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The changing nature of work compels corresponding changes in organization selection systems. In this chapter, we advocate for competency modeling and propose nine competencies that are becoming more instrumental for success in the modern workforce. We then propose predictor constructs and methods to measure these competencies and new ways to leverage technology in their assessment. Lastly, we discuss four challenges that organizations will face when advancing our solutions: (a) achieving buy-in for competency modeling; (b) the continued recognition of a criterion problem; (c) monitoring applicant reactions; and (d) acknowledging social and ethical issues that may arise with these proposed changes.
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is the international health emergency paradigm due to its epidemiological presentation pattern, impact on public health, resources necessary for its control, and need for a national and international response.
The objective of this work is to study the evolution and progression of the epidemiological presentation profile of Ebola disease outbreaks since its discovery in 1976 to the present, and to explore the possible reasons for this evolution from different perspectives.
Retrospective observational study of 38 outbreaks of Ebola disease occurred from 1976 through 2019, excluding laboratory accidents. United Nations agencies and programs; Ministries of Health; the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); ReliefWeb; emergency nongovernmental organizations; and publications indexed in PubMed, EmBase, and Clinical Key have been used as sources of data. Information on the year of the outbreak, date of beginning and end, duration of the outbreak in days, number of cases, number of deaths, population at risk, geographic extension affected in Km2, and time of notification of the first cases to the World Health Organization (WHO) have been searched and analyzed.
Populations at risk have increased (P = .024) and the geographical extent of Ebola outbreaks has grown (P = .004). Reporting time of the first cases of Ebola to WHO has been reduced (P = .017) and case fatality (P = .028) has gone from 88% to 62% in the period studied. There have been differences (P = .04) between the outbreaks produced by the Sudan and Zaire strains of the virus, both in terms of duration and case fatality ratio (Sudan strain 74.5 days on average and 62.7% of case fatality ratio versus Zaire strain with 150 days on average and 55.4% case fatality ratio).
There has been a change in the epidemiological profile of the Ebola outbreaks from 1976 through 2019 with an increase in the geographical extent of the outbreaks and the population at risk, as well as a significant decrease in the outbreaks case fatality rate. There have been advances in the detection and management capacity of outbreaks, and the notification time to the WHO has been reduced. However, there are social, economic, cultural, and political obstacles that continue to greatly hinder a more efficient epidemiological approach to Ebola disease, mainly in Central Africa.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Controlling norovirus transmission in units with immunocompromised patients is challenging. We present a cluster of norovirus cases that occurred on a stem-cell transplant unit and the prevention efforts that were implemented to limit the outbreak. Protocols developed to control this cluster may provide a model for other facilities.
Borges declared that a writer’s political views were circumstantial and should not interfere with his or her literary creation and reputation. However, the cases of Argentina and Cuba from the mid-1940s on illustrate the influence of context on the reception of his work. The chapter focuses on three periods: the mid-1940s, the mid-1950s, and the first decade of the Cuban Revolution of 1959. In Argentina, the failure of the jury to award Borges the National Literary Award in 1942 was politically motivated. In Cuba, the first critical text on Borges appeared in 1944 and was influenced by the attitude to culture of the Origenes group, led by J Lezama Lima. In the following decade, and after the overthrowing of Perón, Borges’s work was criticized for being out of touch with Argentine realities, whereas in Cuba, a new literary magazine, Ciclón, expressed support for his work. After the Cuban Revolution, Borges’s name continued to be mentioned; however, after 1968, he would be censored in the island for two decades. The chapter concludes that writers and c ritics tend to read other writers in relation with their own cultural credos or projects.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome consists of several structural abnormalities in the left side of the heart and may be associated with a hereditary genetic cause, possibly related to the connexin gene GJA1; however, only a few studies have investigated it. The present study aimed to analyse the expression of connexin-43 in the cardiac muscle of hypoplastic left heart syndrome children by Western blot method and confocal laser scanning microscopy. For that, tissue samples were taken during corrective surgery to treat heart defects. Patients of control group (8) presented any type of heart defect not related to hypoplastic left heart syndrome, connexin-43, or its gene and those of hypoplastic left heart syndrome group (9) presented this disease singly, without any other associated congenital diseases. By means of confocal laser scanning microscopy, it was noticed no connexin-43 qualitative differences in positioning and location pattern between both groups. From Western blot analysis, the connexin-43 expression did not show a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0571) as well. Within the limits of this study, it is suggested that cardiomyocytes of hypoplastic left heart syndrome children are similar in connexin-43 location, distribution, and structural and conformational patterns to those of children with heart defects not related to this protein and its genes.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
In this chapter, we aim to summarize the range of work that has been and continues to be conducted on multilingual populations from various theoretical paradigms and/or distinct subareas of theoretical and applied linguistics. Any attempt to be exhaustive in this regard would be doomed from the start, as space – and likely the attention of the reader – would surely be an obstacle. Moreover, and of equal importance, doing so would distract us from the main goal of this book, which is to understand the dynamic nature of representational morphosyntactic transfer in adult multilingualism and the manifold theoretical implications that derive from revealing this. That being said, it is important to understand the larger context in which our choice of focus is situated and thus appreciate the piece of the larger puzzle that it is. Therefore, this chapter serves to provide a cursory snapshot of the puzzle itself.
Throughout the book, our discussions have mainly idealized a situation in which an L3 would be the same for all, taking the sequential bilingual (adult L2 learner) who then seeks to acquire an additional language in adulthood as the point of reference. As you will recall from Section 1.3 in Chapter 1, L3/Ln learners can come in various shapes and sizes. Numerically and chronologically, a third language is quite simple to determine, as simple as counting 1, 2 and 3 (see Hammarberg, 2010, 2018, for a more nuanced discussion). However, this does not mean that all L3s are the same as relates to the application of the models we have discussed, much less the patterns of transfer that we might be able to expect.
In the same spirit as the previous chapter, the present one endeavors to further contextualize the larger puzzle in which L3 morphosyntactic studies are located. In fact, it is important to understand the historical provenance of the theories and related empirical work within L3/Ln morphosyntax on which the remainder of the book will focus. In equal measure, it is important to keep abreast of the trends in the related fields of multilingual acquisition and processing, not only to be a well-rounded L3/Ln scholar but also to understand one’s own subarea better and to ensure the continuity of ideas via potential, when appropriate, cross-fertilization. Thus, before traveling down the road of L3/Ln morphosyntax and transfer studies from a formal linguistic perspective, it makes sense to recap what has been or is being done in the related fields of multilingual lexical processing and acquisition, as well as in phonology.
As we saw in great detail in Chapter 4, interest in the L3/Ln acquisition of morphosyntax is thriving. It is not surprising that a substantial amount of research in this emerging field has focused on transfer and/or cross-language effects (CLE) in L3/Ln learning. Examining how previous linguistic experience affects subsequent learning has been a staple topic in nonnative language acquisition for as long as people have been examining L2 acquisition seriously. This curiosity likely springs from both theoretical interests and personal reflection. Even as young lay people – before we were linguists studying this – we recall having some conscious, if not intuitive, feelings that our native languages both propelled and restricted our learning of the additional languages we were studying. Of course, research over many decades – many hundreds, if not thousands of well-designed studies – has shown how far beyond intuitive anecdote the effects that previous linguistic knowledge has on additional language learning go.