUC (area under the curve; range, 0–1) presented for each of the configurations. Results: From 666 initial data, only 278 were able for analysis. We obtained the following statistics: 9.35% manifested SSIs; length of stay varied from 1 to 119 days, with ~40% staying between 10 and 19 days; 15.1% of the patients died. Regarding the prediction power of SSI, the experiments have a maximum value of 0.713. Conclusions: Despite the considerable loss rate of >50% of the database samples due to the presence of noise, it was possible to have a relevant sampling to evaluate the profile of hospitals in Belo Horizonte. In addition, for the predictive process, although some configurations had results equal to 0.5, others reached 0.713, which indicates that the automated SSI monitoring framework for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is promising. To optimize data collection and to enable other hospitals to use the SSI prediction tool (available at www.sacihweb.com), a mobile application was developed.
Background: In July 2017, the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) launched an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance network at 4 sentinel laboratories. The National Clinical Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory (NRL) at EPHI performs monthly confirmatory testing on a subset of isolates submitted by these sites. We assessed the existing confirmatory testing program to identify gaps and develop solutions, including a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system. Methods: We assembled a technical working group (TWG) of key stakeholders. Laboratory site visits included workflow observation, process mapping, document review, and technologist interviews. Proposed solutions to observed gaps were drafted in formats consistent with their intended application. Feedback from the TWG was incorporated into final drafts. Available AMR network staff members were trained remotely, and they will train remaining staff. Results: Table 1 describes major gaps and solutions identified. Conclusions: Confirmatory testing provides a mechanism to evaluate laboratory testing proficiency, target improvements, and estimate surveillance data quality, yet standardized methods were lacking. Our efforts highlight key components of confirmatory testing programs and provide a model for use in laboratories with similar needs.
Background: In July 2017, recognizing the threat that antimicrobial resistance poses to the population, the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) launched the Ethiopia AMR Surveillance Network at 4 sentinel laboratories. Simultaneously, laboratory capacity building was initiated to ensure the reporting of quality laboratory data to the surveillance system. One initiative, Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) was used to virtually connect subject matter experts with participating laboratories in remote settings to provide ongoing education and telementoring and to foster peer-to-peer learning and problem solving in microbiology. The 10-month project was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM).
Methods: Biweekly 1-hour sessions were held by ASM for 2 sentinel sites, Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital and the EPHI Clinical Microbiology and Mycology Laboratory, using a videoconferencing platform. Each virtual session consisted of a didactic session, a case presentation by a participating laboratory, open discussion and feedback. Case presentations focused on technical challenges and problems encountered in the preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical phases of microbiology testing. Experts from CDC and ASM provided feedback along with a summation of key learning objectives. Sessions were recorded and post session reports were shared with participants. To assess participants’ baseline knowledge, a comprehensive pretest was administered prior to the first session. The same instrument was administered as a posttest 2 weeks after the final session. Unstructured interviews were also conducted to assess participants’ perceptions of the value of ECHO to their work. Results: Mean pretest scores were 69.25% and the posttest scores were 71.04%, a difference of 1.79% (P = NS). Participant interviews revealed perceived benefits of ECHO participation to include enhanced critical thinking and problem resolution in microbiology, increased communication and improved working relationships between participating sites, and improved understanding and application of CLSI standards. As a result of Ethiopia’s participation in Project ECHO, 23 case presentations have been added to ECHO Box, a resource bank and web portal, which allows members of the ECHO community to share and access didactics, documents, and learning materials. Conclusions: Despite minimal difference between pretest and posttest scores, the Project ECHO experience of virtual case-based learning and collaborative problem solving has encouraged critical thinking, peer-to-peer learning, networking among participants, and has provided microbiologists with the resources for improved bacterial isolation, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The lessons learned could be applied as this project is expanded to additional laboratories in the AMR Surveillance Network.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) prevalence is expected to continue to increase, due to the population ageing. MCI and AD may impact patients’ decision-making capacities, which should be assessed through the disease course. These medical conditions can affect the various areas of decision-making capacity in different ways. Decision-making capacity in healthcare is particularly relevant among this population. Elders often suffer from multimorbidity and are frequently asked to make healthcare decisions, which can vary from consenting a routine diagnostic procedure to decide receiving highly risk treatments.
To assess this capacity in elders with MCI or AD, we developed the Healthcare Decision-Making Capacity Assessment Instrument (IACTD-CS - Instrumento de Avaliação da Capacidade de Tomada de Decisão em Cuidados de Saúde). This project is funded by Portuguese national funding agency for science, research and technology, FCT (SFRH/BD/139344/2018). IACTD-CS was developed based on Appelbaum and Grisso four abilities model, literature review and review of international assessment instruments. After IACTD-CS first version development, an exploratory study with focus groups was conducted. This study included focus groups with healthcare professionals and nursing homes’ professionals.
