Introduction. Brazil is home to a great diversity of tropical, non-traditional fruit species with a potential for consumption in natura and agroindustrial processing. The objective of our study was to evaluate the quality of 18 non-traditional fruits from Brazil belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Clusiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae and Myrtaceae. Materials and methods. Samples were collected from areas of occurrence, commercial orchards and collections in Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil; they were tested for total soluble solids (TSS), soluble sugars (SS), reducing sugars (RS), total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, [TSS / TTA] ratio, starch, total pectin (TP) and soluble pectin (SP). Results and discussion. Parameters varied greatly among the species. Thus, TSS was 4.75–37.07 °Brix; SS, 1.26–17.74%; RS, 2.53–9.92%; TTA, 0.20–2.64%; pH, 2.56–5.38; [TSS / TTA], 3.26–107.70; starch, 0.12–12.65%; TP, 0.15–1.27%; and SP, 0.04–1.49%. Conclusion. Many of the 18 fruits evaluated in this study show potential for consumption in natura and agroindustrial processing.