The focus groups main goals were: 1) understand the participants perception regarding healthcare decision-making capacity, 2) distinguish relevant aspects of decision-making, 3) discuss the abilities and items included in IACTD-CS and 4) identify new aspects or items to be added to IACTD-CS. A content analysis of the focus groups results, with resource to MAXQDA, was conducted afterwards. This exploratory study allowed to identify professionals’ perceptions on healthcare decision-making and its results were a significant contribute to IACTD-CS development. The proposed communication aims to describe the methodology used and present the results of content analysis.
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasingly critical global public health challenge. An initial step in prevention is the understanding of resistance patterns with accurate surveillance. To improve accurate surveillance and good clinical care, we developed training materials to improve the appropriate collection of clinical culture samples in Ethiopia. Methods: Specimen-collection training materials were initially developed by a team of infectious diseases physicians, a clinical microbiologist, and a monitoring and evaluation specialist using a training of trainers (ToT) platform. Revisions after each training session were provided by Ethiopian attendees including the addition of regional and culturally relevant material. The training format involved didactic presentations, interactive practice sessions with participants providing feedback and training to each other and the entire group as well as assessments of all training activities. Results: Overall, 4 rounds of training were conducted from August 2017 to September 2019. The first 2 rounds of training were conducted by The Ohio State University (OSU) staff, and Ethiopian trainers conducted the last 2 rounds. Initial training was primarily in lecture format outlining use of microbiology laboratory findings in clinical practice and steps for collecting specimens correctly. Appropriate specimen collection was demonstrated and practiced. Essential feedback from this early audience provided input for the final development of the training manual and visual aids. The ToT for master trainers took place in July 2018 and was conducted by OSU staff. In sessions held in February and August 2019, these master trainers provided training to facility trainers, who provide training to personnel directly responsible for specimen collection. In total, 144 healthcare personnel (including physicians, nurses, and laboratory staff), from 12 representative Ethiopian public and academic hospitals participated in the trainings. Participants were satisfied with the quality of the training (typically ranked >4.5 of 5.0) and strongly agreed that the objectives were clearly defined and that the information was relevant to their work. Posttraining scores increased by 23%. Conclusions: Training materials for clinical specimen collection have been developed for use in low- and middle-resource settings and with initial pilot testing and adoption in Ethiopia. The trainings were well accepted, and Ethiopian personnel were able to successfully lead the trainings and improve their knowledge and skills regarding specimen collection. The materials are being finalized in an online format for easier open access dissemination. Further studies are planned to determine the effectiveness of the trainings in improving the quality of clinical specimen submissions to the microbiology laboratory.
Litter size reduction can induce early overnourishment, being an attractive experimental model to study short- and long-term consequences of childhood obesity. Epidemiological data indicate sex differences regarding cardiometabolic disorders and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The present study aimed to describe biometric, nutritional and cardiovascular changes related to neonatal overweight promoted by litter size reduction in young and adult Wistar rats of both sexes. Litter adjustment to eight or four pups/mother (1:1 male-to-female ratio) gave, respectively, control and overweight groups. Body mass, food intake, haemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters and cardiorespiratory capacity were evaluated at postnatal days 30 and 150. Diminished litters were correlated with higher body mass and weight gain (12 %) during lactation, validating the experimental model of neonatal overweight. Soon after weaning male (16 %) and female (25 %) offspring of these litters presented a lower food intake than their respective control, without differences in body mass. Adult males from reduced litters presented higher abdominal circumference (7 %), systolic blood pressure (10 %), interventricular septum thickness (15 %) and relative wall thickness (15 %) compared with their respective control. Rats' performance on the maximal effort ergometer test was not affected by neonatal overweight. Data suggest the occurrence of catch-down growth and hypophagia in male and female rats submitted to neonatal overweight. However, only male rats presented haemodynamic and cardiac structural changes. These findings are crucial to personalised/gender medicine.
Nutritional disorders during the perinatal period cause cardiometabolic dysfunction, which is observable in the early overfeeding (EO) experimental model. Therefore, severe caloric restriction has the potential of affecting homeostasis through the same epigenetic mechanisms, and its effects need elucidation. This work aims to determine the impact of food restriction (FR) during puberty in early overfed obese and non-obese animals in adult life. Three days after delivery (PN3), Wistar rats were separated into two groups: normal litter (NL; 9 pups) and small litter (SL; 3 pups). At PN30, some offspring were subjected to FR (50%) until PN60, or maintained with free access to standard chow. NL and SL animals submitted to food restriction (NLFR and SLFR groups) were kept in recovery with free access to standard chow from PN60 until PN120. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. At PN120 cardiovascular parameters were analyzed and the animals were euthanized for sample collection. SLNF and SLFR offspring were overweight and had increased adiposity. Differences in blood pressure were observed only between obese and non-obese animals. Obese and FR animals have cardiac remodeling showing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the presence of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. FR animals also show increased expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors and of total ERK and p-ERK. The present study showed that EO leads to the obese phenotype and cardiovascular disruptions. Interestingly, we demonstrated that severe FR during puberty leads to cardiac remodeling.
To compare the degree of strictness and agreement of different nutrient profiling models (NPM) used to identify which foods would be required to show front-of-package (FOP) warning labels.
Using data of 11 434 packaged foods found in the five largest food retailers in Brazil, we used two published NPM: the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) model and the NPM used in the Chilean nutritional FOP labelling policy, and compared them with a NPM proposed by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa). The proportion of foods that would be required to show FOP warning labels was calculated overall and by food category. We also tested whether a modified version of the PAHO NPM would behave similarly to the original version.
Two-thirds of the packaged products (62 %) would receive FOP warning labels under the PAHO NPM, as compared with 45 % of products using the proposed Anvisa NPM and 41 % if the Chilean NPM was applied. The PAHO NPM identified more foods high in critical nutrients such as sweetened dairy and non-dairy beverages, canned vegetables and convenience foods. Overall agreement between models was considered good with kappa coefficient ranging from 0·57 to 0·92 but was lower for some food categories.
We found variations in the degree of strictness and agreement between assessed NPM. The PAHO NPM identified more foods and beverages high in sugar which are among the top contributors to sugar and energy intake in Brazil.
To analyse the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising on the three major Brazilian free-to-air television (TV) channels.
Cross-sectional study. A protocol developed for the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support was applied for data collection. A total of 432 h of TV programming was recorded from 06.00 to 24.00 hours, for eight non-consecutive and randomly selected days, in April 2018. All TV advertisements (ads) were analysed, and food-related ads were classified according to the NOVA classification system. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the number and type of ads, food categories and the distribution of ads throughout the day and time of the day.
The three most popular free-to-air channels on Brazilian TV.
The study did not involve human subjects.
In total, 14·2 % (n 1156 out of 7991) of ads were food related (858 were specific food items). Approximately 91 % of food items ads included ultra-processed food (UPF) products. The top three most promoted products were soft drinks, alcoholic beverages and fast-food meals. Alcoholic beverage ads were more frequently broadcast in the evening.
The high risk of exposure of the Brazilian population to UPF ads should be considered a public health concern given the impact of unhealthy food advertising on people’s food choices and health.
African White-backed Vultures were recently uplisted to ‘Critically Endangered’ by IUCN due to declines across their range. Poisoning is widely accepted as the major reason for these declines. Botswana supports a high number of this species (breeding pairs > c.1,200), but as yet no published information exists on their breeding success in the country. However, mass poisonings within Botswana and neighbouring countries have killed thousands of White-backed Vultures in recent years. We therefore expected that nesting numbers may have declined in this region if these poisoning events killed local breeding birds. We used information from aerial surveys conducted between 2006 and 2017 in Khwai and Linyanti, two important breeding areas for this species in north-central Botswana, to determine if there was any change in nesting numbers and breeding success of White-backed Vultures. Results showed an overall 53.5% decline in nesting numbers, with a greater decline in Linyanti than in Khwai. In both areas, breeding success was significantly lower in 2017 than it was 10 ten years earlier. We recommend that similar repeat surveys are continued to provide greater confidence in the trends of both nesting numbers and breeding performance. Population viability analysis suggested that if the productivity levels detected in 2017 were a true indication of current productivity levels for this population, and if recent high poisoning rates continue, this population could be extirpated from the area in the next 13 years.
To evaluate the surgical techniques, approaches, audiological outcomes and complications of endoscopic stapes surgery.
Systematic searches of the literature were performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases, to identify studies of patients who underwent stapes surgery using endoscopic approaches and studies reporting objective post-operative hearing outcomes. The following information was extracted: surgery duration, complications, surgical technique and audiometric results.
Fourteen studies were selected for appraisal, which included a total of 282 ears subjected to endoscopic stapes surgery. Endoscopic stapes surgery seems to provide adequate visualisation of the middle-ear structures, thereby allowing less invasive surgery and potentially equivalent audiological outcomes as compared with a traditional microscopic approach. Other advantages of endoscopic stapes surgery include decreased surgery time, a reduced need for drilling, and auditory results comparable to those of microscopic techniques.
Studies have shown that endoscopic stapes surgery has similar surgical and functional advantages as compared with microscopic surgery.
The Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease whose treatment requires strict clinical care and continuing education such as medication, nutrition and physical activity. Education is a decisive factor in preventing complications that may arise from the failure of therapy. Therefore, the therapeutic adherence must include a psycho-social approach.
To study the degree of adherence to the pharmacologic treatment and dietary habits in patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the influence of the level of education, sex and type of diabetes.
A cross-sectional study was conducted of the descriptive-correlational type. The sample consisted of 100 diabetic type I and type II individuals and was obtained by convenience at the health center of S. Martinho do Bispo, in Coimbra - Portugal, during the period from May till June 2009.
Results and conclusions
The results indicate a high adherence to therapy, reflected trhough the diet and also the pharmacological treatment. However, the higher adherence found was related to prescription of medication. The demographic variables such as sex and level of education of patients, seem to positively influence the adherence to treatment.